click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Crawford County, Michigan

Crawford County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,074; the county seat is Grayling. The county is named for Col. William Crawford, a Revolutionary War soldier killed in 1782 while fighting Native Americans in Ohio, it was created by the Michigan Legislature in 1840 as Shawono County renamed Crawford County in 1843. The county was administered by a succession of other Michigan counties prior to the organization of county government in 1879. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 563 square miles, of which 556 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. The county is part of Northern Michigan; the County is part of the Au Sable State Forest the Grayling FMU. Glaciers shaped the area. A large portion of the area is the so-called Grayling outwash plain, which consists of broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges. Large lakes were created by glacial action. Huron National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 14,273 people, 5,625 households, 4,038 families residing in the county.

The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 10,042 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.38% White, 1.50% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races. 0.99 % of the population were Latino of any race. 24.8% were of German, 12.5% English, 10.1% American, 8.9% Irish, 7.4% Polish and 5.9% French ancestry. 97.7 % spoke 1.5 % Spanish as their first language. There were 5,625 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 26.60% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 104.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,364, the median income for a family was $37,056. Males had a median income of $31,504 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,903. About 10.00% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.

Prosecuting Attorney: Sierra Koch Sheriff: Shawn M Kraycs County Clerk/Register of Deeds: Sandra M. Moore County Treasurer: Kate Wagner Grayling Grayling Charter Township Beaver Creek Township Frederic Township Grayling Township Lovells Township Maple Forest Township South Branch Township There are six recognized Michigan historical markers in the county: Beginning of State Reforestation Chief Shoppenagon / Shoppenagon's Homesite The Douglas House / Thomas E. Douglas Michigan Grayling Officer's Club 32nd Red Arrow Division List of counties in Michigan List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Crawford County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Michigan "Bibliography on Crawford County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013. Crawford County government Enchanted forest, Northern Michigan source for information, etc

Heckington Windmill

Heckington Windmill is the only eight-sailed tower windmill still standing in the United Kingdom with its sails intact. Heckington is located between Boston in Lincolnshire, England; the mill stands close to Heckington railway station, hence its name of the Station Mill in the 19th century. The windmill is designated a Grade I listed building, it was built in 1830 to plans by millwright Edward Ingledew for her first owner and founder Michael Hare of red brick, the outer walls being tarred, as a five-sailed windmill with Sutton's single patent sails providing longitudinal shutters on both sides of the backs. The mill has six storeys called "floors": ground floor, meal floor, stone floor, lower bin floor, upper bin floor, dust or cap floor. At first the five-armed sail-cross drove three pairs of stones and milled grain for a 60-year period of time, but Hare died before April 1834, the mill owner's widow, Ann Hare, was left with a young son, she remarried a local miller Sleightholme Nash around 1836.

The mill passed to Joseph Nash who became its last miller before its defunction in 1890. A tail-wind made the sails run backwards after the destruction of the fantail by lightning leaving the cap rotating uncontrolled, blew off the entire cap with the curb smashing it with parts of the upper gear and all the five sails to pieces, destroyed the tower rim. Nash abandoned the wrecked mill. In 1891 John Pocklington of Wyberton mill had bought the eight-sailed mill cap with gear of the 78-year-old defunct Tuxford's mill for just £72 at auction in Boston without any plans; as a condition of the deal, he had to remove all the machinery from the mill site. So he was in an urgent need for a suitable mill stump to mount the cap on, as he had no place to put his new acquisition, he bought the wrecked Heckington mill, from 1891 until early 1892, he fitted the white onion-shaped and fantail-driven Tuxford's Mill cap to the Heckington Mill and set it working for the following 54 years. On he installed a large circular saw-mill in a shed on one side driven by wind-power using line-shafts.

It was used to make elm boards for coffins. John Pocklington was successful in milling, building and farming. In that time and up to today the mill was called the Pocklington's Mill. After Pocklington's death in 1941 the mill stopped working in 1946 for the next 40 years; the shutters were removed from the sails. In 1953 the mill came into the hands of Kesteven County Council who made the first restorations preventing the fine old mill from being dismantled and restoring it as a rare landmark. Only four of the eight sails could be installed; the mill changed hands to Lincolnshire County Council and in 1986 the mill was restored to working order the sail-tips are linked together by steel rods or cables to prevent sagging in the sails, a unnecessary work with this kind of mill sails. Parts of the bigger timber wheels have iron teeth instead of wooden ones. Among the six floors the third one being the lower of the two bin floors provides two grain cleaners-a modern one driven by an electric motor and the other an old wind-driven separator.

On the second floor, the stone and stage floor, there are the original three pairs of stones and a drive down to the first floor with a fourth pair of stones. On the ground floor a fifth pair of stones was installed which could be driven by wind if desired or rather by engine; the mill houses a mixer in addition an elevator from the ground floor. Due to its large sail area supplied by its eight sails and its well-winded site the mill is able to drive four pairs of millstones - now 2 pairs of French stones and 2 pairs of so-called Peak stones and is able to work in light breezes, when other local mills don't. An additional dresser is used to make white flour from time to time. Now the distinctive eight-sails windmill is run by the Heckington Mill Trust and was reopened in 1986. In 2004 the mill underwent a larger restoration and in 2014 the sails were replaced; the mill is open to visitors: Open Easter to mid July Saturday and Bank Holidays 12 noon - 5 pm. Open mid July to mid September daily, 12 noon - 5 pm.

Open weekends mid September to end of October 12 pm - 4 pm November to Easter open Sunday, 1 pm - 4 pm. Heckington Windmill is the last one of around 12 eight-sailed windmills in all England and four in Lincolnshire including: Skirbeck Mill, Lincolnshire Barrington Mill, Lincolnshire Preston Place Mill, Sussex Old Buckenham tower windmill, still standing as a

Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations

Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations refer to the existing bilateral relationship and interactions between these two countries. These relations include diplomatic, cultural and other related areas; the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a diplomatic relationship since February 24, 1992. Indeed, the Kingdom was among the first countries that recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on December 30, 1991. Additionally, Azerbaijan has its Embassy in Riyadh and the Saudi Arabia Embassy operates in Baku since June, 1999. Heydar Aliyev’s visit to Saudi Arabia in 1994 was considered as a first milestone that enabled further relationships possible; as a result of the visit, the General Agreement on the economy, investment, culture and so on was signed. The common Islamic heritage facilitates and strengthens the existing ties between Saudi Arabia and Azerbaijan; as an indicator, every year the Azerbaijani religious people visit holy places of Islam which are located in Saudi Arabia.

To develop cultural bonds further, Azerbaijani Culture Days held on 10–17 November 2007 in Riyadh, as well as in the cities of Jeddah and Dammam. The Days of Culture of Saudi Arabia took place on 17–21 June 2008 in Baku. Saudi Arabia provided humanitarian assistance to Azerbaijan between 1994 and 1999 to overcome the huge refugee crisis as a result of the NK conflict; the program was led by King Fahd, aimed to help refugees and IDPs and by providing them with daily necessities such as food, medicine and so on. As a part of the program some disabled people of the NK conflict were treated in Saudi Arabia in 1999. In 2002,the "Saudi Fund for Development" provided a loan worth of 35.7 million riyals to the Government of Azerbaijan for construction of secondary schools in Baku city. Furthermore, in 2005, the Saudi government donated 50,000 dollars to the Azerbaijani side for demining and restoration of the liberated parts of the country. There are around four companies of Saudi Arabia operating in various fields in Azerbaijan.

In 2015, according to a joint agreement "Memorandum of understanding", it was aimed to carry out a long-term project in the Kingdom energy field between the State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic and the Saudi company “Soroof International”. The held business forms between these countries help them to analyze the economic capabilities of each other and to build their economic activities on that basis; the 2nd Azerbaijan-Saudi Arabian Business Forum is one those forms that brought together more than 300 businessmen from both countries that investigated their relative capabilities in agriculture, construction, finance, ICT, tourism, consulting and healthcare. Furthermore, in accordance with Article VII of the "General Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Economic, Investment, Cultural and Youth between the Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" signed on July 10, 1994 in Jeddah, there have been held several meetings of Azerbaijan-Saudi Arabia Joint Commission on Cooperation (for instance, in Riyadh on February 14–15, 2004 and in Baku on March 3, 2019.

In general, there are 14 agreements between Azerbaijan and Saudi Arabia for developing the existing economic relations further. It is estimated that there will be additional 8 new agreements in the fields of political and cultural. Saudi Arabian companies have 370 million USD investment in Azerbaijan and there are about 26 Saudi Arabia companies for carrying out transactions between the two nations; the Saudi Development Fund participated in the construction of local infrastructure including channel and road, construction water supply, sewerage systems, etc. At the beginning of 2019, Agency for the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises under the Ministry of Economy of Azerbaijan and Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority signed an agreement that aimed to find further opportunities for investment. According to the statistics of the State Customs Committee of Azerbaijan, the total transactions between the mentioned nations was worth to 30.9 million AZN. Azerbaijani side in these transactions had a current account deficit as 24.3 million out of total trade turnover was made due to the imports of Azerbaijan.

Moreover, investing in the energy sector of Azerbaijan together with agriculture, transport is a priority for Saudi Arabia. Foreign relations of Azerbaijan. Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia

COMDEX

COMDEX was a computer expo trade show held in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada, USA, each November from 1979 to 2003. It was one of the largest computer trade shows in the world second only to the German CeBIT, one of the largest trade shows in any industry sector. COMDEX exhibitions were held in many other countries with 185 shows altogether; the first COMDEX was held in 1979 with 167 exhibitors and 3904 attendees. In 1981, the first COMDEX/Spring was held in New York City. COMDEX was started by The Interface Group, whose organizers included Sheldon Adelson, Robert Lively and Richard Katzeff. In 1995, they sold the show to the Japanese technology conglomerate Softbank Corp. In 2001, Softbank sold the show to a spin-off of Ziff Davis. After entering Chapter 11 bankruptcy in February 2003, Key3Media resurfaced as Medialive International with a cash infusion from Thomas Weisel Capital Partners, which had invested in the company. In November 2006, Forbes magazine reported that United Business Media PLC had purchased the events assets of MediaLive International Inc.

COMDEX was restricted to those directly involved in the computer industry. It was the one show where all levels of manufacturers and developers of computers, software and accessories met with distributors, retailers and their competitors. Colloquially known as "Geek Week", COMDEX evolved into a major technical convention, with the industry making major product announcements and releases there. Numerous small companies from around the world rose to prominence following appearance at COMDEX, industry leaders sought opportunities to make keynote addresses, they discussed the computer industry, history and future potential. The first COMDEX Conference, attracted 4000 paying attendees and grew to over 100,000, becoming a launch platform for key technologies. Bluetooth and USB had conference programming and associated exhibition floor pavilions to help these technologies and start up companies be seen in such a large event and marketplace. In 1999, Linus Torvalds attended the exhibition to talk about the Linux family of operating system.

A Linux conference and exhibition hall was a co-located event, helping elevate the open source products. In the late 1980s, COMDEX was opened to the general public, causing an explosion in attendance, but diluting COMDEX's wholesale industry focus. Retailers and consultants complained that'leading edge' customers, upon whom they relied for early adoption of new technology, were buying products at'show specials' and expecting the dealers to support those products.. The broadening of audience criteria came about as IT departments decentralized and purchasing of technology products shifted from a central corporate IT budget to departments and company divisions, mirroring the shift from mainframes to decentralized networks and local area networking, the Internet as the corporate backbone. After the Spring 1981 show in New York City and 1982 in Atlantic City, COMDEX began regular spring shows in Atlanta, Georgia from 1983 through 1988. Alternated sites between Atlanta and Chicago; the final Atlanta Spring COMDEX was held in 1997.

The first COMDEX show outside the US was held in Amsterdam 1982. In the record years 1998 and 2000, 21 exhibitions were arranged yearly all over the World: Europe, Africa and other parts of America. 69% of the 185 shows took place outside the US. When the US shows were cancelled, they kept on for short time, e.g. Gothenburg and São Paulo 2004 and the last in Athens in November 2005; the decline occurred globally: the 2000 show in Basel with 1400 exhibitors drew 79000 attendees, but 2001 17% less. Following COMDEX Fall 1999, organizers made major changes to their criteria for admission of mass media, adjusting criteria to accommodate bloggers with significant market reach, but restricting simple and open access to anyone declaring themselves'media', it offered regular public attendance for the general public. In 2000, major companies such as IBM, Compaq decided to discontinue their involvement with COMDEX to allocate resources more efficiently through their own corporate events or other direct-to-consumer selling, the dot-com bubble caused a decline on the IT market.

To reduce costs following the market downturns after the 9/11 attacks many would-be exhibitors stopped renting out or scaled back official COMDEX booths on the convention center floors, set up invitation-only suites in various Las Vegas hotels. This allowed exhibitors to concentrate their efforts on industry attendees rather than the general public. COMDEX/Fall 2001 organizers at Los Angeles-based Key3Media Group Inc. said they expected attendance to fall from the previous year's 200,000 to 150,000. They expected the number of exhibitors to decline from 2,350 to 2,000 and the square footage of exhibitor space to slide from just over 1 million to 750,000; the last Las Vegas show in November 2003 attracted 40,000 visitors. In June 2004, COMDEX cancelled the 2004 exhibition in Las Vegas making the Consumer Electronics Show its replacement in Las Vegas. By 2004 the personal computer had become a commodity item priced at levels individual departments and consumers overall could buy without needing much corporate oversight, so "computers" became just one of many products in the consumer electronics channels and the Consumer Electronics Show.

A COMDEX event was designed to exist only on the internet without a physical meeting location. It was announced to com

Astraea

Astraea, Astrea or Astria, in ancient Greek religion, is a daughter of Astraeus and Eos. She is the virgin goddess of justice, innocence and precision, she is associated with the Greek goddess of justice, Dike. She is not to be confused with Asteria, the goddess of the stars and the daughter of Coeus and Phoebe; the main belt asteroid. Astraea, the celestial virgin, was the last of the immortals to live with humans during the Golden Age, one of the old Greek religion's five deteriorating Ages of Man. According to Ovid, Astraea abandoned the earth during the Iron Age. Fleeing from the new wickedness of humanity, she ascended to heaven to become the constellation Virgo; the nearby constellation Libra reflected her symbolic association with Dike, who in Latin culture as Justitia is said to preside over the constellation. In the Tarot, the 8th card, with a figure of Justitia, can thus be considered related to the figure of Astraea on historical iconographic grounds. According to legend, Astraea will one day come back to Earth, bringing with her the return of the utopian Golden Age of which she was the ambassador.

Astraea's hoped-for return was referred to in a phrase from Virgil's Eclogue IV: "Iam redit et virgo, redeunt Saturnia Regna". During the European Renaissance, Astraea became associated with the general spirit of renewal of culture occurring at that time in England, where she became poetically identified in literature with the figure of Queen Elizabeth I as the virgin Queen reigning over a new Golden Age. In Spain, she was identified with the rule of Philip IV; the French author Honore D'Urfe wrote a popular serial novel called L'Astree, the first and second parts being published in 1607 and 1610 and each installment much anticipated by the aristocratic public at the time. Rousseau in his Confessions notes it as one of the novels read with his father and says it "was the one that recurred most to my mind". A spectacle play by the Count of Villamediana and thirteen dramas by Calderon de la Barca introduce a character named Astraea to highlight the political and astrological concerns. In Russia, Astraea was identified first with Elizabeth with Catherine the Great.

The English epic poet Edmund Spenser further embellished this myth at the opening of Book V of The Faerie Queene, where he claims that Astraea left behind "her groome | An yron man" called Talus. Shakespeare refers to Astraea in Titus Andronicus, in Henry VI, Part 1. In his most famous play, La vida es sueño, Calderon de la Barca has a character named Rosaura take on the name of Astraea at Court; this may be a laudatory political allusion to the dawn of a new Golden Age under Philip IV/Segismundo. John Dryden's poem Astraea Redux is titled so as to compare the return of Charles II to England at the end of Interregnum to the return of Astraea. Astraea is referenced in John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost, in Book IV between lines 990 and 1000; when Satan is discovered in the Garden of Eden and brought before the Angel Gabriel, the two are on the verge of war. The British writer Aphra Behn used "Astrea" as one of her code-names while working as a spy for King Charles II, she subsequently used the name "Astrea" to identify the speaker in many of her poems, was herself referred to as "The Incomparable Astrea".

The goddess's return forms the framing device of Delarivier Manley's 1709 satire The New Atalantis. Astrea is the one of the three allegorical female narrators. James Thornhill depicted Astraea in the painted Hall of the Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich, in a mural portraying the accession of the House of Hanover as the return of the Golden Age. "Astræa" is the title of a poem by Ralph Waldo Emerson. In Book 2 of Robert Browning's The Ring and the Book there is the following reference: There’s an end to all hope of justice more. Astraea's gone indeed, let hope go too! Who is it dares impugn the natural law? Deny God’s word "the faithless wife shall die?" Lady Justice Themis Dike Adikia Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena translated by G. R. Mair. Loeb Classical Library Volume 129. London: William Heinemann, 1921. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena. G. R. Mair. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1921. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Astronomica from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant.

University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Publius Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses translated by Brookes More. Boston, Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Publius Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses. Hugo Magnus. Gotha. Friedr. Andr. Perthes. 1892. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library

Berardo dei Marsi

Blessed Berardo dei Marsi was a Roman Catholic Italian cardinal. He was proclaimed Blessed in 1802 as he was deemed to be holy and that miracles were performed through his intercession. Berardo dei Marsi was born in 1079 to Theodosia, he was the great-uncle of Saint Rosalia. As a child he studied with the canons of the cathedral of Santa Sabina dei Marsi and studied at Monte Cassino from 1095 to 1102, he became the governor of Campagna after Pope Paschal II appointed him to that position. He served as an administrator to Campagna at the behest of the pope; the pope elevated him to the cardinalate in 1099 as a Cardinal-Deacon and he opted for the order of Cardinal-Priest sometime after. He was appointed as the Bishop of Marsi in 1113 and he proved to be a reformer in his diocese, he pushed for the idea of clerical celibacy. He predicted he would die on this day, he gave all his possessions to the poor in his will. He was buried in the cathedral of Santa Sabina and his relics were moved to Santa Maria delle Grazie in 1631.

On account of miracles attributed to him and to his personal holiness, Pope Pius VII beatified him on 10 May 1802 and proclaimed him to be the patron of his diocese. Saints SQPN