Harrison County, Iowa
Harrison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,928; the county seat is Logan. The county was formed in 1851, it was named for ninth US President William Henry Harrison. Harrison County is included in NE-IA Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 702 square miles, of which 697 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. Interstate 29 U. S. Highway 30 Iowa Highway 37 Iowa Highway 44 Iowa Highway 127 Iowa Highway 183 Iowa Highway 191 Monona County Crawford County Shelby County Pottawattamie County Washington County, Nebraska Burt County, Nebraska DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 census recorded a population of 14,928 in the county, with a population density of 21.4261/sq mi. There were 6,731 housing units, of which 5,987 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,666 people, 6,115 households, 4,304 families residing in the county. The population density was 22 people per square mile.
There were 6,602 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.69% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,115 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 17.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,141, the median income for a family was $44,586. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $21,663 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,662. About 5.00% of families and 7.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.70% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. California Junction River Sioux The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Harrison County.† county seat Harrison County is Republican in presidential elections. Only seven Democratic Party candidates have won the county from 1896 to the present, the most recent of which being Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. Harrison County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Harrison County, Iowa Old Harrison County Courthouse Harrison County website
Sac County, Iowa
Sac County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,350; the county seat is Sac City. Both were named for the Sauk people, Native Americans who controlled this region before the European Americans. In February 2007, in its third annual list of the “Best Places to Live in Rural America”, Progressive Farmer magazine placed Sac County as #7 in the overall rankings. In 2009, the magazine ranked Sac County as the tenth "Best Place" in the Midwest Region. On January 13, 1846, the legislative body of the Indiana Territory authorized creation of twelve counties in the Iowa Territory, with general descriptions of their boundaries; this brought the number of counties in the Iowa Territory to 22. By the end of 1846, the Iowa portion of the Indiana Territory had been accepted into the Union as the State of Iowa. By 1851, the new state had grown to the extent that the original 22 counties needed to be divided into smaller, more accessible units. Accordingly, on January 15, 1851, the Iowa General Assembly enacted an omnibus bill which created 43 new counties by reducing the previous counties.
Sac County was named at that time called the Sac Indians. It took some time for the new organization to function. Sac City was designated the county seat in 1856, construction of the first county courthouse was complete in 1862. By 1873 the burgeoning population had outgrown that structure and a larger building was authorized to replace it; the new courthouse, complete with impressive bell tower, was placed in service in January 1874, was used until 1888 when it burned. To replace that structure, the present courthouse was built, it was remodeled in the 1980s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 578 square miles, of which 575 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. US Highway 20 – runs east–west through the northern part of the county, through Early and north of Sac City. US Highway 71 – from its intersection with US 20, runs south, turns 4 miles east to Auburn continues south into Carroll County. Iowa Highway 39 – from its intersection with Iowa 175 at Odebolt, runs south into Crawford County.
Iowa Highway 110 – from its intersection with US 20, runs north into Buena Vista County. Iowa Highway 175 – enters west side of county at Odebolt, runs east to intersection with US 71, east of Lake View. Buena Vista County – north Calhoun County – east Carroll County – south and southeast Cherokee County – northwest Crawford County – south and southwest Ida County – west Pocahontas County - northeast The 2010 census recorded a population of 10,350 in the county, with a population density of 17.974/sq mi. There were 5,429 housing units, of which 4,482 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 11,529 people, 4,746 households, 3,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 5,460 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.53% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races.
0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,746 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 29.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 22.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,874, the median income for a family was $40,504. Males had a median income of $26,183 versus $19,753 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,902.
About 6.80% of families and 9.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. Three public school districts are based in Sac County: East Sac County School District is the largest school district in Sac County, with the Schaller-Crestland School District serving the northwestern portion of the county and Odebolt-Arthur School District serving the southwest part. Successful completion of the curriculum of these schools leads to graduation from East Sac County High School, OA-BCIG High School, or Ridge View High School respectively. Only ESC HS is located with OA-BCIG HS in Ida Grove and Ridge View in Holstein. Residents outside the three Sac County-based districts are within either the South Central Calhoun School District in areas around Lytton. A small part of northwestern Sac County is within the Galva-Holstein School District, which shares Ridge View High School with Schaller-Crestland SD. Sac County is a rich area for geocaching.
The county was "put on the map" when geocachers hid a series of caches a mile wide and 8 miles high to spell "SAC" along rural roads between Sac City and Lytton in August 2011. The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Sac County.† county seat Sac County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Sac County, Iowa Sac County government's website
U.S. Route 59
U. S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway. A latecomer to the U. S. numbered route system, US 59 is now a border-to-border route, part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U. S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than 100 miles away, until it veers southwest in Houston, Texas, its number is out of place since US 59 is either concurrent with or west of U. S. Route 71; the highway's northern terminus is nine miles north of Lancaster, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 59. Its southern terminus is at the Mexico–US border in Laredo, where it continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85D. U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. Senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway, one of the busiest sections of freeway in the United States with a vehicle count, as of 2006, over 330,000 vehicles per day just outside the Loop.
US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90% of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75 mph speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. From the southwestern suburbs of Houston to Downtown Houston, U. S. 59 is referred to as the "Southwest Freeway," sometimes derisively as the "Southwest's Best Freeway." Supporting 371,000 vehicles per day, it is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. U. S. 59 is known as the "Eastex Freeway" in the north/northeast part of the Houston region. At the Mexico -- US border, it ends at the World Trade International Bridge in Texas. In Laredo, U. S. 59 is co-signed with both Interstate 69W and Loop 20 and has an intersection with Interstate 35 which ends at the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge.
After crossing the bridge into Mexico, Interstate 35 continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85 in Nuevo Laredo which runs through Mexico and Central America and ends in Panama at the Panama Canal. In Arkansas, US 59 is concurrent with U. S. Route 71 from Interstate 30 at Texarkana to Acorn, with U. S. Route 270 from Acorn to the Oklahoma state line; the Third Loop was to be Extended on Interstate 49 from its original northern end to US-71 at the Texas state line opened on May 15, 2013 and was extended to State Line Road, where it intersects US-59 and US-71 in Texas. US 59 and U. S. Route 412 are co-signed for 10 miles in Oklahoma. US 59 is co-signed with U. S. Route 270 from the Arkansas State Line to Heavener and U. S. Route 271 from Poteau to west of Spiro, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 64 in Sallisaw. U. S. 59 runs nearly directly north across the state. U. S. 59 runs concurrently with U. S. 169 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges north again south of Garnett. The intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with stop and yield signs.
It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006. The Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety; until 2012 US 59 passed through Ottawa and had to be shut down or detoured every time the Marias Des Cygnes floodwall gates were closed across the highway. The highway now bypasses around Ottawa, running concurrently with Interstate 35 for five miles and utilizing that highway's bridges over the Marias Des Cygnes. US 59 passes through Lawrence; the street name of US 59 in Lawrence is Iowa Street 6th Street as it joins U. S. 40 and jogs east to cross the Kansas River near downtown. North of the U. S. 40 and 59 Bridges, it splits with U. S. 40 as it joins U. S. 24 and jogs back west before resuming a northerly course. It continues north to Nortonville northeast to Atchison, where it crosses the Missouri River over the Amelia Earhart Bridge. U. S. 59 has been rebuilt and rerouted just to the east between Lawrence and Ottawa as a divided highway, as the former road was one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in the state.
The project began in mid 2007 and was completed and opened to the public on October 17, 2012. In Missouri, US 59 follows the Missouri River in the northwest corner of the state, from its entrance at Winthrop. In Saint Joseph the highway is paired with Interstate 229 through downtown. US 59 departs from I-229 as Saint Joseph Avenue, joining with U. S. Route 71 at Interstate 29; the two highways separate in Savannah. US 59 follows Interstate 29 closely until turning northward at Craig, it exits the state 10 miles north of Tarkio. This section of US 59 is immortalized in the Brewer and Shipley song "Tarkio Road". In Iowa, US 59 is a main north–south artery in the western part of the state, it junctions Interstate 80 at Avoca. It passes through the county seats of Harlan, Denison and Primghar. Except for small stretches of expressway near Avoca and Holstein, the entire length of US 59 in Iowa is an undivided two-lane road. US 59 exits the state near Hawkeye Point, the highest p
Crawford County Courthouse (Iowa)
The Crawford County Courthouse is in Denison, United States, the county seat of Crawford County. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981; the courthouse is the second building the county has used for court functions and county administration. J. W. Denison, a Baptist minister, owned 200,000 acres in Crawford counties, he offered to build a courthouse and store if the site was named the county seat. His offer was accepted and the place was called Denison; the first courthouse was a clay structure completed in 1859. In addition to its use as a courthouse, the building functioned as a lecture hall, church auditorium, banquet hall, Sunday school, it was used for dancing once before protests put an end to other festive usages. The first Crawford County Fair was held on the courthouse property in October 1860. A frame addition was built, it was considered unsightly, it became known as "the wart." The building was added onto again in 1881. A $75,000 bond issue was passed in 1902 to build a new courthouse.
Another bond issue was needed to spend an additional $40,000. The present courthouse was completed for about $115,000 in 1905, it was designed by Nebraska architect George A. Berlinghof in the Beaux-Arts style; the exterior is covered with blocks of Ohio marble. It had a dome that became to heavy for the structure and it was removed around 1945; the old courthouse had been moved across the street. It was used for a variety of commercial enterprises in subsequent years. List of Iowa county courthouses
William H. Crawford
William Harris Crawford was an American politician and judge during the early 19th century. He served as United States Secretary of War and United States Secretary of the Treasury before running for president in the 1824 election. Born in Virginia, Crawford moved to Georgia at a young age. After studying law, Crawford won election to the Georgia House of Representatives in 1803, he aligned with the Democratic-Republican Party and U. S. Senator James Jackson. In 1807, the Georgia legislature elected Crawford to the United States Senate. After the death of Vice President George Clinton, Crawford's position as president pro tempore of the Senate made him first in the presidential line of succession from April 1812 to March 1813. In 1813, President James Madison appointed Crawford as the U. S. minister to France, Crawford held that post for the remainder of the War of 1812. After the war, Madison appointed him to the position of Secretary of War. In October 1816, Madison chose Crawford for the position of Secretary of the Treasury, Crawford would remain in that office for the remainder of Madison's presidency and for the duration of James Monroe's presidency.
Crawford suffered a severe stroke in 1823, but nonetheless sought to succeed Monroe in the 1824 election. The Democratic-Republican Party splintered into factions as several others sought the presidency. No candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, so the United States House of Representatives chose the president in a contingent election. Under the terms of the Constitution, the House selected from the three candidates who received the most electoral votes, leaving Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Crawford in the running; the House selected Adams. Refusing Adams's offer, Crawford accepted appointment to the Georgia state superior court, he considered running in the 1832 presidential election, either for the presidency or the vice presidency, but chose not to run. Crawford was born on February 24, 1772 in the portion of Amherst County, Virginia that became Nelson County, the son of Joel Crawford and Fanny Harris, but at least one source has given his birthplace as Tusculum, a house whose site remains in Amherst County.
He moved with his family to Edgefield County, South Carolina in 1779 and to Columbia County, Georgia in 1783. Crawford was educated at Richmond Academy in Augusta. After his father's death, Crawford became the family's main financial provider, he worked on the Crawford family farm and taught school, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1799 and began to practice in Lexington. In 1799, Crawford was appointed by the state legislature to prepare a digest of Georgia's statutes, he influenced Georgia politics for decades. In 1803, Crawford was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, he served until 1807, he allied himself with Senator James Jackson. Their enemies were the Clarkites, led by John Clark. In 1802, he killed Peter Lawrence Van Alen, a Clark ally, in a duel. Four years on December 16, 1806, Crawford faced Clark himself in a duel, Crawford's left wrist was shattered by a shot from Clark, but he recovered. In 1807, Crawford joined the 10th United States Congress as the junior U.
S. Senator from Georgia when the Georgia legislature elected him to replace George Jones, who had held the office for a few months after the death of Abraham Baldwin. Crawford was elected President pro tempore of the Senate in March 1812, following the April 20, 1812 death of Vice President George Clinton, served as the permanent presiding officer of the United States Senate through March 4, 1813. In 1811, Crawford declined to serve as Secretary of War in the Madison administration. In the Senate, he voted for several acts leading up to the War of 1812, he supported the entry into the war, but he was ready for peace: "Let it be the wisdom of this nation to remain at peace, as long as peace is within its option." In 1813, President James Madison appointed Crawford as the US minister to France during the waning years of the First French Empire. Upon Crawford's return, Madison appointed him as Secretary of War. After more than a year of satisfactory service in that post and after disclaiming interest in the 1816 presidential race as the Democratic-Republican nomination, Crawford moved within the Cabinet to become Secretary of the Treasury.
He remained in that position through the rest of Madison's term and James Monroe's entire administration, which ended in 1825. Crawford was again a leading candidate for the Democratic-Republican presidential nomination in the 1824 election. However, Crawford was put out of the running due to a paralyzing stroke he had suffered in 1823 as a result of a prescription given to him by his physician; the Democratic-Republican Party was now split, one of the splinter groups nominated Crawford. Despite Crawford's improved health, he finished third in the electoral vote, behind Battle of New Orleans hero Andrew Jackson and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, he thus was still in the nominal running when the Presidential election ended up in the House of Representatives because the Twelfth Amendment allows the House to choose one of the top three candidates. His stroke ended. Refusing Adams's request for him to remain at the Treasury, Crawford returned to Georgia, where he was appointed as a state superior court judge.
Crawford remained an active judge until his death, a decade later. Crawford was nominated for vice president by
United States Secretary of the Treasury
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with financial and monetary matters, until 2003 included several federal law enforcement agencies. This position in the federal government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries; the Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet, is nominated by the President of the United States. Nominees for Secretary of the Treasury undergo a confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Finance before being voted on by the United States Senate; the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The Secretary of the Treasury is a non-statutory member of the U. S. National Security Council and fifth in the United States presidential line of succession; the Secretary of the Treasury is the principal economic advisor to the President and plays a critical role in policy-making by bringing an economic and government financial policy perspective to issues facing the government.
The Secretary is responsible for formulating and recommending domestic and international financial and tax policy, participating in the formulation of broad fiscal policies that have general significance for the economy, managing the public debt. The Secretary oversees the activities of the Department in carrying out its major law enforcement responsibilities; the Chief Financial Officer of the government, the Secretary serves as Chairman Pro Tempore of the President's Economic Policy Council, Chairman of the Boards and Managing Trustee of the Social Security and Medicare Trust Funds, as U. S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Secretary along with the Treasurer of the United States must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. The Secretary manages the United States Emergency Economic Stabilization fund.
Most of the Department's law enforcement agencies such as the U. S. Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the U. S. Secret Service were reassigned to other departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security; the salary of the Secretary of the Treasury is $205,700 annually. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status 1 William Jones served as acting secretary between the resignation of Alexander J. Dallas and appointment of William H. Crawford. 2 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury M. Peter McPherson served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from August 17, 1988, to September 15, 1988. 3 Because of the resignation of Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Roger Altman in August 1994, Under Secretary of Treasury for Domestic Finance Frank N. Newman served from December 22, 1994, to January 11, 1995 as Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 4 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Kenneth W. Dam served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from December 31, 2002, to February 3, 2003.
5 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Robert M. Kimmitt served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from June 30, 2006, to July 9, 2006. 6 Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Stuart A. Levey served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2009, until the confirmation of Timothy Geithner, which occurred January 26, 2009. 7 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Neal Wolin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 25, 2013, until the confirmation of Jack Lew which occurred February 28, 2013. 8 Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Adam J. Szubin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2017, until the confirmation of Steven Mnuchin which occurred February 13, 2017. If both the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury are unable to carry out the duties of the office of Secretary of the Treasury whichever Treasury official of Under Secretary rank sworn in earliest assumes the role of Acting Secretary. Positions listed on the Department of the Treasury website include the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance, the Under Secretary for International Affairs, the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence.
As of April 2019, there are eleven living former Secretaries of the Treasury, the oldest being George P. Shultz; the most recent Secretary of the Treasury to die, as well as the most serving Secretary to die, was Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr. on May 23, 2006. "Secretaries of the Treasury". History of the Treasury. United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved April 9, 2006. Official website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol