Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
MTV World Stage Live in Malaysia
MTV World Stage is a global series that brings multi-genre talents with global relevance to an audience in over 550 million households. Recorded "live" at the most exclusive gigs, world-renowned music festivals and unique concert locations from around the world, MTV World Stage is the "front row seat" for music lovers to experience the biggest artists on the globe without leaving the comfort of their sofas. On August 15, 2009, MTV Asia staged the first outdoor MTV World Stage Live In Malaysia at Sunway Lagoon Resort in Kuala Lumpur; the event was attended by over 000 fans. The event featured a live, real-time microblogging application where comments and'tweets' via SMS were displayed on giant screens at the concert venue; the six-hour-long live concert was edited into a two-hour special that premiered on MTV Asia on August 28, 2009. MTV Southeast Asia Official MTV World Stage Live In Malaysia website MTV Asia on Twitter
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well. The earliest video cameras were those of John Logie Baird, based on the mechanical Nipkow disk and used in experimental broadcasts through the 1918s–1930s. All-electronic designs based on the video camera tube, such as Vladimir Zworykin's Iconoscope and Philo Farnsworth's image dissector, supplanted the Baird system by the 1930s; these remained in wide use until the 1980s, when cameras based on solid-state image sensors such as CCDs eliminated common problems with tube technologies such as image burn-in and made digital video workflow practical. The transition to digital TV gave a boost to digital video cameras and by the 2010s, most video cameras were digital. With the advent of digital video capture, the distinction between professional video cameras and movie cameras has disappeared as the intermittent mechanism has become the same.
Nowadays, mid-range cameras used for television and other work are termed professional video cameras. Video cameras are used in two modes; the first, characteristic of much early broadcasting, is live television, where the camera feeds real time images directly to a screen for immediate observation. A few cameras still serve live television production, but most live connections are for security, military/tactical, industrial operations where surreptitious or remote viewing is required. In the second mode the images are recorded to a storage device for further processing. Recorded video is used in television production, more surveillance and monitoring tasks in which unattended recording of a situation is required for analysis. Modern video cameras uses. Professional video cameras, such as those used in television production, may be television studio-based or mobile in the case of an electronic field production; such cameras offer fine-grained manual control for the camera operator to the exclusion of automated operation.
They use three sensors to separately record red and blue. Camcorders combine a VCR or other recording device in one unit. Since the transition to digital video cameras, most cameras have in-built recording media and as such are camcorders. Action cameras have 360° recording capabilities. Closed-circuit television uses pan tilt zoom cameras, for security, and/or monitoring purposes; such cameras are designed to be small hidden, able to operate unattended. Webcams are video cameras. Many smartphones have built-in video cameras. Special camera systems are used for scientific research, e.g. on board a satellite or a space probe, in artificial intelligence and robotics research, in medical use. Such cameras are tuned for non-visible radiation for infrared or X-ray. Digital single-lens reflex camera FireWire camera Professional video camera Recording at the edge Television production Three-CCD Video camera tube Videograph Videotelephony Media related to Video cameras at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of video camera at Wiktionary
Mendig is a small town in the district Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated 6 km north-east of Mayen, 25 km west of Koblenz. Mendig is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde Mendig. Rosemarie Nitribitt, spent her childhood in foster care in the Mendig Kaplan-slip road Andrea Nahles, Member of Bundestag and Minister for Labour and Social Affairs Verbandsgemeinde Mendig Mendig is the new home for the popular rockfestival "Rock am Ring" 2015
High Noon is a 1952 American Western film produced by Stanley Kramer from a screenplay by Carl Foreman, directed by Fred Zinnemann, starring Gary Cooper. The plot, depicted in real time, centres on a town marshal, torn between his sense of duty and love for his new bride and who must face a gang of killers alone. Though mired in controversy with political overtones at the time of its release, the film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four as well as four Golden Globe Awards; the award-winning score was written by Russian-born composer Dimitri Tiomkin. High Noon was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant" in 1989, the NFR's first year of existence. An iconic film whose story has been or repeated in film productions, the ending scenes inspired a next-to-endless number of films, including but not just limited to westerns. In Hadleyville, a small town in New Mexico Territory, Marshal Will Kane, newly married to Amy Fowler, prepares to retire.
The happy couple will soon depart for a new life to run a store in another town. However, word arrives that Frank Miller, a vicious outlaw whom Kane sent to jail, has been released and will arrive on the noon train. Miller's gang—his younger brother Ben, Jack Colby, Jim Pierce —await his arrival at the train station. For Amy, a devout Quaker and pacifist, the solution is simple—leave town before Miller arrives, but Kane's sense of duty and honor are strong. "They're making me run," he tells her. "I've never run from anybody before." Besides, he says and his gang will hunt him down anyway. Amy gives Kane an ultimatum: She is leaving on the noon train, without him. While waiting at the hotel for the train, she meets Helen Ramírez, once Miller's lover, Kane's, is leaving as well. Amy understands why Helen is fleeing, but the reverse is not true: Helen tells Amy that if Kane were her man, she would not abandon him in his hour of need. Kane's efforts to round up a posse at the tavern, the church, are met with fear and hostility.
Some townspeople, worried that a gunfight would damage the town's reputation, urge Kane to avoid the confrontation entirely. Others are Miller's friends, resent that Kane cleaned up the town in the first place. Kane's young deputy Harvey Pell, bitter that Kane did not recommend him as his successor, says he will stand with Kane only if Kane goes to the city fathers and "puts the word in" for him. Kane rejects the quid pro quo, Pell turns in his badge. Kane visits a series of old friends and allies, but none can help: his predecessor, Marshal Howe is old and arthritic. Jimmy is a good person and genuinely offers to help Will, but he is vision impaired, drunk and to get himself killed; the other offer of aid comes from a fourteen-year-old boy. At the stables, Pell tries to persuade Kane to take it and leave town, their conversation becomes an argument, a fist fight. Kane knocks his former deputy senseless, returns to his office to write out his will as the clock ticks toward high noon, he goes into the street to face Miller and his gang alone.
The gunfight begins. Kane is wounded in the process; as the train is about to leave the station, Amy hears the gunfire, leaps off, runs back to town. Choosing her husband's life over her religious beliefs, she picks up the handgun hanging inside Kane's office and shoots Pierce from behind, leaving only Frank Miller, who grabs Amy as a shield to force Kane into the open. Amy claws Miller's face and he pushes her to the ground, giving Kane a clear shot, he shoots Miller dead. Kane helps his bride to her feet and they embrace; as the townspeople emerge and cluster around him, Kane throws his marshal's star in the dirt and departs with Amy on their wagon. Gary Cooper as Marshal Will Kane Thomas Mitchell as Mayor Jonas Henderson Lloyd Bridges as Deputy Marshal Harvey Pell Katy Jurado as Helen Ramírez Grace Kelly as Amy Fowler Kane Otto Kruger as Judge Percy Mettrick Lon Chaney Jr. as Martin Howe, the former marshal Ian MacDonald as Frank Miller Eve McVeagh as Mildred Fuller Harry Morgan as Sam Fuller Morgan Farley as Dr. Mahin, minister Harry Shannon as Cooper Lee Van Cleef as Jack Colby Robert J. Wilke as Jim Pierce Sheb Wooley as Ben Miller James Millican as Herb Baker Howland Chamberlain as the hotel receptionist Tom London as Sam, Helen's attendant William Newell as Jimmy the Gimp Larry J. Blake as Gillis the saloon owner Lucien Prival as Joe the Bartender Jack Elam as Charlie, the town drunk John Doucette as Trumbull Tom Greenway as Ezra Dick Elliott as Kibbee Merrill McCormick as Fletcher Virginia Farmer as Mrs. Fletcher Virginia Christine as Mrs. Simpson Harry Harvey as Coy Paul Dubov as Scott The creation and release of High Noon intersected with the second Red Scare and the Korean War.
In 1951, during production of the film, Carl Foreman was called before the House Un-American
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl was a German film director. Born in 1902, Leni Riefenstahl grew up in Germany with her brother Heinz, killed on the Eastern Front in World War II. A talented swimmer and artist, she became interested in dancing during her childhood, taking dancing lessons and performing across Europe. After seeing a promotional poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals, Riefenstahl was inspired to move into acting. Between 1925 and 1929, she starred in five successful motion pictures. Riefenstahl became one of the few women in Germany to direct a film during the Weimar Period when, in 1932, she decided to try directing with her own film called Das Blaue Licht. In the 1930s, she directed Triumph des Willens and Olympia, resulting in worldwide attention and acclaim; the movies are considered two of the most effective, technically innovative, propaganda films made. Her involvement in Triumph des Willens, however damaged her career and reputation after the war; the exact nature of her relationship with Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler remains a matter of debate.
However, Hitler was in close collaboration with Riefenstahl during the production of at least three important Nazi films, a closer friendship is claimed to have existed. When in 2000 Jodie Foster was planning a biographical drama on Riefenstahl, war-crime documenters warned against a revisionist view that glorified the director, they stated that publicly Riefenstahl seemed "quite infatuated" with Hitler and was in fact the last surviving member of his "inner circle". Others go further, arguing that Riefenstahl's visions were essential to the success of the Holocaust. After the war, Riefenstahl was arrested, but classified as being a "fellow traveler" or "Nazi sympathiser" only and was not associated with war crimes. Throughout her life, she denied having known about the Holocaust. Besides directing, Riefenstahl wrote several books on the Nuba people. Riefenstahl died of cancer on 8 September 2003 at the age of 101 and was buried at Munich Waldfriedhof. Helene Bertha Amalie Riefenstahl was born in Germany on 22 August 1902.
Her father, Alfred Theodor Paul Riefenstahl, owned a successful heating and ventilation company and wanted his daughter to follow him into the business world. Since Riefenstahl was the only child for several years, Alfred wanted her to carry on the family name and secure the family fortune. However, her mother, Bertha Ida, a part-time seamstress before her marriage, had faith in Riefenstahl and believed that her daughter's future was in show business. Riefenstahl had a younger brother, killed at the age of 39 on the Eastern Front in Nazi Germany's war against the Soviet Union. In 1944 she married Wehrmacht Major Peter Jacob. In the 1960's she developed a life-long relationship with Horst Kettner, forty years younger than her. Riefenstahl fell in love with the arts in her childhood, she began to write poetry at the age of four. She was athletic, at the age of twelve joined a gymnastics and swimming club, her mother was confident her daughter would grow up to be successful in the field of art and therefore gave her full support, unlike Riefenstahl's father, not interested in his daughter's artistic inclinations.
In 1918, when she was 16, Riefenstahl attended a presentation of Snow White which interested her deeply. Her father instead wanted to provide his daughter with an education that could lead to a more dignified occupation, his wife, continued to support her daughter's passion. Without her father's knowledge, she enrolled Riefenstahl in dance and ballet classes at the Grimm-Reiter Dance School in Berlin, where she became a star pupil. In the post-war years she was subject of four denazification proceedings, which declared her a Nazi sympathizer but she was never prosecuted, she was never an official member of the Nazi party but was always seen in association with the propaganda films she made during the Nazi period. Riefenstahl attended dancing academies and became well known for her self-styled interpretive dancing skills, traveling across Europe with Max Reinhardt in a show funded by Jewish producer Harry Sokal. Riefenstahl made 700 Reichmarks for each performance and was so dedicated to dancing that she gave filmmaking no thought.
She began to suffer a series of foot injuries that led to knee surgery that threatened her dancing career. It was while going to a doctor's appointment that she first saw a poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals, she became inspired to go into movie making, began visiting the cinema to see films and attended film shows. On one of her adventures, Riefenstahl met Luis Trenker, an actor from Der Berg des Schicksals. At a meeting arranged by her friend Gunther Rahn, she met Arnold Fanck, the director of Der Berg des Schicksals and a pioneer of the mountain film genre. Fanck was working on a film in Berlin. After Riefenstahl told him how much she admired his work, she convinced him of her acting skill, she persuaded him to feature her in one of his movies. Riefenstahl received a package from Fanck containing the script of the 1926 film Der Heilige Berg, she made a series of films for Fanck, where she learned from him film editing techniques. One of Fanck's films that brought Riefenstahl into the limelight was Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü of 1929, co-directed by G. W. Pabst.
Her fame spread to countries outside Germany. Riefenstahl produced a
Stage lighting instrument
Stage lighting instruments are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions and other performances taking place in live performance venues. They are used to light television studios and sound stages. Many stagecraft terms vary between the United Kingdom. In the United States, lighting fixtures are called "instruments" or "units". In the UK, they are called "lanterns" or "luminaires"; this article uses terms common to the United States. See the picture at top right for the physical location of most components. Stage lighting instruments all have the following components: The lamp housing is a metal or plastic container that serves as a body for the entire instrument and prevents light from spilling in unwanted directions, it comprises all of the exterior of the fixture except for opening. The housing may be designed with specific elements that help reduce heat and increase the efficiency of a lamp. Older instruments were made from rolled and machined aluminum. With the advent of the Source Four, many lighting instruments are being made from die cast metal.
Die casting allows for one single, light-weight body, more economical to produce and use. The first lantern to make use of die castings was the Strand Pattern 23 designed by Fred Bentham in 1953, this small mirror spot enjoyed a 30-year production run and found its way into many British schools and theaters; some instruments are made from plastic, such as the Selecon Pacific. The opening is the gap in the housing from. Many fixtures use a lens to help control the beam of light, though some, such as border or cyclorama lights, do not have any lenses or optics other than the reflector; the lens and the reflector, along with other beam-altering devices, are both considered part of the optics system. The reflector affects the directionality of the light output. A reflector is located behind or around the light source in such a way as to direct more light towards the lens or opening; each unit has a characteristic reflector, used in conjunction with the lens to create the desired effect. An ellipsoidal reflector has a lamp set at one focus point of an ellipsoid-shaped reflector that bounces the light and focuses it at the second focus point of the ellipse.
This focuses the beam of light into a tight beam. Ellipsoidal reflectors are used for tight, focusable spots, although they can be used for floodlights, such as in scoops. A parabolic reflector has a lamp set at the focus point of a parabola-shaped reflector that bounces the light in parallel beams away from the reflector. There is no point at which the light converges, so the light is unfocusable. Parabolic reflectors are used for lights intended to provide an unfocused wash, such as PAR cans. Reflectors can be used to selectively reduce or eliminate unwanted thermal emission. Incandescent lamps produce light through heating of the filament, while arc lamps produce light through the heating and ionization of a gas. In either case, this heat is emitted from the lamp as infrared light; the thermal energy is projected onto the stage with the visible light, thousands of watts of incandescent lighting can be uncomfortably hot for the actors on stage. Specially designed reflectors are able to absorb and dissipate infrared at the fixture before the visible light reaches the stage.
Most instruments are suspended or supported by a U-shaped yoke, fixed at two points to the sides of the instrument, providing an axis of rotation. The base of the yoke is a single bolt around which the yoke can be rotated, providing a second axis of rotation. Combined together, these two axis allow the fixture to point nearly anywhere in a spherical range of motion encircling the yoke; the yoke is connected to a batten by one of the clamps mentioned below. It may be affixed to the deck with floor mounts, or attached to the set with a stage screw; some yokes are motorized, allowing remote control systems to change where a fixture is pointing during a show. C-Clamps are hook clamps that use a threaded bolt to attach to a pipe or batten and to hold the instrument secure. Once secured, the fixture can clamp. In addition, safety cables are used to support the lighting instrument in case. A side arm is a metal pole bolted to the instrument with a clamp on the end; this enables the instrument to be hung to the side of an electric as opposed to below it.
Most theatrical lamps are tungsten-halogen, an improvement on the original incandescent design that used halogen gas instead of an inert gas. Fluorescent lights are used other than as work lights. Although they are far more efficient, they cannot be dimmed without using specialized dimmers, cannot dim to low levels, do not produce light from a single point or concentrated area, have a warm-up period during which they emit no light or do so intermittently. High-intensity discharge lamps are now common where a bright light output is required, for example in large follow spots, HMI floods, modern automated fixtures; because these types of lamps cannot be electrically dimmed, dimming is done by mechanical dousers or shutters that physically block portions of the lamp to decrease output. Some specially-designed fittings now use light-emitting diodes as a light source. LEDs are ideal where an intense but unfocused light source is required, such as for lighting a cyclorama. Conventional fixtures are designed to accept a number