U.S. Route 6 in Pennsylvania
U. S. Route 6 travels east–west near the north edge of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania from the Ohio state line near Pymatuning Reservoir east to the Mid-Delaware Bridge over the Delaware River into Port Jervis, New York. It is the longest highway segment in the Commonwealth. Most of it is a two-lane rural highway, with some freeway bypasses around larger towns. Except east of Dunmore, where it is paralleled by Interstate 84, it is the main route in its corridor. What is now I-80—the Keystone Shortway—was once planned along the US 6 corridor as a western extension of I-84; the corridor was the Roosevelt Highway from Erie, Pennsylvania to Port Jervis, New York, designated Pennsylvania Route 7 in 1924. The PA 7 designation soon disappeared, but as US 6 was extended and relocated, the Roosevelt Highway followed it; the Pennsylvania section of US 6 was renamed the Grand Army of the Republic Highway in 1946. US 6 meets with U. S. Route 19 near Meadville. There it passes through the Northern Tier of Pennsylvania.
At Towanda it turns more southeasterly to reach Dunmore turning back northeast out of Dunmore to Carbondale and east and southeast to New York. US 6 encompasses two Pennsylvania Scenic Byways: the Gateway to the Endless Mountains Scenic Byway along the bypass of Tunkhannock and the Governor Casey Scenic Byway along the freeway portion in Lackawanna County between I-81 in Dunmore and PA 247 in Jessup. US 6 enters Pennsylvania from Ohio in Crawford County, heading southeast as a two-lane undivided road through farmland and woodland to the north of Pymatuning State Park, home to the Pymatuning Reservoir; the route heads into Linesville, where it heads southeast through developed areas of the borough on Penn Street before turning east onto East Erie Street. The road continues southeast through more rural areas as it heads away from the state park, passing over the Canadian National's Bessemer Subdivision railroad line. US 6 intersects the southern terminus of PA 618 before it reaches a junction with PA 285 on the western edge of the borough of Conneaut Lake.
Here, US 6 heads east for a concurrency with PA 285 and the two routes head east through the borough on Water Street. The road intersects US 322/PA 18 in the center of Conneaut Lake, where the two routes join US 6 and PA 285. A block PA 285 splits to the south. US 6/US 322/PA 18 become a five-lane road with a center left-turn lane and head east out of the borough, passing to the south of Conneaut Lake. PA 18 splits from US 6/US 322 by turning to the north, with US 6/US 322 continuing east-northeast on Conneaut Lake Road through farms and woods with some development; the road heads into a business area to the west of Meadville and comes to an intersection with US 19 and the southern terminus of PA 98, at which point US 19 becomes concurrent with US 6 and US 322. The roadway becomes a four-lane divided highway and comes to a cloverleaf interchange with I-79. Past this interchange, the three routes reach an intersection with the southern terminus of PA 102 before curving north and entering Meadville upon crossing French Creek and a Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad line.
The road becomes French Creek Parkway and US 322 splits to the east, with US 6/US 19 continuing north through developed areas to the east of the railroad line. The two routes leave Meadville and narrow to a two-lane undivided road, passing through wooded areas with some fields and development as it follows the French Creek and the Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad. In Saegertown, US 6/US 19 head north along Main Street and form a concurrency with PA 198; the road continues northeast through more rural areas alongside the creek and railroad, reaching the borough of Venango. Here, the two routes head north on Church Street before turning east onto Cussewago Street and curving north onto River Street. US 6/US 19 run northeast through woods with some development to Cambridge Springs; the two routes head northeast on Venango Avenue before intersecting the northern terminus of PA 86 and the western terminus of PA 408 in the center of town, where they turn onto North Main Street and continue northeast.
US 6/US 19 reach a junction with the southern terminus of PA 99 before leaving Cambridge Springs and heading through rural areas. US 6/US 19 continue into Erie County and comes to an intersection with the eastern terminus of US 6N, at which point US 6 splits from US 19 by turning to the east and crossing French Creek; the route passes through Mill Village, where it crosses under a Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad line, runs through a mix of farmland and woodland with some development. The road continues through rural land and turns northeast to reach Union City, where it comes to a junction with PA 8. At this point, US 6 heads north along with PA 8 through developed areas of the borough on South Main Street, crossing a Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad line. In the downtown area of Union City, US 6 splits from PA 8 by turning east onto East High Street at a crossing of a Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad line; the route leaves Union City and heads through farm fields and woods, reaching a junction with PA 89 to the north of Elgin.
Here, PA 89 forms a concurrency with US 6 before splitting to the south. The route runs east-northeast through wooded areas with some development prior to entering the city of Corry. In Corry, US 6 becomes West Columbus Avenue and runs through developed areas in the northern part of the city, crossing PA 426 and becoming East Columbus Avenue. In the eastern part of Corry, the road passes south of Corry Memorial Hospital; the route enters
Pennsylvania Route 77
Pennsylvania Route 77 is a 36-mile-long east–west state highway located in northwest Pennsylvania. The western terminus of the route is at Pennsylvania Route 27 in Meadville; the eastern terminus is at Pennsylvania Route 426 in Corry. PA 77 begins at an intersection with PA 27 in Meadville, Crawford County, heading northeast on two-lane undivided Hickory Street; the road passes homes, becoming Blooming Valley Road. The route runs through rural residential areas before continuing into a mix of farmland and woodland with some homes, heading into East Mead Township. PA 77 becomes unnamed and runs through more rural areas, passing through a corner of Woodcock Township prior to entering Blooming Valley. Here, the road becomes State Street and passes a few homes, reaching an intersection with PA 198; the route heads back into agricultural and wooded areas with some residences as it crosses into Richmond Township. PA 77 becomes unnamed and passes through more rural areas, running through New Richmond before forming a brief concurrency with PA 408.
The road heads into Athens Township and passes through Little Cooley before crossing Muddy Creek in a wooded area. The route runs through more woods with a few homes, heading into Bloomfield Township. In this area, PA 77 passes through Riceville and crosses Oil Creek before intersecting PA 8. From here, the road heads through more rural areas and continues into Sparta Township, passing through Britton Run. Farther northeast, the route comes to an intersection with PA 89 and turns north to join that route, heading through more farmland and woodland with a few residences. PA 77 splits from PA 89 by heading east on Main Street, entering Spartansburg and passing homes and businesses; the route passes south of Clear Lake and turns northeast onto Spring Street, running past more residences. The road heads back into Sparta Township and continues through areas of farm fields and woods with some homes. PA 77 enters Concord Township in Erie County and turns north as Spartansburg Highway, running through more farmland and woodland with some residences.
The road runs through wooded areas with some fields and homes, passing to the west of Corry-Lawrence Airport as it crosses into Corry. Here, the route becomes Union Street and passes through woods, turning east onto West Main Street and passing through industrial and business areas with some homes as it runs a short distance to the south of a Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad line. PA 77 ends at an intersection with PA 426 in the commercial downtown of Corry, where the road continues east as East Main Street, a part of PA 426. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal
Pennsylvania Route 27
Pennsylvania Route 27 is a 65.7-mile-long state highway located in northwest Pennsylvania. The western terminus of the route is at Park Avenue near U. S. Route 6 and U. S. Route 19 in Meadville; the eastern terminus is at Pennsylvania Route 69 three miles south of Sugar Grove. From 1927 to 1928, PA 27 between U. S. Route 322 in Meadville and US 6 in the Pittsfield Township community of Pittsfield was known as the western segment of Pennsylvania Route 47. In 1928, west PA 47 was decommissioned and replaced with PA 27. In April 2003, the western terminus of the route was moved from US 6 and US 19 to Park Avenue, the western terminus of PA 27 from 1928 to 1974. However, west of Park Avenue, PA 27 is still signed along North St. Market St. Terrace St and Reynolds Ave. to connect with US 6 and US 19. Pennsylvania Route 27 Truck is a 1⁄2-mile-long truck route in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. In 1980, the designation was established to remove trucks from the complicated intersection with Pennsylvania Route 8 and to provide direct access for local trucks past the Titusville's small industrial area along St. John Street.
For its entire length it is cosigned with Truck Route 8. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal Pennsylvania Highways - Pennsylvania Route 27
Erie National Wildlife Refuge
The Erie National Wildlife Refuge is an 8,777-acre National Wildlife Refuge located in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Named after the Erie tribe, it was established to provide waterfowl and other migratory birds with nesting, feeding and resting habitat; the refuge consists of two separate land divisions. The 5,206-acre Sugar Lake Division is closest to Guys Mills, Pennsylvania and is 8.5 miles east of Meadville. The Seneca Division, consisting of 3,571 acres, is 10 miles north of the Sugar Lake Division and borders French Creek near Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania; the Erie National Wildlife Refuge was designated an Important Bird Area by the National Audubon Society because of the diversity of habitat it provides to the approximate 237 species of birds attracted to the refuge. The Erie National Wildlife Refuge was established on May 22, 1959; the land was purchased with funds provided from the sale of the Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamps, which are called "Duck Stamps". Erie Refuge consists of two separate land divisions.
The Sugar Lake Division contains 5,206 acres lying in a narrow valley which includes Woodcock Creek draining to the north and Lake Creek draining to the south. Beaver ponds and marshland along the creeks are bounded by forested slopes interspersed with croplands and wet meadows; the Seneca Division consists of 3,571 acres situated in a forested valley where Muddy Creek and Dead Creek provide most of the wetland habitat. French Creek flows through the refuge. Over 2,500 acres of wetland, including beaver ponds, swamps, manmade impoundments and wet meadows, provide desirable habitat for a variety of migratory birds and waterfowl. Water control structures on refuge impoundments permit the manipulation of water levels to encourage waterfowl use and the growth of desirable wetland plants. Grasslands have been developed near wetlands to provide dense nesting cover for ground-nesting waterfowl and prescribed burning is accomplished on about 100 acres of those grasslands annually. A cooperative farming program permits farmers to cultivate crops on refuge lands.
Farmers agree to raise certain crops such as oats, grass and corn. In return for using the land, farmers leave the refuge a share of the crops; these refuge shares are left in the field as supplemental food for wildlife. The diverse habitat types found on Erie NWR attract over 237 species of birds, 47 species of mammals and 37 species of amphibians and reptiles. Of particular interest are the endangered northern riffleshell and clubshell mussels; the diverse habitat types found on Erie Refuge attract 237 species of birds, with nesting habitat for 113 bird species. The refuge provides refuge for migrating waterfowl for 4,500 Canada geese. Other migrating birds include Canada geese, wood ducks, blue-winged teal, hooded mergansers; some less numerous migrants are pintail, green-winged teal, American wigeon, bufflehead, golden-eye, ring-necked ducks, black ducks. Wood ducks are the most prolific waterfowl nesters on the refuge, their annual production is increased by the placement of nesting boxes on refuge wetlands.
Hooded mergansers, blue-winged teal and Canada geese are other common resident nesting waterfowl. Bald eagles nest on the osprey visit in search of food. Red-tailed hawks and American kestrels are common raptors that nest here. During the summer shorebirds such as sandpipers and yellowlegs appear in small flocks, feeding on the mudflats; the most noticeable marsh birds are great blue herons. Some 47 species of mammals are present on this refuge including occasional sightings of bobcats; the most seen are black bear, white-tailed deer, raccoon, fox, river otter and woodchuck. Common warm water fish occurring in refuge waters include black crappie, yellow perch, largemouth bass, bluegills and bullheads. Common cold water species include white suckers, found in Woodcock Creek; the visitor center has a 60-seat auditorium as well as an indoor bird observation area. Nine public fishing areas are open throughout the refuge. Additionally, eleven small game species, eight migratory bird species and three big game species are hunted including deer, wild turkey and waterfowl hunting.
Other public use facilities include an auto driving route, a waterfowl and wildlife observation blind, the Deer Run Overlook and Kiosk. There are 6 miles of hiking trails on the refuge consisting of four nature trails ranging in length from a 1⁄2-mile to 3 miles, one of, ADA accessible; this 1 mile trail stretches over the riverine sediments of Muddy Creek's valley. The terrain is flat to rolling with an environment of meadows, oxbow sloughs, intermediate and mature forests. A 4-foot-wide boardwalk provides excellent access for the handicapped and accommodates others in this seasonally wet area. At the end of the trail lies an abutment from an iron bridge that spanned Muddy Creek on what was once a plank road across the valley; the 3 miles long Deer Run Trail at the southern part of the Erie NWR loops through a variety of habitats, from mature mixed deciduous and hemlock forest to meadows and brushy thickets near the refuge's ponds. It is a popular cross-country ski trail; the Tsuga Trail near the Erie NWR Headquarters is a 1.2-mile to 1.6-mile two loop trail that winds through a variety of natural habitats.
The 1.2-mile loop has numbered signs designat
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pymatuning Reservoir is a man-made lake in Crawford County and Ashtabula County, Ohio in the United States, on land, once a large swamp. Much of it is incorporated into two state parks: Pymatuning State Park in Pennsylvania, Pymatuning State Park in Ohio; the first known inhabitants were the Mound builders. Two of their mounds were flooded by the creation of Pymatuning Lake; the Lenape were living in the area. The lake is named for the chief who lived in the area at Pihmtomink; the Lenape were pushed out of the area by a member of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Seneca were defeated by General Anthony Wayne's forces during the Northwest Indian War and left the area under the terms of the Treaty of Greenville; this treaty marked the end of Native Americans inhabiting the area. The first settlers to the area were farmers, whose life was not easy, as the land was swampy and difficult to reclaim. Farm animals that wandered off were lost in the quicksands of the swamp, or fell prey to predators like foxes and mountain lions.
The swamps were infested with mosquitoes. An unsolved murder case is associated with the Pymatuning Swamp: in 1932 by herpetologist Norman Edouard Hartweg, while he was searching for reptiles, ran into a body of a lady; the police concluded that she had been murdered elsewhere, but her identity was never confirmed, nor the murderer identified. Building a dam on the Shenango River was first explored in 1911. A massive flood in 1913 took several lives; the Pennsylvania General Assembly approved a budget of $1.2 million to build at dam across the Shenango, but Governor John K. Tener slashed the budget to just $100,000; the Pennsylvania legislature took action again in 1917, this time approving a $400,000 budget under the condition that the needed land in Ohio be purchased by the private sector. The Pymatuning Land Company was raised the funds to purchase the needed Ohio properties; the land was acquired in full by 1931 when Governor Gifford Pinchot approved $1.5 million to complete the dam. 7,000 men began work on the dam in 1931 and the project was completed in 1934, with a final total cost of $3,717,739.
The lake now holds 64.3 billion US gallons of water, covering 17,088 acres over a length of 17 miles with a width of 1.6 miles at the widest and 70 miles of shoreline, with a maximum depth of 35 feet. The lake has served to provide a water supply for the Shenango and Beaver valleys, it has lessened the damage caused by floods, provided recreation for the people of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Two state parks, each named "Pymatuning State Park", are on the lake in Pennsylvania. A scenic 2-mile-long causeway bridge spans the middle of the lake, connecting the towns of Espyville on the Pennsylvania side of the lake and Andover on the Ohio side; the bridge is crowned in the middle, with tall pillars and broad ducts underneath to allow lakewater to flow across the reservoir, to permit the passage of sailboats and other pleasure craft travelling from one half of the lake to the other. The bridge is equipped with small concrete and earthen pull-offs large enough for several vehicles apiece, with concrete staircases and walkways below the parking spaces to allow travelers to stroll down and fish or sightsee beside the bridge.
The Pennsylvania portion has a spillway separating the upstream-most portion of the lake from the rest. A parking area along the spillway serves a popular warm-weather attraction known as where the ducks walk on the fish because visitors throw stale bread to the thousands of fish that congregate there. Pymatuning Lake - Lakelubbers Pymatuning Lake - Lake Community Index Ohio DNR fishing map of Pymatuning Lake
Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district
Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district is located in Northwestern Pennsylvania. It contains all of Erie County, Crawford County, Mercer County, Lawrence County, as well as part of Butler County; the district is represented by Mike Kelly. Prior to redistricting on March 19, 2018, the 16th congressional district was located in the southeastern part of the state, just west of Philadelphia. Northwestern Pennsylvania was represented by the 3rd congressional district; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew the district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map violated the state constitution due to partisan gerrymandering. What was the 16th district was modified to become the eleventh district, the old third district became the 16th, for the 2018 elections and representation thereafter. Adams County was in the district in 1863, at the time of the Battle of Gettysburg and the Gettysburg Address. Democrat Alexander Coffroth was the district's representative at the time. Source: Created after the 2000 Census, the 16th district was composed of a large portion of southern Chester County, most of Lancaster County, a sliver of Berks County, including the city of Reading.
The 16th stretched from the southwestern suburbs of Philadelphia in the east to the Susquehanna River in the west, north to include areas around Reading. In 2000, the 16th Congressional District was home to 646,328 residents, according to the U. S. Census, its population has increased since that year. Residents of Lancaster County made up the majority of the district's population, followed by Chester County and Berks County; the district was one of the Pennsylvania districts accused of being the result of gerrymandering. Pockets of urban areas exist in and around the cities of Lancaster and West Chester. In February 2018, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ruled that the previous map was unconstitutional due to gerrymandering and released a new congressional map; the 16th district was relocated to the northwestern part of the state. The new 16th includes the cities of Erie, Hermitage and Meadville. Butler County: partial. Crawford County: Meadville, Titusville Erie County: Corry, Erie Lawrence County: New Castle Mercer County: Farrell, Sharon The district was created with two seats in 1823 List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania