A crankshaft is a rotating shaft which converts reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotational motion. Crankshafts are used in internal combustion engines and consist of a series of cranks and crankpins to which the connecting rods are attached; the crankshaft rotates within the engine block through use of main bearings, the crankpins rotate within the connecting rods using rod bearings. Crankshafts are made from metal, with most modern crankshafts being constructed using forged steel. Crank and connecting rod are seen in stone reliefs of the Western Han dynasty unearthed in Jiangsu Province; the mechanism transferred reciprocating motion into rotary motion to operate a quern. The usage of crank and connecting rod was adopted to operate Chinese furnaces and various textile machinery. A Roman iron crankshaft of yet unknown purpose dating to the 2nd century AD was excavated in Augusta Raurica, Switzerland; the 82.5 cm long piece has fitted to one end a 15 cm long bronze handle, the other handle being lost.
The earliest evidence in the Western World, for a crank and connecting rod in a machine appears in the late Roman Hierapolis sawmill from the 3rd century AD and two Roman stone sawmills at Gerasa, Roman Syria, Ephesus, Asia Minor. On the pediment of the Hierapolis mill, a waterwheel fed by a mill race is shown transmitting power through a gear train to two frame saws, which cut rectangular blocks by way of some kind of connecting rods and, through mechanical necessity, cranks; the accompanying inscription is in Greek. The crank and connecting rod mechanisms of the other two archaeologically attested sawmills worked without a gear train. In ancient literature, we find a reference to the workings of water-powered marble saws close to Trier, now Germany, by the late 4th century poet Ausonius; the three finds push back the date of the invention of the crank and connecting rod back by a full millennium. The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano, planning for a new crusade, made illustrations for a paddle boat and war carriages that were propelled by manually turned compound cranks and gear wheels.
The Luttrell Psalter, dating to around 1340, describes a grindstone rotated by two cranks, one at each end of its axle. The rapid adoption of the compound crank can be traced in the works of the Anonymous of the Hussite Wars, an unknown German engineer writing on the state of the military technology of his day: first, the connecting-rod, applied to cranks, second, double compound cranks began to be equipped with connecting-rods and third, the flywheel was employed for these cranks to get them over the'dead-spot'. In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a compound crank and connecting-rod is found in the sketch books of Taccola, but the device is still mechanically misunderstood. A sound grasp of the crank motion involved demonstrates a little Pisanello who painted a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods. One of the drawings of the Anonymous of the Hussite Wars shows a boat with a pair of paddle-wheels at each end turned by men operating compound cranks.
The concept was much improved by the Italian Roberto Valturio in 1463, who devised a boat with five sets, where the parallel cranks are all joined to a single power source by one connecting-rod, an idea taken up by his compatriot Francesco di Giorgio. Crankshafts were described by Konrad Kyeser, Leonardo da Vinci and a Dutch "farmer" by the name Cornelis Corneliszoon van Uitgeest in 1592, his wind-powered sawmill used a crankshaft to convert a windmill's circular motion into a back-and-forward motion powering the saw. Corneliszoon was granted a patent for his crankshaft in 1597. From the 16th century onwards, evidence of cranks and connecting rods integrated into machine design becomes abundant in the technological treatises of the period: Agostino Ramelli's The Diverse and Artifactitious Machines of 1588 alone depicts eighteen examples, a number that rises in the Theatrum Machinarum Novum by Georg Andreas Böckler to 45 different machines, one third of the total. Al-Jazari described a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine in two of his water-raising machines.
His twin-cylinder pump incorporated a crankshaft, but the device was unnecessarily complex indicating that he still did not understand the concept of power conversion. The crankshaft is supported by the engine block, with the engine's main bearings allowing the crankshaft to rotate within the block; the up-down motion of each piston is transferred to the crankshaft via connecting rods. A flywheel is attached to one end of the crankshaft, in order to store rotational energy and maintain a more consistent rotational speed as the crankshaft received energy from the connecting rods as a series of pulses; this assists in smoothing the power delivery an
HMS Terror was an Erebus-class monitor built for the Royal Navy during the First World War in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Completed in 1916, she was assigned to the Dover Patrol where her primary duties involved bombarding German targets on the Belgian coast at the ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend. In October 1917 Terror was hit by three torpedoes, taking severe damage to the bow and had to be towed into Portsmouth for repair. In April 1918 she participated in the Zeebrugge raid and provided gunnery support for the Fifth Battle of Ypres in September of the same year. After the war the monitor was attached to HMS Excellent, the Royal Navy's gunnery school in Portsmouth and participated in gunnery trials in the 1920s. In January 1934 Terror became the base ship at Sembawang Naval Base in Singapore where she remained for the rest of the decade. From May 1939 to the end of the year she underwent an extensive refit in Singapore's dockyards. Following the outbreak of the Second World War and the completion of her refit, Terror was ordered home to Europe in January 1940.
From early March the monitor served in the Mediterranean where she defended Malta from Italian air raids before supporting the land-based assault of Italian positions in North Africa at the end of the year. In January 1941 the ship assisted with the capture of Bardia and Tobruk before she attempted to defend Benghazi from German air attacks in February. Suffering damage from two air attacks and two mines on 22 and 23 February, Terror was scuttled off the coast of Libya in the early hours of 24 February; the crew were evacuated to the minesweeper corvette Salvia prior to her sinking. Terror was built for the Royal Navy at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland between 1915 and 1916, she was launched on 18 May 1916. The Erebus-class monitors were of 7,200 long tons displacement, 405 ft long, with a maximum operational speed of 13 knots produced by reciprocating engines with two shafts, a crew of 223. Power was provided by four Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers, which generated a combined 6,000 ihp.
During sea trials, Terror was slower than her sister at 13.1 knots compared to 14.1 knots for Erebus. However, under service conditions the maximum speed that could be achieved for both vessels was 13 knots with a clean hull or 12 knots with a fouled hull. An anti-torpedo bulge was fitted on either side of the ship to absorb the impact of any explosions; each bulge was 13 ft wide with an outer air-filled compartment 9 ft wide and an inner compartment 4 ft wide, filled with 70 steel tubes. The class was designed to fulfill the naval bombardment role; the ship's main armament consisted of two BL 15 in Mk I naval guns in a single forward turret. Terror's turret had belonged to an earlier monitor, Marshal Ney, which had fared badly in its sea trials and been rearmed with smaller guns. Learning from the earlier experience with Ney, the turrets were adjusted to increase elevation to 30 degrees, which would add greater firing range. Unlike her sister, Terror was launched with a minimal secondary armament of one 3 in anti-aircraft gun and two 12 pdr, 3 in guns, which fired projectiles weighing 12.5 pounds.
However, this armament was supplemented by two QF 6 in naval guns with a second 3 in gun following soon after. Additional guns were fitted while her bow was being repaired from October 1917. In the summer of 1918 the 6 in guns were replaced with eight BL 4 in Mk IX naval guns; the 12 pdr and 2 pdr guns were removed during her 1933 refit while the ship's capacity for oil and ammunition reserves were increased for her journey to Singapore. During Terror's 1939 refit her eight 4 in guns were replaced with six QF 4 in MkV naval guns and the 3 in anti-aircraft guns were replaced by eight Vickers 0.5 in machine guns in two quadruple mounts. At Malta in 1940 the monitor had a further refit to increase her deck armour. Terror was commissioned on 22 July 1916 before conducting sea trials and being recorded as completed on 6 August. On completion, she departed Belfast and joined the Dover Patrol on 8 August. In August and September she joined with other members of the patrol to bombard minor targets in occupied Belgium.
However, the new monitor only fired a small number of shots, as it was felt wiser to conserve her guns for more important targets. On 24 September the ship made an attempt to bombard the port of Zeebrugge but this was soon aborted when the weather conditions prevented the accurate observation of fall of shot and any subsequent correction of trajectory. Poor weather conditions continued for the rest of 1916 and the patrol made no further attempts that year to bombard the Belgian coast. During the winter of 1916 and 1917, Terror acted as a guard boat for ships anchored at The Downs, following a spate of attacks by German destroyers. In early 1917, Terror and the rest of the patrol made several aborted attempts to bombard the lock gates of the Bruges Canal at Zeebrugge but the operation had to be postponed each time. Reasons for postponement included poor weather conditions. However, the operation commenced on the evening of 11 May with Terror acting as flagship for Vice-Admiral Reginald Bacon.
The flotilla anchored off Zeebrugge and began their bombardment at around 05:00 on 12 May, with the monitors Marshal Soult and Terror concentrating on the south lock gate and her sister ship Erebus concentrating on the north gate. Poor visibility and problems with spotting aircraft meant that the fall of shot couldn't be observed
3 Compositions of New Jazz is the debut album by Anthony Braxton released in 1968 on the Delmark label. It features performances by Braxton, Leroy Jenkins and Leo Smith with Muhal Richard Abrams appearing on two tracks; the AllMusic review by Thom Jurek awarded the album 4½ stars stating "This is a long and tough listen, but it's a light one in comparison to For Alto. And make no mistake: It is outrageously forward-thinking, if not — arguably — downright visionary. Braxton's 3 Compositions of New Jazz is an essential document of the beginning of the end". Tracks 1–2 are graphically titled; this is an attempt to translate the titles. Recorded at Sound Studios, March 27 and April 10, 1968 Anthony Braxton – alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, flute, oboe musette, bells, snare drum, mixer Leroy Jenkins – violin, harmonica, bass drum, cymbals, slide whistle Wadada Leo Smith – trumpet, xylophone, kazoo Muhal Richard Abrams – piano, alto clarinet