Government of Hamburg
The government of Hamburg is divided into executive and judicial branches. Hamburg is a city-state and municipality, thus its governance deals with several details of both state and local community politics, it takes place in two ranks – a citywide and state administration, a local rank for the boroughs. The head of the city-state's government is the First President of the Senate. A ministry is called Behörde and a state minister is a Senator in Hamburg; the legislature is the state parliament, called Hamburgische Bürgerschaft, the judicial branch is composed of the state supreme court and other courts. The seat of the government is Hamburg Rathaus; the President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. This is a traditional difference to the other German states; the president is not allowed to exert any occupation of the executive. Prior to 1871, Hamburg was a sovereign country, its government a sovereign government. Upon joining the German Empire, the city-state retained partial sovereignty as a federal state.
It was one of three republics within the German Empire until 1919, which meant that its First Mayor enjoyed the same rank in the Empire as the federal princes. Prior to the constitutional reforms in 1919, the hereditary grand burghers, or Hanseaten, had a privileged position and were the only ones eligible for election to the senate; the local rank is organised in the 7 boroughs of Hamburg. The bases of the political system are the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany and the Constitution of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg; the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg is its own state in the Federal Republic of Germany. Hamburg is democratic welfare state and a constitutional state. At the same time Hamburg is a municipality, there is no separation between these two administrative tasks; the power to create a law is restricted by federal law. There is a clear separation of powers; the power to create and ratify laws is given to the parliament. A plebiscite and a referendum is possible due to the Constitution of Hamburg.
In other German states the parliament is called Landtag. The President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg; the parliament is among other things responsible for the law, the election of the Erster Bürgermeister for the election period and the control of the Senate. The parliament is a unicameral parliament and the 121 deputies are elected in universal, free and secret elections every five years; the executive is the Senat der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg. Its purpose is to enforce the laws; the senate is responsible for the day-to-day head of this branch is the First Mayor. The senate represents Hamburg to other states or countries; the Senat der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg is formed by the First Mayor of Hamburg, the Minister President and mayor of Hamburg. His deputy is the Second Mayor; the senate is permitted no more than 12 members by law. This law regulates among other, the remuneration, privilege to refuse to give evidence and the legal position of Hamburg judges.
The senators get appointed by the First Mayor and thereafter they need to get elected by Hamburg Parliament. The First Mayor forms the ministries, according to the coalition agreement of the ruling parties; until 1860 the government of Hamburg was called Rath or Rat, the members had been Ratsherrn and Bürgermeister. After a change of the Constitution of Hamburg in 1861 the government was called Hamburger Senat; the terms senate and senator are sometimes used retrospectively when referring to the body and its members before 1861. During the Napoleonic Wars, when Hamburg was occupied and annexed into France, the existing Hamburg council was replaced by a municipal council, which existed from 1813 to 1814, when the previous constitution was reinstated. Prior to the first world war the two mayors were elected for one-year-terms; until 1997 the First Mayor was Primus inter pares among his colleagues in the Senate, by whom he was elected. Since he has been elected by the parliament and been able appoint and to dismiss other Senators.
Interpreting the law is the task of the Hamburgisches Verfassungsgericht and 17 other courts throughout Hamburg. The supreme court consists of a president of 8 judges; the president and 3 judges are have to be lifetime judges in Hamburg. The Diet of Hamburg elect the judges for 6 years and they can only serve two terms in total; the schedule of responsibilities are based on the constitution of Hamburg and the Gesetzes über das Hamburgische Verfassungsgericht. The professional judges of the other courts are appointed by the senate according to a nomination of a committee. In 2018, there are eleven senators holding ministerial positions and the head of state, the First mayor. A senator is the presiding minister for a Behörde. State ChancelleryThe State Chancellery support the mayor; the First Mayor is head in this government agency. In 2018, the First Mayor of Hamburg is Peter Tschentscher. Ministry of Schools and Vocational TrainingThe Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training is responsible for managing the school system of Hamburg.
Ministry of Science and Equal Opportunities(German: Behörde für Wissenschaft, Forschung
Kingdom of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815; the kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover; the personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of Queen Victoria because females could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, so her uncle became the ruler of Hanover. Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871.
Revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was subsequently merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in West Germany Germany. The territory of Hanover had earlier been a principality within the Holy Roman Empire before being elevated into an electorate in 1708, when Hanover was formed by union of the dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, excepting the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After his accession in 1714, George Louis of the House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I, Hanover was joined in a personal union with Great Britain. Descendants of Hanoverians who fought alongside the British in the War of 1812 remain in Canada. In 1803, Hanover was conquered by the Prussian armies in the Napoleonic Wars; the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 joined it to territories from Prussia and created the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. French control lasted until October 1813.
The Battle of Leipzig shortly thereafter spelled the definitive end of the Napoleonic client states, the electorate was restored to the House of Hanover. The terms of the Congress of Vienna in 1814 not only restored Hanover, but elevated it to an independent kingdom with its Prince-Elector, George III of Great Britain, as King of Hanover; the new kingdom was greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation and the second-largest in north Germany. Under George III's six-year reign, he never visited the Kingdom. Having succumbed to dementia prior to the elevation of Hanover, it is unlikely he understood that he had gained an additional kingship nor did he take any role in its governance. Functional administration of Hanover was handled by a viceroy, which during the years of George III's reign and the reigns of kings George IV and William IV from 1816 to 1837, was Adolph Frederick, George III's youngest surviving son; when Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne in 1837, the 123-year personal union of Great Britain and Hanover ended.
Salic law operated in Hanover, excluding accession to the throne by a female while any male of the dynasty survived. During the Austro-Prussian War, Hanover attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. Hanover's vote in favor of the mobilisation of Confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866 prompted Prussia to declare war; the outcome of the war led to the dissolution of Hanover as an independent kingdom and it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming the Prussian Province of Hanover. Along with the rest of Prussia, it became part of the German Empire in 1871. After George V fled Hanover in 1866, he raised forces loyal to him in the Netherlands, called the Guelphic Legion, they were disbanded in 1870. George refused to accept the Prussian takeover of his realm and claimed he was still the legitimate king of Hanover, his only son, Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, inherited this claim upon George's death in 1878.
Ernest Augustus was first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover. In 1884, that branch became extinct with the death of a distant cousin of Ernest Augustus. However, since Ernest Augustus refused to renounce his claim to annexed Hanover, the Bundesrat of the German Empire ruled that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick; as a result, Brunswick was ruled by a regency until 1913, when his son named Ernest Augustus, married the German Emperor's daughter, Princess Viktoria Luise and swore allegiance to the German Empire. The Duke renounced his claim to Brunswick in favor of his son, the Bundesrat allowed the younger Ernest Augustus to take possession of Brunswick as a kind of dowry compensation for Hanover; the German-Hanoverian Party, which at times supported secession from the Reich, demanded a separate status for the province in the Reichstag. The party existed. With Prussia in agony and on the verge of official dissolution, in 1946 Hanoverian politicians took advantage of the opportunity and advocated that the Control Commission for Germany - British Element revi
State Criminal Police Office or Landeskriminalamt, in German, is an independent law enforcement agency in most German states, directly subordinate to the respective state ministry of the interior. LKAs supervise police operations aimed at preventing and investigating criminal offences, coordinate investigations of serious crime involving more than one Präsidium, they can take over investigative responsibility in cases of serious crime, e.g. drug trafficking, organized crime and white-collar crime or extremist and terrorist offences. Each Landeskriminalamt is a modern central office for information, analyzing police intelligence from home and abroad and transmitting it to police stations, it collates data on criminal offences and offenders in crime statistics that are used as a basis for new strategies, policy decisions and legislative initiatives. It analyzes certain offense areas, evaluates the police measures executed in each case, forecasts expected tendencies and describes events in annual reports.
The LKA maintains forensic equipment for central examination of evidence using the latest scientific methods. LKAs coordinate support for local police in hostage and blackmail situations and provide experts in such cases, e.g. the SWAT team Spezialeinsatzkommando, the negotiation group or bomb disposal experts. It is the central office for physical security technology and crime prevention, coordinates state anti-drug programs. Crime in Germany State bureau of investigation Polizei.de Bundeskriminalamt - German Federal Investigation Bureau Baden-Württemberg Landeskriminalamt Bavarian Landeskriminalamt Berlin Landeskriminalamt Bremen Landeskriminalamt Hamburg Landeskriminalamt Hessen Landeskriminalamt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Landeskriminalamt Lower Saxony Landeskriminalamt North Rhine-Westphalia Landeskriminalamt Rheinland-Pfalz Landeskriminalamt Saxony Landeskriminalamt Saxony-Anhalt Landeskriminalamt Schleswig-Holstein Landeskriminalamt Thuringia Landeskriminalamt
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
Education in Hamburg
Education in Hamburg covers the whole spectrum from kindergarten, primary education, secondary education, higher education in Hamburg. The German states are responsible for the educational system in Germany, therefore the Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung is the administrative agency in Hamburg; the Behörde für Wissenschaft und Forschung has the oversight for colleges. The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, one of the six educational institutes of UNESCO, is located in Hamburg. Per student no other State of Germany spends more money on education than Hamburg, yet at the Programme for International Student Assessment the students did poorly and were outperformed by 14 other States of Germany. Only the State of Bremen did worse than Hamburg. One in two Hamburg children comes from an immigrant family, in 2007, 20,4 percent of all Hamburg children were on welfare. So Hamburg faces more challenges than many other States of Germany. In 2008-mid 2009, several types of secondary schools existed in Hamburg.
The most common types were Hauptschulen, Realschulen and Gesamtschulen. Kids graduated from primary schools after 4th grade and were allowed to apply for any of those schools; the choice which school to apply for was made by the parents. In October 2009, the Hamburg Parliament voted for an act to change this system with the start of the educational year 2010/11; the Grundschule—primary school of 4 years education from the age of 6 to 10—would be changed into a Primärschule, lasting 6 years. This would be followed by a so-called location or quarter school with certificates, like the Abitur after 13 years of education; the Gymnasium will offer the Abitur after 12 years. Pupils could enter the Gymnasium. Parents would no longer be allowed to choose. Only those children whose primary school teachers state that the child would make a successful transition into a Gymnasium would be allowed to apply; the act states that no more than 25 pupils are allowed in classes of the primary school, 20 in so-called difficult quarters, not more than 28 in a Gymnasium class.
This decision was criticized by factions of the The Left. Many people were not pleased by this educational reform; some were dismayed that the reform did not do away with Gymnasien they saw as a breeding ground of privilege. It has been noted that most of the children attending a Gymnasium came from upper-middle-class families and that Gymnasien failed to enroll minority youngsters. A movement called; the movement attempted to collect enough signatures to force a referendum, but fell short of the required number to do so. Many parents of those attending a Realschule were dismayed. Another group of parents was dismayed that the decision of whether their kids should apply for a Gymnasium was no longer left to the parents, they were concerned about the fact that Gymnasien would no longer be allowed to enroll students after fourth grade, but had to wait until they graduated from sixth grade. These would mean Gymnasien would get two fewer years to impart Ancient Greek, it was feared that if Gymnasien would not be able to enroll students as young as ten years, it would become difficult for them to instill school spirit and love for learning in the students.
It was claimed that the academically most promising kids were denied an adequate education if they were not allowed to enroll in a Gymnasium after four years of schooling. A movement called Wir wollen lernen! was formed. It collected 184.500 signatures in November, three times the number needed to force a referendum. An attempt by the city government of Hamburg to have all pupils attend the same school until 7th grade was, rejected by 276,304 votes to 218,065 German television showed that the voter participation was higher in the wealthy neighbourhoods than in the poor ones; the opinion was put forward that the referendum to reject the school reforms was only successful because of this. In fact, although the proposal in Hamburg was to have all children in a single school system two years longer in order to treat everyone for a longer time, German TV found a number of wealthy parents willing to make statements to TV cameras that they considered such equal treatment unfair: "you don't have to disadvantage the advantaged so that the disadvantaged benefit".
In other words, putting everyone in the same school is considered unfair by many of the wealthy in Germany. Besides regular German schools and kindergarten, an International School of Hamburg and a French school exist. Both offer an education in the respective language from kindergarten to secondary school; the International School Hamburg provides the International Baccalaureate, the French school the French baccalauréat and the AbiBac. In 2007, there were 1,039 day-care centers for children, 244 primary schools, 195 secondary schools, with a total of 167,714 pupils; as of 2009 several Hamburg schools were Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Christianeum Hamburg, Friedrich-Ebert-Gymnasium, Gymnasium Farmsen, Helene-Lange-Gymnasium. Hamburg's oldest school is the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums; as of 2012/2013, 19 universities and colleges were located in Hamburg with about 90,000 university students, including 10,000 international students. Universities in Hamburg are: University of Hamburg Hamburg University of Technology HafenCity University Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg (College of Fine
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well