A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Steelville is a city in Crawford County, United States. The population was 1,642 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Crawford County. Steelville is the hometown of Congressman Albert Reeves and Missouri State Representative Jason Chipman; the town was named after landowner James Steel. Prior to the 1800s, the first people to live in the Steelville area were groups tied to the Osage; these peoples were driven west into. In the 1830s, the Trail of Tears, a government sponsored forced march of the largest groups of the southeastern United States, passed through Steelville, with people from the Choctaw and Cherokee tribes, they came from Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee and were forced to relocate to Oklahoma and the West. It is believed that they stopped in Steelville around the spring to rest, bury their dead, get supplies; the first settlers in Steelville were William Britton, who built a small grist mill along the Yadkin Creek, James Steel, who operated a trading post and was appointed by the government as Commissioner to lay out the city in 1835–the year in which Steelville was founded.
Britton remained in the area. Steel, according to census, moved northward to continue his interest in mining. James Steel purchased 40 acres of land from the government, which he sold to the “County Court” on December 16, 1835 for $50. By this time a little settlement had sprung up. Crawford County Court named the town Steelville as the County Seat; the deed was recorded on December 18, 1835, the town was platted, the first deeds to lots were sold for $12 each. The town was incorporated as a city of the fourth class in 1885. At this time, there were 500 inhabitants; the Lebanon Lodge, was chartered on October 14, 1846. The first tailor, Mr. Vanburg, came in town in 1844; the first hotel was owned by James Davis. In 1847, A. W. Johnson opened a blacksmith shop. Andrew Jackson opened the first Post Office. Doctor Dunlap was the first doctor, in 1838, J. H. Johnson opened the first saddle and harness shop; the Steelville Normal Business Institute was at Vichy. It was moved to Steelville with the help of John T.
Woodruff of Springfield and Professor Hayes and opened during the latter part of 1890. The first Newspaper of Steelville, Steelville Crawford Missouri, was established on May 4, 1874, by Thomas Roberts; the paper was a Republican paper. The Steelville Bank began operations in October, 1884, under the direction of President G. W. Matlock; this was constructed of brick and was strong by the standards of that time. The bank was named Crawford County Farmers Bank. In 1925, bank robbers made an attempt to rob the bank. Most of the robbers were killed. Robbers included age 21, from Mitchell, Illinois. McCellan was died after being examined. Albert Walters, age 20, from Granite City, was the driver of the getaway car and was shot; the youngest, Leslie Reiter, age 16, from Madison, was sent to jail. One robber was dead, two were wounded, one was taken prisoner, a fifth escaped, he was never identified. The sheriff at the time was Mr. Enke. There was only one citizen wounded – A. D. Schwieder –, walking out of the adjoining store and was shot in the leg after a shoot out with one of the robbers, whom he killed.
The Big Bend Rural School and Snelson-Brinker House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Steelville is located at 37°58′7″N 91°21′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.42 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,642 people, 638 households, 345 families residing in the city; the population density was 678.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 753 housing units at an average density of 311.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.10% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.55% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.77% of the population. There were 638 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.9% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 24.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,429 people, 616 households, 349 families residing in the city; the population density was 548.8 people per square mile. There were 724 housing units at an average density of 278.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.09% White, 0.14% Native American, 0.42% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.07% of the population. There were 616 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.3% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under
Mark Twain National Forest
Mark Twain National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in the southern half of Missouri. MTNF was established on September 11, 1939, it is named for a Missouri native. The MTNF covers 3,068,800 acres of which 1,506,100 acres is public owned, 78,000 acres of which are Wilderness, National Scenic River area. MTNF represents 11 % of all forested land in Missouri. MTNF is divided into six distinct ranger districts: Ava-Cassville-Willow Springs, Eleven Point, Houston-Rolla, Cedar Creek, Poplar Bluff, Potosi-Fredericktown, the Salem; the six ranger districts comprise nine overall unique tracts of forests. Its headquarters are in Missouri; some unique features of the Mark Twain include Greer Spring, the largest spring on National Forest land and part of the Eleven Point National Scenic River, pumps an average of 214 million gallons of water per day into the river. The public can visit the Glade Top Trail National Scenic Byway, which offers views of over 30 miles to the Boston Mountains in Arkansas.
The 350-mile Ozark Trail system winds through much of the National Forest. The Mark Twain National Forest, as we know it today, was created on February 17, 1976; the Mark Twain National forest has a rather unusual history – for it was once known as both the Clark National Forest and the Mark Twain National Forest – both being proclaimed on September 11, 1939. In June 1973 the Clark and Mark Twain NF were brought under one headquarters in Rolla and became known as the National forests in Missouri. On Feb. 17, 1976, the forests were renamed the Mark Twain National Forest. Missouri’s only national forest, The Mark Twain, encompasses 1.5 million acres within the Ozark Highlands. Located across southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, the Ozark Highlands are an ancient landscape characterized by large permanent springs, over 5,000 caves, rocky barren glades, old volcanic mountains and nationally recognized streams. Portions of the Ozarks were the areas glaciated. In the 1870s, citizens of southern Missouri began an era of extensive logging of the state's native oak and pine forests.
Lumber mills were commonplace, but by the 1920s they had disappeared, along with much of the state's native forests. Thus, in 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the MTNF into existence. In March 1933, he created the Emergency Conservation Work Act, better known as the Civilian Conservation Corps. In the area that would become Mark Twain National Forest, hundreds of young men at over fifty CCC sites worked at building roads and planting hundreds of acres of pine to preserve and enhance the natural resources of southern Missouri. Many of their contributions can still be visited and enjoyed today including the Rolla Ranger Station Historic District and Winona Ranger Station Historic District. Although it is far from being the largest National Forest in acreage, Mark Twain National Forest is located in more counties than any other; as of September 30, 2007, its 1,490,862 acres were spread over parts of 29 counties in southern and central Missouri. "Mark Twain National Forest". USDA Forest Service.
Retrieved February 6, 2006
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Franklin County, Missouri
Franklin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,492, its county seat is Union. The county is named after Founding Father Benjamin Franklin. Franklin County is part of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area and contains many of the city's exurbs, it is located along the south side of the Missouri River. The county has wineries that are included in the Hermann AVA and is part of the region known as the Missouri Rhineland, which extends on both sides of the Missouri River. Occupied by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples, this area was populated by the historic Osage tribe at the time of European encounter; the region was first settled by Europeans during the rule of the Spanish Empire. The Spanish log fort San Juan del Misuri was built in present-day Washington. After the American Revolutionary War, migrants from the new United States started moving West. Among them were the family and followers of Daniel Boone, an explorer from Kentucky who settled the area starting in 1799.
For the next two decades, most settlers came from the Upper South Kentucky and Virginia, bringing their slaves with them to work the land. In 1833 substantial numbers of German immigrant families began settling in the area, soon they outnumbered the slave owners in the county; the German newcomers were opposed to slavery, their sons would become Union supporters during the U. S. Civil War. Former governor and Confederate General Sterling Price led his cavalry though the county during his Missouri raid of 1864. Before the war Franklin County had served by steamboats that moved freight and passenger traffic on the Missouri River. Afterwards, it became a railroad transportation center. Manufacturing industries were established at the end of the Civil War and successive ones have continued. Bias Vineyard, near the small city of Berger, is located within the Hermann American Viticultural Area, designated in 1983. Röbller Vineyard and Winery near New Haven is in the Hermann AVA. Wineries along both sides of the Missouri River are part of the Missouri Rhineland, whose vineyards were started by German immigrants in the mid-19th century.
Before Prohibition, Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state in the nation. Everything was closed down except for limited production of wine allowed for religious purposes; the state's wine industry had to be rebuilt, taking place since the 1960s. The rural county has had severe problems with local production and consumption of methamphetamine; the struggles of the county with adverse effects of the drug, was explored in a 2005 A&E documentary entitled Meth: A County in Crisis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 931 square miles, of which 923 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It third-largest by total area; the center of the Missouri River forms the nominal northern border of the county, although the river has changed its course since boundaries were first established: a portion of St. Charles County near St. Albans is now south of the river, while a portion of Franklin County near Augusta is north of the river; the Bourbeuse River flows for 107 miles through the county.
It cuts a deep, narrow valley and is crooked. It empties into the Meramec River near Union; this river is undeveloped, with limited access and few bridges over it. During low water, a number of fords allow crossing; the county is located in the Ozarks region, with steep hills and deep valleys, caves and sinkholes characteristic of karst areas. The underlying rock is carbonate, including limestone and dolomite. Mining activity in the county included ores of lead, copper and deposits of refractory clay; the soils in most of the county tend to be thin, rocky red clay, are poor for most agriculture, while the soil near the Missouri River is dark and thick, used for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Much of the county is covered with thick forests, reestablished since the 1920s. Urbanization is increasing in the county surrounding Washington and Union, along Interstate 44. St. Albans is now a continuation of the suburban region of St. Louis County while the majority of the county retains a rural character and includes extensive wilderness areas, typical of exurban areas.
Warren County St. Charles County St. Louis County Jefferson County Washington County Crawford County Gasconade County Interstate 44 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 66 Route 30 Route 47 Route 100 Route 185 As of the census of 2000, there were 93,807 people, 34,945 households, 25,684 families residing in the county; the population density was 102 people per square mile. There were 38,295 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.47% White, 0.94% Black or African American, 0.27% Asian, 0.24% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.9% were of German, 13.0% American, 10.7% Irish and 7.7% English ancestry. There were 34,945 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family si
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820