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Crannog

A crannog is a or artificial island built in lakes, estuarine waters of Scotland and Ireland. Unlike the prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps that were built on the shores and were inundated only on, crannogs were built in the water, thus forming artificial islands. Crannogs were used as dwellings over five millennia, from the European Neolithic Period to as late as the 17th/early 18th century, although in Scotland there is no convincing evidence in the archaeological record of Early and Middle Bronze Age or Norse Period use; the radiocarbon dating obtained from key sites such as Oakbank and Redcastle indicates at a 95.4 per cent confidence level that they date to the Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age. The date ranges fall after around 800 BC and so could be considered Late Bronze Age by only the narrowest of margins. Crannogs have been variously interpreted as free-standing wooden structures, as at Loch Tay, although more they exist as brush, stone or timber mounds that can be revetted with timber piles.

However, in areas such as the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, timber was unavailable from the Neolithic era onwards. As a result stone crannogs supporting drystone architecture are common there. Today, crannogs appear as small, circular islets 10 to 30 metres in diameter, covered in dense vegetation due to their inaccessibility to grazing livestock; the Irish word crannóg derives from Old Irish crannóc, which referred to a wooden structure or vessel, stemming from crann, which means "tree", plus a diminutive ending—literally "young tree". The modern sense of the term first appears sometime around the 12th century. There is some confusion on what the term crannog referred to, as the structure atop the island or the island itself; the additional meanings of Irish crannóg can be variously related as'structure/piece of wood', including'crow's nest','pulpit', or'driver's box on a coach'. The Scottish Gaelic form is crannag and has the additional meanings of'pulpit' and'churn'. Thus, there is no real consensus on what the term crannog implies, although the modern adoption in the English language broadly refers to a or artificial islet that saw use from the prehistoric to the Post-Medieval period in Ireland and Scotland.

Crannogs are widespread in Ireland, with an estimated 1,200 examples, while Scotland has 347 sites listed as such. The actual number in Scotland varies depending on definition—between about 350 to 500, due to the use of the term "island dun" for well over one hundred Hebridean examples—a distinction that has created a divide between mainland Scottish crannog and Hebridean islet settlement studies. Unknown crannogs in Scotland and Ireland are still being found as underwater surveys continue to investigate loch beds for submerged examples; the largest concentrations of crannogs in Ireland are found in the Drumlin Belt of the Midlands and Northwest. In Scotland, crannogs are found on the western coast, with high concentrations in Argyll and Dumfries and Galloway. In reality, the Western Isles contain the highest density of lake-settlements in Scotland, yet they are recognised under varying terms besides "crannog". One lone Welsh example at Llangorse Lake exists a product of Irish influence across the Irish Sea.

Reconstructed Irish crannógs are located in County Clare, Ireland. This centre offers guided tours and hands-on activities, including wool-spinning, wood-turning and making fire, holds events to celebrate wild cooking and crafts, hosts yearly Midsummer and Samhain festivals. Crannogs took on many different forms and methods of construction based on what was available in the immediate landscape; the classic image of a prehistoric crannog stems from both post-medieval illustrations and influential excavations such as Milton Loch in Scotland by C. M. Piggot after World War II; the Milton Loch interpretation is of a small islet surrounded or defined at its edges by timber piles and a gangway, topped by a typical Iron Age roundhouse. The choice of a small islet as a home may seem odd today, yet waterways were the main channels for both communication and travel until the 19th century in much of Ireland and Highland Scotland. Crannogs are traditionally interpreted as simple prehistorical farmsteads.

They are interpreted as boltholes in times of danger, as status symbols with limited access and as inherited locations of power that imply a sense of legitimacy and ancestry towards ownership of the surrounding landscape. A strict definition of a crannog, which has long been debated, requires the use of timber. Sites in the Western Isles do not satisfy this criterion, although their inhabitants shared the common habit of living on water. If not classed as "true" crannogs, small occupied islets may be referred to as "island duns", although rather confusingly, 22 islet-based sites are classified as "proper" crannogs due to the different interpretations of the inspectors or excavators who drew up field reports. Hebridean island dwellings or crannogs were built on both natural and artificial islets reached by a stone causeway; the visible structural remains are traditionally interpreted as duns, or in more recent terminology as "Atlantic roundhouses". This terminology has become popu

Roman Catholic Diocese of Conversano-Monopoli

The Italian Roman Catholic diocese of Conversano-Monopoli, in Apulia, has existed since 1986, when the diocese of Monopoli was united with the historic diocese of Conversano. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bari-Bitonto. Conversano is the ancient Cupersanum. After the invasion of the Normans, it was for a while the seat of a duchy. Local tradition preserves the name of a bishop, who attended the Roman synod of 487 and died in 492, but he belongs to legend, not history. Ferdinando Ughelli prints the narrative of Francesco Giuliano of Conversano concerning Simplicius, but states that it seems to him to be suspect, maybe deliberately invented falsehoods or corrupt, since there are some things found in it which cannot be true; the first alleged bishop of Conversano was Hilarius, present at the Roman synod of 501. His name however is a false reading of the acts of the synod. No other names are recorded up to the episcopate of Leo, mentioned in a document of 1088. In 1670 the Chapter of the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Body of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven was composed of four dignities and twenty-six Canons.

In the city of 7,000 inhabitants there were five religious houses for men and three monasteries for men.... Leo... Cafisius Guilelmus Ignotus Concilius Stefano, O. Cist.... Giovanni de Gropi... Guillelmus Petrus Baccari Stefano Petrus de Ytro Guilelmus Angelo de Cupersano, O. Min. Amicus Jacobus United: 30 September 1986 with Diocese of Monopoli Antonio D'Erchia Domenico Padovano Giuseppe Favale Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 946–947. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06.

Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series... A pontificatu Pii PP. VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. XVI. Volume VII. Monasterii: Libr. Regensburgiana. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi... A Pontificatu PII PP. IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. XIII. Volume VIII. Il Messaggero di S. Antonio. Pięta, Zenon. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi... A pontificatu Pii PP. X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. XV. Volume IX. Padua: Messagero di San Antonio. ISBN 978-88-250-1000-8. Avino, Vincenzio d'. Cenni storici sulle chiese arcivescovili, vescovili, e prelatizie del regno delle due Sicilie. Naples: dalle stampe di Ranucci. Pp. 220–221.

Graevius, Joannes Georgius. Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae...: Campaniae, Magnae Graeciae.... Tomi Noni, Pars Quinta. Lugduni Batavorum: Petrus Vander Aa. pp. 68–76. Kamp, Norbert. Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Königreich Sizilien: I. Prosopographische Grundlegung, Bistumer und Bistümer und Bischöfe des Konigreichs 1194–1266: 2. Apulien und Calabrien München: Wilhelm Fink 1975. Kehr, Paulus Fridolin. Italia pontificia. Regesta pontificum Romanorum. Vol. IX: Samnia – Apulia – Lucania. Berlin: Weidmann. Pp. 358–368. Lanzoni, Francesco. Le diocesi d'Italia dalle origini al principio del secolo VII. Rome: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Rescio, Pierfrancesco. La Cattedrale di Conversano. Rubbettino Editore. ISBN 978-88-498-0094-4. Sante Simone. Il mostro della Puglia: ossia, la storia del celebre Monastero di S. Benedetto di Conversano. Bari: Tip. Fratelli Pansini fu S. Ughelli, Ferdinando. Italia sacra, sive De Episcopis Italiae. Tomus septimus. Venice: apud Sebastianum Coleti. Pp. 700–720. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..

"Conversano". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

Lisa Howard (reporter)

Lisa Howard was an American journalist and television news anchor who had a career as an off-Broadway theater and soap opera actress. In the early 1960s, she became ABC News's first woman reporter, was the first woman to have her own national network television news show. Howard developed a relationship with Cuba's Fidel Castro, whom she met to interview, was a go-between for a time between Castro and the American White House, her network career ended when she became involved in a New York political campaign during the 1964 election. In 1965, Howard suffered a depression, dying of an overdose of painkillers. Howard was born in Ohio, her family was Jewish. She attended Miami University for a year before dropping out to pursue an acting career. At the age of 18, Howard joined the Pasadena Playhouse. From there she pursued a television career. In 1953, the entertainment magazine People Today featured her on its front page, calling her "TV's First Lady of Sin", she played roles on The Edge of Night, As the World Turns and Guiding Light for CBS Television in the 1950s.

After moving to New York City, Howard starred in the off-Broadway show,'T is Pity. In the late 1950s, Howard decided to make a major career change, she began working as a stringer for the Mutual Radio Network. She covered the 1960 Democratic National Convention and became the first American reporter to interview Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. Due to the widespread attention generated by that interview, in 1961 she was hired by ABC News as their first female correspondent to cover the Vienna summit between Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy, she served as the editor for the political journal War/Peace Report, wrote a novel On Stage, Miss Douglas, released in 1960. In 1963, ABC promoted her to be the first female anchor of a news broadcast geared toward housewives called Lisa Howard and News with a Woman's Touch; as part of the broadcast, she interviewed famous and influential world personalities, among them the Shah of Iran, Eleanor Roosevelt, Barry Goldwater, Nelson Rockefeller. In April 1963, she traveled to Cuba to make an ABC special on Cuban leader Fidel Castro.

During his filmed interview, as well as in private conversation with Howard, Castro made it clear that Cuba was interested in improved relations with Washington. On her return to the U. S. she was debriefed by Richard Helms. In a secret memorandum of conversation sent to President Kennedy, Helms reported: "Lisa Howard wants to impress the U. S. Government with two facts: Castro is ready to discuss rapprochement and she herself is ready to discuss it with him if asked to do so by the U. S. Government." Subsequently, Howard used her Upper East Side apartment for the first meeting between a U. S. and Cuban diplomat, for phone communications between Castro and the Kennedy administration. According to her daughter, Howard became involved with Castro and viewed herself as a grand player on the stage of history. In an article for Politico detailing their relationship, Peter Kornbluh describes Howard's role as a liaison between the United States and Cuba as "intimate diplomacy," explaining that "her role as peacemaker was built on a complex, little-understood rapport she managed to forge with Castro himself – a relationship, political and personal and intimate.”

In order to continue the reconciliation agenda, she set up a meeting between UN diplomat William Attwood and Cuba's UN representative Carlos Lechuga on September 23, 1963, at her Upper East Side New York apartment, under the cover of a cocktail party. With Howard's support, the Kennedy White House was organizing a secret meeting with an emissary of Fidel Castro in November 1963 at the United Nations—a plan, aborted when President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas on November 22, 1963; the new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, objected to normalizing relations with Cuba as he feared this would make him appear soft on Communism. Howard continued to work toward better relations, returning to Cuba to do another ABC special with Castro in February 1964 and becoming a go-between for communications between Washington and Havana; when Argentine Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara came to New York in December 1964, she hosted a cocktail party for him and arranged a meeting between Guevara and U.

S. Senator Eugene McCarthy. A selection of Howard's personal papers, including a draft letter to her "Dearest Fidel," a draft letter to President Kennedy, her 1964 interview with Che Guevara, are available to read on the George Washington University-based National Security Archive's website. In September 1964, Howard helped form a political group called "Democrats for Keating"—a group of liberal Democrats that included Gore Vidal, who opposed Robert Kennedy's bid to become a U. S. senator representing the state of New York. ABC News warned her. Howard continued to work in support of Kennedy's Republican opponent, Kenneth Keating. In the fall of 1964, ABC fired Howard. Howard had two children, her first marriage was to film director Felix E. Feist with whom she had Fritzi; the couple divorced. Howard married producer Walter Lowendahl with whom she had a daughter, Anne. Devastated by the loss of her career, Howard suffered a miscarriage in June 1965 and was hospitalized with depression. On July 4, 1965, while on an Independence Day vacation in the Hamptons with her family, she took a fatal overdose of barbiturates.

Her death was ruled a suicide. Julia Ormond portrayed Howard in the Steven Soderbergh film Che. Guil

OpenBSD security features

The OpenBSD operating system focuses on security and the development of security features.:xxvii According to author Michael W. Lucas, OpenBSD "is regarded as the most secure operating system available anywhere, under any licensing terms.":xxix Bugs and security flaws are caused by programmer error. A common source of error is the misuse of the strcpy and strcat string functions in the C programming language. There are two common alternatives and strncat, but they can be difficult to understand and easy to misuse, so OpenBSD developers Todd C. Miller and Theo de Raadt designed the strlcpy and strlcat functions; these functions are intended to make it harder for programmers to accidentally leave buffers unterminated or allow them to be overflowed. They have been adopted by the FreeBSD projects but not by the GNU C Library. On OpenBSD, the linker has been changed to issue a warning when unsafe string manipulation functions, such as strcpy, strcat, or sprintf, are found. All occurrences of these functions in the OpenBSD source tree have been replaced.

In addition, a static bounds checker is included in OpenBSD in an attempt to find other common programming mistakes at compile time. Other security-related APIs developed by the OpenBSD project include arc4random. In a June 2017 email, Theo de Raadt stated that a problem with stable systems was that they could be running for months at a time. Although there is considerable randomization within the kernel, some key addresses remains the same; the project in progress modifies the linker so that on every boot, the kernel is relinked, as well as all other randomizations. This differs from kernel ASLR; the relative offsets between functions and data are unique... change is scaffolding to ensure you boot a newly-linked kernel upon every reboot... so that a new random kernel can be linked together... On a fast machine it takes less than a second... A reboot runs the new kernel, yet another kernel is built for the next boot; the internal deltas between functions inside the kernel are not where an attacker expects them to be, so he'll need better info leaks".

OpenBSD integrates several technologies to help protect the operating system from attacks such as buffer overflows or integer overflows. Developed by Hiroaki Etoh, ProPolice is a GCC extension designed to protect applications from stack-smashing attacks, it does this through a number of operations: local stack variables are reordered to place buffers after pointers, protecting them from corruption in case of a buffer overflow. ProPolice chooses whether or not to protect a buffer based on automatic heuristics which judge how vulnerable it is, reducing the performance overhead of the protection, it was integrated in OpenBSD's version GCC in December 2002, first made available in OpenBSD 3.3. The extension works on all the CPU architectures supported by OpenBSD and is enabled by default, so any C code compiled will be protected without user intervention. In May 2004, OpenBSD on the SPARC platform received further stack protection in the form of StackGhost; this makes use of features of the SPARC architecture to help prevent exploitation of buffer overflows.

Support for SPARC64 was added to -current in March 2005. OpenBSD 3.4 introduced W^X, a memory management scheme to ensure that memory is either writable or executable, but never both, which provides another layer of protection against buffer overflows. While this is easy to implement on a platform like x86-64, which has hardware support for the NX bit, OpenBSD is one of the few OSes to support this on the generic i386 platform, which lacks built in per-page execute controls. During the development cycle of the 3.8 release, changes were made to the malloc memory management functions. In traditional Unix operating systems, malloc allocates more memory by extending the Unix data segment, a practice that has made it difficult to implement strong protection against security problems; the malloc implementation now in OpenBSD makes use of the mmap system call, modified so that it returns random memory addresses and ensures that different areas are not mapped next to each other. In addition, allocation of small blocks in shared areas are now randomized and the free function was changed to return memory to the kernel rather than leaving it mapped into the process.

A number of additional, optional checks were added to aid in development. These features make program bugs easier to detect and harder to exploit: instead of memory being corrupted or an invalid access being ignored, they result in a segmentation fault and abortion of the process; this has brought to light several issues with software running on OpenBSD 3.8 with programs reading beyond the start or end of a buffer, a type of bug that would not be detected directly but can now cause an error. These abilities took more than three years to implement without considerable performance loss. One of the goals of the OpenBSD project is the integration of facilities and software for strong cryptography into the core operating system. To this end, a number of low-level features are provided, including a source of strong pseudo random numbers; these abilities are used throughout OpenBSD, including the bcrypt password-hashing algorithm derived from Bruce Schneier's Blowfish block cipher, which takes advantage of the CPU-intensive Blow

B├ęcancour, Quebec

Bécancour is a city in the Centre-du-Québec region of Québec, Canada. It is located on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River at the confluence of the Bécancour River, opposite Trois-Rivières. Wôlinak, an Abenaki Indian reserve, is an enclave within the town of Bécancour, they arrived from Maine in the aftermath of Father Rale's War. There was a small migration of Acadians to the village, after the British began the Expulsion of the Acadians from the Maritimes; the Acadians migrated from present-day New Brunswick to avoid being killed or captured in the St. John River Campaign; the town of Bécancour was created October 1965, from an amalgamation of eleven municipalities. Bécancour was one of the province of Quebec's first amalgamated cities. At the time, Bécancour was the largest city in Quebec in terms of land area. Bécancour is now divided into six secteurs: Bécancour, Saint-Grégoire, Gentilly, Précieux-Sang, Sainte-Angèle-de-Laval, Sainte-Gertrude. Bécancour, Saint-Grégoire and Gentilly, each located near the shore of the Saint Lawrence River, can be considered the main urban centres.

Autoroute 55 intersects Route 132 at Saint-Grégoire. Bécancour is part of the Trois-Rivières metropolitan area; the economy of Bécancour, once agricultural, shifted towards heavy industry and manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. An industrial park was built in the area, attracting producers of aluminum, refractory metals, petroleum products. A nuclear power plant, Gentilly Nuclear Generating Station, was commissioned in 1983 in the Gentilly sector. Despite its proximity to Trois-Rivières, Bécancour has a vibrant identity of its own; the city hosts a hot air balloon festival, a weekly public marketplace, a biodiversity museum and interpretation centre, a maritime pumpkin race. Constituent municipalities of Bécancour included: La Nativité de Notre-Dame-de-Bécancour Saint-Édouard-de-Gentilly Saint-Grégoire-le-Grand Sainte-Gertrude Sainte-Angèle-de-Laval Très-Précieux-Sang-de-Notre-Seigneur And the villages of: Larochelle Gentilly Villers Bécancour et Laval According to the Canada 2011 Census: Population: 12,438 % Change: +13.3 Dwellings: 5,667 Area: 440.74 Density: 28.2 Bécancour Gentilly Précieux-Sang Sainte-Angèle-de-Laval Sainte-Gertrude Saint-Grégoire Nicolas Perrot, explorer and fur trader.

Blessed Louis Zephyrinus Moreau, Canadian Roman Catholic priest and fourth Bishop of Saint-Hyacinthe Denis Villeneuve, lived in Gentilly. Joué-lès-Tours, France List of cities in Quebec Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour Gentilly Nuclear Generating Station Becancour.net: official city website Bécancour tourism website

Biology for Christian Schools

Biology for Christian Schools is a 1991 school-level biology textbook written from a Young Earth Creation point of view by William S. Pinkston and published by the Bob Jones University Press; the book has been controversial. The book promotes creationism, rejected by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Association of Biology Teachers and the National Science Teachers Association who state creationism and intelligent design are pseudoscience. Francisco J. Ayala, a biologist at University of California, wrote the book "rejects accepted scientific knowledge" and "explicitly rejects the scientific methodology accepted by the scientific community." In 2005 the book became a subject in the lawsuit Association of Christian Schools International et al. v. Roman Stearns et al.. The book states, "The people who have prepared this book have tried to put the Word of God first and science second." ACSI sued the University of California for discrimination against its science courses that contain creationist ideas.

In the March 2008 ruling the Judge quoted Biology for Christian Schools stating: Plaintiff's evidence supports Defendants' conclusion that these biology texts are inappropriate for use as the primary or sole text. Plaintiffs' own biology expert, Professor Michael Behe, testified that "it is abusive and pedagogically damaging to de facto require students to subscribe to an idea.... Requiring a student to consent to an idea violates personal integrity; such a wrenching violation a terrible educational outcome." Yet, the two Christian biology texts at issue commit this "wrenching violation." For example, Biology for Christian Schools declares on the first page that: "'Whatever the Bible says is so. "If conclusions contradict the Word of God, the conclusions are wrong, no matter how many scientific facts may appear to back them." "Christians must disregard that contradict the Bible." More Bob Jones “Biology for Christian Schools” Howlers, The Panda's Thumb Documents Rejection of Summary Judgement for the Plaintiffs and Partial Summary Judgement for the Defendants