Crates of Thebes was a Cynic philosopher. Crates gave away his money to live a life of poverty on the streets of Athens, he married Hipparchia of Maroneia. Respected by the people of Athens, he is remembered for being the teacher of Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. Various fragments of Crates' teachings survive, including his description of the ideal Cynic state. Crates was born c. 365 BC in Thebes. He was the son of Ascondus, was the heir to a large fortune, which he is said to have renounced to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Diogenes Laërtius preserves several different accounts of this story, he moved to Athens. Crates is described as being the student of Bryson the Achaean, of Stilpo, he lived a life of cheerful simplicity, Plutarch, who wrote a detailed biography of Crates which does not survive, records what sort of man Crates was: But Crates with only his wallet and tattered cloak laughed out his life jocosely, as if he had been always at a festival. He is said to have hunched shoulders.
He was nicknamed the Door-Opener because he would enter any house and people would receive him gladly and with honour: He used to enter the houses of his friends, without being invited or otherwise called, in order to reconcile members of a family if it was apparent that they were at odds. He would not reprove them harshly, but in a soothing way, in a manner, non-accusatory towards those whom he was correcting, because he wished to be of service to them as well as to those who were just listening, he attracted the attentions of Hipparchia of Maroneia, the sister of one of Crates' students, Metrocles. Hipparchia is said to have fallen in love with Crates and with his life and teachings, thus rejecting her wealthy upbringing in a manner similar to Crates, she married him; the marriage was remarkable for being based on mutual equality between the couple. Stories about Hipparchia appearing in public everywhere with Crates are mentioned because respectable women did not behave in that way, as part of Cynic shamelessness, they had sexual intercourse in public.
They had at least two children, a girl, a boy named Pasicles. We learn that Crates is supposed to have initiated his son into sex by taking him to a brothel, he allowed his daughter a month's trial marriage to potential suitors, he was the teacher of Zeno of Citium in the last years of the century, was undoubtedly the biggest influence on Zeno in his development of Stoic philosophy. Zeno always regarded Crates with the greatest respect, some of the accounts we have of Crates have come down to us via Zeno's writings, his other pupils included Metrocles, Menippus, Cleomenes and Crates' brother Pasicles. He may have taught Cleanthes, Zeno's successor as head of the Stoic school. Crates was in Thebes in 307 BC, when Demetrius Phalereus was exiled there, he is said to have died at a great age, was buried in Boeotia. Crates wrote a book of letters on philosophical subjects, the style of, compared by Diogenes Laërtius to that of Plato. There are 36 surviving Cynic epistles attributed to Crates, but these are 1st-century, compositions.
Crates was the author of some philosophical tragedies, some smaller poems called Games. Several fragments of his thought survive, he taught a simple asceticism, which seems to have been milder than that of his predecessor Diogenes: And therefore Crates replied to the man who asked, "What will be in it for me after I become a philosopher?" "You will be able," he said, "to open your wallet and with your hand scoop out and dispense lavishly instead of, as you do now and hesitating and trembling like those with paralyzed hands. Rather, if the wallet is full, how you will view it, and once you have elected to use the money, you will be able to do so. Some of his philosophical writings were infused in the form of spoudaiogeloion, he urged people not to prefer anything but lentils in their meals, because luxury and extravagance were the chief causes of seditions and insurrections in a city. This jest would be the cause of much satire, as in book 4 of Athenaeus' Deipnosophistae where a group of Cynics sit down for a meal and are served course after course of lentil soup.
One of his poems parodied a famous hymn to the Muses written by Solon. But whereas Solon wished for prosperity, "justly acquired possessions," Crates had Cynic desires: Glorious children of Memory and Olympian Zeus,Muses of Pieria, listen to my prayer! Give me without ceasing food for my belly Which had always made my life frugal and free from slavery.... Make me useful to my friends, rather than
Isanesvara Siva Temple is a 13th-century ad temple in Bhubaneswar in the state of Orissa, India. The time period of its construction is estimated from its architectural features and it is suggests the temple to ganga period. Isanesvara Siva temple is situated in the Goasagaresvartemple precinct, it is located on the left side of Bhubaneswar. It is located at a distance of 1 km west of Lingaraja Temple and 1 km south of Ananta Vasudev, 300 metres south west of Ramesvara temple and 200 metres north west of Baitala Deula; the temple is facing towards east. The presiding deity is only a circular yon pitha; the lingam is missing. This temple is used for worship, its cultural and historical significances are same as the Gosagaresvara temple. Its associational significance is its usage for public meeting; this temple has multiple ownership and It is taken care by private persons namely Mahendra Garabadu and Bhaga Garabadu. Their residence is at Old Town, Bhubaneswar; the temple is surrounded by Paradaresvara temple in the west, Gosagaresvara temple in north-west and minor Siva temple in the south-west, Lingarajaa Mandapa in the northern side, in the eastern side there is a modern compound and across wall there is a paddy field.
The temple is facing towards East. On plan, temple is pancharatha having a square vimana with a renovated frontal porch extending towards east; the vimana measures 3.0 square metres with the 0.60 porch of 0.60 metres. On elevation, the vimana is in rekha order with usual bada and mastaka measures 7.30 metres in height from khura to kalasa. The bada of the vimana has five vertical divisions measuring 2.20 metres in height pabhaga, tala jangha, upara jangha and the baranda metres in height. The gandi of the vimana above the baranda measuring 3.60 metres is distinguished by central raha and a pair of anuratha and kanika pagas on either side of the raha. It is curvilinear spire; the mastaka has components like amlaka. Khapuri and kalasa that measures 1.50 metres in height. The parsvadevata niches on three sides uniformly measuring 0.40 metres in height, 0.28 metres in width and 0.20 metres in depth are all empty. Beneath the niches is the plain talagarvika while above the niches is in the urdhvagarvika.
The base of the gandi above the baranda decorated with a series of miniature rekha deuls surmounted by udyota simha in each raha paga. Doorjamb: The doorjamb is of recent addition made out of the renovation work and beneath the door frame there are two khakhara-mundi niches are found. Lintel: The graha architrave is plain due to renovation; the temple has the Rekha deul typology and it is a temple building. Building material: Coarse grained sandstone. Construction techniques: Dry masonry. Style Kalinga architecture i) Architecture: B ii) Historic:' C iii) Associational:' B iv) Social/Cultural:' B Lesser Known Monuments of Bhubaneswar by Dr. Sadasiba Pradhan http://ignca.nic.in/asi_reports/orkhurda009.pdf
The black harrier is a medium-sized African harrier whose range extends from South Africa to Botswana and Namibia. It has a wingspan of 105 -- a body length of 44 -- 50 cm; when perched, this bird appears all black. However, in flight a white rump and flight feathers become visible, its morphology is comparable to that of other harriers, with a slim body, narrow wings and a long tail. Male and female plumages are similar. Juveniles have buff under-parts and spotted breasts. In South Africa, the distribution of the black harrier is distinctly polarised in both the Western and Southern coastal plains. Nests are concentrated either along the coastal strip or inland in a more montane habitat. Nests are absent from transformed and cultivated lands. There is, some evidence from sightings and prey remains that the black harriers do forage in these environments if they do not breed there. Black harriers are migratory birds and their annual movements cover the southern half of the land surface of South Africa however, there is great individual variability.
The majority of these birds undertake an unusual west–east migration. They begin from their breeding areas in south-western South Africa and migrate towards the Eastern Cape, the south-west region of Kwa-Zulu Natal, the south-west region of Mpumalanga and the north-east region of Lesotho during the summer months. Pair members do not travel together and they don't use the same non-breeding areas either, it has been suggested that black harriers migrate in order to deal with declines in food availability. Unusually, black harriers travel twice as fast during their summer post-breeding migration as they during their winter/spring pre-breeding migration. In many other species this is reported the other way round. One reasoning for this is that it is part of their pre-breeding behaviour and that the extra time is used to find the best breeding areas. Home ranges during the breeding seasons and non-breeding seasons are of similar sizes, suggesting similar levels of food availability. Black harriers show some degree of offidelity to breeding areas as well as natal philopatry however, large breeding dispersal may occur.
The black harrier is a small mammal specialist which feed on small rodents and birds and will take reptiles, catching them while flying low over its hunting grounds. The Four- striped Mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio, is the main prey. Regional differences in diet have been recorded with a greater consumption of birds inland than at the coast Variation in diet is thought to be associated with local weather conditions. Early in September the diets are similar however, this shifts with seasonal changes. Inland, during hot temperatures the proportion of small mammals in the harrier's diet declines, because the hotter temperatures reduce the activity of South African small mammals during the day. Higher temperatures may lead to poorer environmental conditions for breeding resulting in a decreased abundance of small mammals; the breeding season of the four-striped mouse is only three months in the Karoo rather than six months as in the fynbos. In the Karoo, temperatures can reach 40 degrees Celsius during the day in summer.
Whilst in coastal regions the proportion of small mammals in the diet increased with higher winter rainfall. This is; the greatest number of breeding pairs can be found in South Africa. In this area loose colonies aggregate around coastal wetlands. Breeding in Namibia is suspected but not confirmed. Like other harriers it nests on the ground in tall vegetation. Egg laying takes place from June to November with peak laying months in September. Two to four eggs are incubated for 35 days. In a recent study, brood size averaged 2.3 ± 1.1 and fledged broods averaged 1.9 ± 1.2. Egg hatchability was 74%, the hatching success was 63%. A quarter of the nests were subject to nest predation nestling predation. More evidence is needed but it may be that after a breeding year, black harriers take a'Sabbatical year" in reproduction to recover from the physiological stress of breeding; the black harrier population has declined in recent years to fewer than 1000 birds, it is now considered endangered in South Africa and Namibia.
This is due to the destruction of its original breeding habitat, South Africa's natural shrubland, the fynbos, reduced by encroaching cereal culture and urban expansion as well as the invasion of alien plant species. Because of this, the black harriers have been displaced from their lowland Renosterveld and Fynbos habitats into a more montane habitat which unlike the Renosterveld and Fynbos is not characterised by foraging and nesting opportunities; the harriers in the montane environments are not as successful as those along the coastal strip which has fynbos, they breed poorly, take a wide range of prey and are subject to high levels of nest predation. Breeding at coastal sites is more successful than breeding at montane sites as they start breeding earlier, hatch larger broods and fledge more young, they are subject to lower levels of nest predation. This land transformation has therefore negatively effected the black harriers Carotenoids are pigments which are responsible for the yellow and red colo
Blast chilling is a method of cooling food to a low temperature, safe from bacterial growth. Bacteria multiply fastest between +8 °C and +68 °C. By reducing the temperature of cooked food from +70 °C to +3 °C or below within 90 minutes, the food is rendered safe for storage and consumption; this method of preserving food is used in food catering and in the preparation of'instant' foods, as it ensures the safety and the quality of the food product. The blast chiller is a cousin of the refrigerator, another appliance designed to store food between +3 °C and +5 °C, but the blast chiller is a higher grade and more expensive appliance and is only found in commercial kitchens; as of 2013, in the UK, blast chillers are priced from GBP 2,000 to GBP 8,000 excluding VAT. Use of blast chillers is prescribed for the restaurants of the European Union, e.g. in the regulations 852/2004 or 853/2004. Flash freezing Snap freezing Food storage Food preservation Pumpable ice technology
The Beverton–Holt model is a classic discrete-time population model which gives the expected number n t+1 of individuals in generation t + 1 as a function of the number of individuals in the previous generation, n t + 1 = R 0 n t 1 + n t / M. Here R0 is interpreted as the proliferation rate per generation and K = M is the carrying capacity of the environment; the Beverton–Holt model was introduced in the context of fisheries by Beverton & Holt. Subsequent work has derived the model under other assumptions such as contest competition, within-year resource limited competition or as the outcome of a source-sink Malthusian patches linked by density-dependent dispersal; the Beverton–Holt model can be generalized to include scramble competition. It is possible to include a parameter reflecting the spatial clustering of individuals. Despite being nonlinear, the model can be solved explicitly, since it is in fact an inhomogeneous linear equation in 1/n; the solution is n t = K n 0 n 0 + R 0 − t. Because of this structure, the model can be considered as the discrete-time analogue of the continuous-time logistic equation for population growth introduced by Verhulst.
Beverton, R. J. H.. On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations, Fishery Investigations Series II Volume XIX, Ministry of Agriculture and FoodBrännström, Åke. "The role of competition and clustering in population dynamics", Proc. R. Soc. B, 272, pp. 2065–2072, doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3185, PMC 1559893, PMID 16191618Bravo de la Parra, R.. "Reduction of discrete dynamical systems with applications to dynamics population models", Math Model Nat Phenom, 8, pp. 107–129Geritz, Stefan A. H.. Biol. 228, pp. 261–269, doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.01.003, PMID 15094020Ricker, W. E. "Stock and recruitment", J. Fisheries Res. Board Can. 11, pp. 559–623
Ágústa Guðmundsdóttir is a professor emerita in the School of Health Sciences at the University of Iceland, was a co-founder of the biotechnology company Zymetech, where she works in research & development. Guðmundsdóttir completed BS studies in food science at the University of Iceland in 1980 and thereby became one of the first food scientists to graduate from the University, she completed BS studies in Biochemistry from the University of Iceland in 1984, in 1988, she graduated with a PhD in Microbiology and Molecular Biology from the University of Virginia, School of Medicine with emphasis on genetic analysis and protein chemistry.Ágústa has worked on research and teaching for many years. From 1980 to 1984, she worked on research at the Science Institute of the University of Iceland, since 1989, she has been a visiting professor at the University of Virginia, School of Medicine, she served as Associate Professor in Food Chemistry during the period 1989–1993, in 1993, she was appointed the first Professor of Food Chemistry at the University of Iceland.
With the appointment, she became the first woman to be appointed Professor in the Faculty of Physical Sciences at the University of Iceland Ágústa has conducted research at the University of California, San Francisco and New York University. Guðmundsdóttir's research is focused on the use of cod enzymes to fight microbial infections, as well as on the development of medical products. In her Ph. D. dissertation, "Genetic Analysis of BtuB: A Vitamin B12 Binding and Transport Protein in the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane", she carried out a genetic analysis of BtuB. Ágústa has written a number of scientific articles and book chapters. Guðmundsdóttir is one of the two founders of the biotechnology company Zymetech; the company, founded in 1999, is based on the research of Ágústa and the late Jón Bragi Bjarnason, Professor of Biochemistry. Zymetech makes use of trypsins from North-Atlantic Cod, which through the years has for the most part been discarded, in this way, the company has developed a product that multiplies the value of the cod.
Zymetech manufactures PreCold to fight the common cold, as well as various skin and cosmetics products. The company works on the development of products for bacterial infections, skin disorders, wound healing. In 2015, Zymetech won the Icelandic Innovation Award, which s granted to companies considered to have achieved outstanding results in the development of a new product or service based and which have attained commercial success in the market. On "Food Day" held on 20 October 2016, the Iceland Nutrition Society awarded Ágústa an honourary recognition for work benefitting food and nutrition research in Iceland; this was the first time. On 2 November 2017, the symposium Rannsóknir og verðmætasköpun, was held to honour Ágústa. Guðmundsdóttir was Chair of the Public Relations Committee at the University of Iceland during the period 1990–1993, was a member of the board of the New Venture Capital Fund of Iceland during 2003–2009, a member of the board of Matís ohf, during 2006–2016. Ágústa was the first woman to be appointed Chair of the board of the National and University Library of Iceland during the years 2014–2018.
She has served as Chair of the board of SIL from 2012, from 2016, worked as a scientific advisor to the biotechnology company, Enzymatica AB. Guðmundsdóttir was President of the Rotary Club of Reykjavik during 2015–2016. In 2019, Ágústa was one of ten entrepreneurs and investors to be recruited by the Minister of Industries and Innovation to participate in a think tank, to discuss the matters of innovation and entrepreneurship. Biochemical characterization of a native group III trypsin ZT from Atlantic cod Elucidation of different cold-adapted Atlantic cod trypsin X isoenzymes Potential use of Atlantic cod trypsin in Biomedicine. Gudmundsdóttir, Á. Stefánsson, B. and Bjarnason, J. B.. Trypsin I in Fish. In Neil D. Rawlings and Guy S. Salvesen, Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 3rd ed.. Oxford: Academic Press. Release date December 3. 2012. Sveinsdóttir, H. Gudmundsdóttir, Á. and Vilhelmsson, O.. Proteomics. In S. Nollet and P. Toldrá, Handbook of Seafood and Seafood Products Analysis. CRC Press. Gudmundsdóttir, Á. and Bjarnason, J.