Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
The muskellunge known as muskelunge, milliganong, or maskinonge, is a species of large uncommon freshwater fish native to North America. The muskellunge is the largest member of Esocidae; the common name comes from the Ojibwa word maashkinoozhe, meaning "ugly pike", by way of French masque allongé, "elongated face." The French common name is masquinongé or maskinongé. Muskellunge resemble other esocids such as the northern pike and American pickerel in both appearance and behavior. Like the northern pike and other aggressive pikes, the body plan is typical of ambush predators with an elongated body, flat head, dorsal and anal fins set far back on the body. Muskellunge are 28–48 in long and weigh 15–36 lb, though some have reached up to 6 ft and 70 lb. According to past references the muskellunge attains 8 feet in length. A fish with a weight of 61.25 lb was caught in November 2000 in Ontario. The fish are a light silver, brown, or green, with dark vertical stripes on the flank, which may tend to break up into spots.
In some cases, markings may be absent altogether in fish from turbid waters. This is in contrast to northern pike. A reliable method to distinguish the two similar species is by counting the sensory pores on the underside of the mandible. A muskie will have seven or more per side; the lobes of the caudal fin in muskellunge come to a sharper point, while those of northern pike are more rounded. In addition, unlike pike, muskies have no scales on the lower half of their opercula; the muskellunge is known by a wide variety of common names, including Ohio muskellunge, Great Lakes muskellunge, barred muskellunge, Ohio River pike, Allegheny River pike, jack pike, unspotted muskellunge, the Wisconsin muskellunge. Anglers seek large muskies for sport. In places where muskie are not native, such as in Maine, anglers are encouraged not to release the fish back into the water because of their alleged negative impact on the populations of trout and other smaller fish species. Muskellunge are found in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes and large rivers from northern Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota through the Great Lakes region, north into Canada, throughout most of the St Lawrence River drainage, northward throughout the upper Mississippi valley, although the species extends as far south as Chattanooga in the Tennessee River valley.
A small population is found in the Broad River in South Carolina. Several North Georgia reservoirs have healthy stocked populations of muskie, they are found in the Red River drainage of the Hudson Bay basin. Muskie were introduced to western Saint John River in the late 1960s and have now spread to many connecting waterways in northern Maine, they prefer clear waters where they lurk along weed edges, rock outcrops, or other structures to rest. A fish forms two distinct home ranges in summer: a deeper one; the shallow range is much smaller than the deeper range due to shallow water heating up. A muskie continually patrols the ranges in search of available food in the appropriate conditions of water temperature. Muskies are ambush predators who will swiftly bite their prey and swallow it head first, they eat all varieties of fish present in their ecosystem, along with the occasional muskrat, frog, or duck. They are capable of taking prey up to two-thirds of their body length due to their large stomachs.
In the spring, they tend to prefer smaller bait since their metabolism is slower, while large bait are preferred in fall as preparation for winter. As muskellunge grow longer they increase in weight, but the relationship between length and weight is not linear; the relationship between them can be expressed by a power-law equation: W = c L b The exponent b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant for each species. For muskellunge, b = 3.325, higher than for many common species, c = 0.000089 pounds/inch³. According to the International Game Fish Association the largest muskellunge on record was caught by Cal Johnson in Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin, United States on July 24, 1949; the fish weighed 67 lbs 8 oz and was 60.25 in in length, 33-33.5 in in girth. Muskellunge are sometimes gregarious, they spawn in mid to late spring, somewhat than northern pike, over shallow, vegetated areas. A rock or sand bottom is preferred for spawning so the eggs do not sink into the suffocate; the males attempt to establish dominance over a territory.
Spawning may last from five to 10 days and occurs at night. The eggs are negatively buoyant and adhesive. Soon afterward, they are abandoned by the adults; those embryos which are not eaten by insects, or crayfish hatch within two weeks. The larvae live on yolk until the mouth is developed, when they begin to feed on copepods and other zooplankton, they soon begin to prey upon fish. Juveniles attain a length of 12 in by November of their first year. Adult muskellunge are apex predators. Only humans pose a threat to an adul
Centrarchidae are a family of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. The type genus is Centrarchus; the centrarchid family comprises 38 species of fish, 34 of which are extant and includes many fish familiar to North Americans, including the rock bass, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed, green sunfish, crappies. All species in the family are native to only North America. There are eight genera included within Centrarchidae: Lepomis, Pomoxis, Centrarchus, Archoplites and Acantharchus. Most sunfish are valued for sport fishing, have been introduced in many areas outside their original ranges, sometimes becoming invasive species. While edible, they are not commercially marketed as a food fish. Family members are distinguished by having a laterally compressed body shape, 3 to 8 anal spines, 2 dorsal fins which are fused; the number of dorsal spines varies from 6 to 13. All species in Micropterus and Lepomis have 3 anal spines, which distinguishes them from the other genera in the family.
The pseudobranch is concealed. Body size varies within the family with the black-banded sunfish at just 8 cm in length, while the largemouth bass is reported to reach 1 m in extreme cases. Many of the species within Centrarchidae can be separated into two main groups based on the two most common genera. Species in the genera Lepomis are defined by a deep or more round body shape, smaller mouths, obtaining food through suction feeding. Species in the genera Micropterus are defined by a more streamlined body shape, larger mouths, consuming prey by ram feeding methods. Centrarchids prefer clear and slower-moving water, are found in habitats such as lakes, medium to low flow streams and rivers, swamps, they prefer to live in and around aquatic vegetation so they can get adequate coverage from predators. While few species in the family diverge from the aforementioned habitat list, the Sacramento perch can survive in habitats with unusually high alkalinity and temperatures. Centrarchids can be found in various locations within the water column and their exact preference is species specific.
For instance, bluegill inhabit the deeper littoral zones, while green sunfish prefer habitats near the shoreline and shallower areas. Suction feeders within the family feed off the bottom of their habitat, while ram feeders feed in more open areas known as the limnetic zone. Centrarchids diet consists of other fish found in their habitat. In freshwater systems, water temperature is determined by many abiotic factors, with air temperature being one of the most significant contributors; as in other ectotherms, many physiological processes and behaviors in Centrarchidae, such as feeding and reproduction, are impacted by the temperature in their environment. All species in the family Centrarchidae are considered warmwater adapted species. In general, warmwater adapted species are characterized as being larger at higher temperatures and lower latitudes; the optimal temperature range of most species in the family is 28oC to 32oC, although they can survive and reproduce in temperatures that are outside of this optimum range.
Increases in temperature outside the optimal range for centrarchids can have negative effects, such as speeding up reproductive maturity or increasing mortality after the first reproductive event. The lethal temperature range varies in the family, but some species have been seen to survive water temperatures as low as 1.7oC or as high as 41oC. Centrarchids spawn in the spring, juveniles emerge in the late spring to early summer; the transition from winter to spring conditions is the main cue for centrarchids to begin preparing for reproduction. All species within Centrarchidae, except for those in the genus Micropterus, develop breeding coloration in both males and females during the breeding season; the process of courtship and reproduction is nearly identical for all species in the family, a major reason for the high levels of hybridization within Centrarchidae. With that said, there are some mechanisms in place to prevent hybridization, such as intricate morphology of the operculum in Lepomis, which assists in recognition of conspecific mates.
To initiate reproduction, males dig a deep circular depression in the substrate with their caudal fins to create a nest, which they will aggressively defend from intruding males. Males and females undergo a courtship dancing ritual before the female deposits her eggs into the male's nest. Multiple females may deposit eggs in a single nest. Larger males attract more mates and take better care of their offspring. Male parental care includes nest building, nest guarding, guarding of eggs and fry, nest fanning. Males unsuccessful at courtship may exhibit a cheater strategy where they sneak fertilizations of female's eggs by various behavioral methods; this is seen with smaller males in the genus Lepomis. The native range of Centrarchidae is confined within North America, covering most of the United States and stopping in southern Canada; the northern edge of the native range is bound by temperature due to reduced foraging abili
Charles Alexandre Lesueur
Charles Alexandre Lesueur was a French naturalist and explorer. In 1801, he traveled to Australia as artist on the expedition of Nicolas Baudin. With François Péron he took over the duties as naturalist after the death of the expedition's zoologist René Maugé. Together they collected over 100,000 zoological specimens. In 1802 he made the only known sketches of the King Island emu in its natural habitat. Between 1815 and 1837, he lived in the United States. In 1833, he visited Vincennes, where he sketched the first known drawing of Grouseland, the mansion of William Henry Harrison; the mansion is today a National Historic Landmark. In the years 1825–1837, Lesueur lived in New Harmony, where he filled sketchbooks full of the finds discovered during the utopian adventure funded by his friend William Maclure, he drew the boat "Philanthropist", which arrived full of intellectuals who came to live in the small town of New Harmony, on the Wabash River. He sketched the people and the small towns in the area.
He was in New Harmony when Prince Maximilian, Prince of Wied-Neuweid and artist Karl Bodmer came to spend five months there in 1832–1833. Prince Maximilian said of Lesueur "He had explored the country in many directions, was acquainted with everything remarkable and prepared all interesting objects and had sent considerable collections to France" Indeed, Lesueur sent specimens of unique fish and fossils, as well as artifacts he had dug from the Indian Mounds in New Harmony back to France, where they remain. Lesueur returned to France in 1837, only after his friends Thomas Say and Joseph Barabino had died and William MacClure had returned to Philadelphia, accompanied by many of his fine books, he had spent 21 years in the United States, but continued his scholarly studies and activities in France, where he resumed his occupation of artist-naturalist and began to catalogue his extensive research and artwork. At last, he was awarded the honor of Chevalier de l’Ordre Royal de la Légion d'honneur for his long years of work in the sciences.
In March 1846, Lesueur was appointed curator of the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle du Havre. Nine months he died and was buried at Le Havre. In the 1900s, his work was published by the Museum, totaling over 60 books, including reports of his zoological, geological and archaeological research, as well as studies of his life (Elliott & Johansen. Pictured here is the oil portrait by Charles Willson Peale of Charles-Alexandre Lesueur; the original hangs in the reading room of the Ewell Sale Stewart Library in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. One species of frog and two species of lizards were named in honour of Lesueur: Litoria lesueurii – Lesueur's frog Amalosia lesueurii – Lesueur's velvet gecko Intellagama lesueurii – eastern water dragon European and American voyages of scientific exploration Josephine Mirabella Elliott and Jane Thompson Johansen, Charles-Alexandre Lesueur: Premier Naturalist and Artist, New Harmony, Indiana, 1999. Claus Nissen: Die zoologische Buchillustration. Ihre Bibliographie und Geschichte.
Vol. I: Bibliographie. Anton Hiersemann, Verlag 1969. Page 252. R. W. G. Vail, The American Sketchbooks of Charles Alexandre Lesueur, 1816–1837, American Antiquarian Society, 1938. Cédric Crémière et Gabrielle Baglione, Peintre voyageur, Un trésor oublié, coll. Très Grande Bibliothèque Thalassa, Éditions de Conti, Paris, 2009 Charles Alexandre Lesueur naturalist, artist Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Le Havre Fishes Described and Drawn by C. A. Lesueur Graptemys geographica Lesueur Maclurites magnus Lesueur Alex the explorer, the hero of a new graphic novel Baudin's voyage – State Library Historic New Harmony L'expédition Baudin en Australie – Université de La Rochelle Charles A Lesueur Papers – Purdue University Libraries and Special Collections. Works of art on paper, including pencil, pastel and watercolor sketches by artist and naturalist Charles Alexandre Lesueur, Virginia Dupalais, Lucy Sistare
Perciformes called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like"; this group comprises over 10,000 species found in all aquatic ecosystems. The order contains about 160 families, the most of any order within the vertebrates, it is the most variably sized order of vertebrates, ranging from the 7-mm Schindleria brevipinguis to the 5-m marlin in the genus Makaira. They first diversified in the Late Cretaceous. Among the well-known members of this group are perch and darters, sea bass and groupers; the dorsal and anal fins are divided into anterior spiny and posterior soft-rayed portions, which may be or separated. The pelvic fins have one spine and up to five soft rays, positioned unusually far forward under the chin or under the belly. Scales are ctenoid, although sometimes they are cycloid or otherwise modified. Classification is controversial.
As traditionally defined before the introduction of cladistics, the Perciformes are certainly paraphyletic. Other orders that should be included as suborders are the Scorpaeniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Pleuronectiformes. Of the presently recognized suborders, several may be paraphyletic, as well; these are grouped by suborder/superfamily following the text Fishes of the World. Photos of Perciformes on Sealife Collection
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol