A crayon is a stick of colored wax, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing. A crayon made of pigment with a dry binder is a pastel. A grease pencil or Chinese marker is made of colored hardened grease. There are watercolor crayons, sometimes called water-soluble crayons. Crayons are easy to work with, they are less messy than most paints and markers, blunt nontoxic, available in a wide variety of colors. These characteristics make them good instruments for teaching small children to draw in addition to being used by student and professional artists. In the modern English-speaking world, the term crayon is associated with the standard wax crayon, such as those available for use by children; such crayons are approximately 3.5 inches in length and made of paraffin wax. Paraffin wax is heated and cooled to achieve the correct temperature at which a usable wax substance can be dyed and manufactured and shipped for use around the world. Paraffin waxes are used for cosmetics, for the preparation of printing ink, fruit preserving, in the pharmaceutical industry, for lubricating purposes, crayons.
Colin Snedeker, a chemist for Binney & Smith, developed the first washable crayons in response to consumer complaints regarding stained fabrics and walls. A patent for the washable solid marking composition utilized in the washable crayons was awarded to Snedeker in 1990; the history of the crayon is not clear. The word "crayon" dates to 1644, coming from the Latin word creta; the notion to combine a form of wax with pigment goes back thousands of years. Encaustic painting is a technique that uses hot beeswax combined with colored pigment to bind color into stone. A heat source was used to "burn in" and fix the image in place. Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, was thought to describe the first techniques of wax crayon drawings; this method, employed by the Egyptians, Romans and indigenous people in the Philippines, is still used today. However, the process wasn't used to make crayons into a form intended to be held and colored with and was therefore ineffective to use in a classroom or as crafts for children.
Contemporary crayons are purported to have originated in Europe, where some of the first cylinder-shaped crayons were made with charcoal and oil. Pastels are an art medium having roots with the modern crayon and stem back to Leonardo da Vinci in 1495. Conté crayons, out of Paris, are a hybrid between a pastel and a conventional crayon, used since the late 1790s as a drawing crayon for artists. Various hues of powdered pigment replaced the primary charcoal ingredient found in most early 19th century products. References to crayons in literature appear as early as 1813 in Prejudice. Joseph Lemercier, considered by some of his contemporaries to be "the soul of lithography", was one of the founders of the modern crayon. Through his Paris business circa 1828 he produced a variety of crayon and color related products, but as those in Europe were discovering that substituting wax for the oil strengthened the crayon, various efforts in the United States were developing. The initial era of wax crayons saw a number of companies and products competing for the lucrative education and artist markets.
In addition to the giants such as Binney & Smith/Crayola and American Crayon/Dixon Ticonderoga, other companies popped up in the industry at various times from the late 19th century to the early 1910s. Crayola developed their line of wax crayons beginning on June 10, 1903. Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith had been long established in the coloring marketplace through Binney's Peekskill, NY chemical works factory making lampblack by burning whale and carbon black and instrumental in the coloring of automobile tires. In 1902 they introduced the Staonal marking crayon. Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead Binney, who coined the name Crayola by combining the French word for chalk, with the first part of oleaginous, the oily paraffin wax used to make the crayon. Binney and Smith were quick to capitalize on their creation by offering 19 boxes with 30 colors, including the Crayola No 51, with 28, featured their largest selection of colors; the Rubens Crayola line started in 1903 as well was for artists and designed to compete with the Raphael brand of crayons from Europe.
Rubens were featured in everything from the small 6-color box to the No. 500 with 24 colors. They made many other crayon lines including Anti-Roll, Art-Toy, Boston, Cerola, Chic'ago, Doo Zee, Easy-Off, Liquitex, Munsell Crayola, Pooh, Rubens, Tiny Tots and Widstrok. By far the most recognizable brand was their Crayola "Gold Medal" line in the familiar yellow boxes; the Gold Medal referred to one the company earned with their An-du-Septic dustless chalk during the March 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Over 39,000 awards were given out using the medals designed by Adolph A. Weinman. Receiving a medal at an Exposition was and still is something of importance with many companies featuring their medal on their products. Two companies to use the 1904 medal were Binney & Smith, they used the award to design a new line of crayons featuring the medal on the front of thei
The president of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or the president of the Republic for short, was the head of state of that country from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980. Josip Broz Tito was the only person to occupy the office. Broz was concurrently President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Broz was declared president for life and with his death in 1980 the office was discontinued and the new office of President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia took its place; the 1946 constitution defined the government of Yugoslavia headed by a president as the highest administrative authority in the country. Broz served as Prime Minister during the entire period up to adoption of the 1953 constitution; this law proclaimed the country to be a socialist republic and removed all previous references to a government, etc. Instead it defined the office of president and the Federal Executive Council in place of the government; the president was to serve as head of state and would preside over the FEC, a body of 30–40 members, some of whom would be selected to be federal secretaries.
Broz moved from the position of prime minister to president on 14 January 1953 and was subsequently re-elected on 29 January 1954 and 19 April 1958. The 1963 constitution gave Broz an unlimited number of terms, it defined a new office of President of the Federal Executive Council which would head that institution rather than the president. Broz could still convene the Federal Executive Council, remained head of state and commander-in-chief of the Yugoslav People's Army, concurrently still served as head of the communist party, he was re-elected by the Federal Assembly under this system again in 1963 and 1968. Constitutional amendments in 1971 created a new collective presidency consisting of republican representatives, still presided over by the president of the Republic; the 1974 constitution gave the 82-year old Broz an unlimited mandate, making him president-for-life. It created a new rotating office of President of the Presidency which would take effect in the event of Broz's death; the sitting vice president of the Presidency would succeed him in this case.
This occurred on 4 May 1980 when Lazar Koliševski became the first president of the presidency upon Broz's death. League of Communists of Yugoslavia President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia List of heads of state of Yugoslavia
Guffrie Gibson Smith is an American college basketball coach an assistant coach at High Point University. He was head coach at Loyola University Maryland. A native of Leonardtown, Smith is the oldest son of college basketball coach Tubby Smith. G. G. attended Cascia Hall Preparatory School. After graduating from Cascia Hall in 1995, Smith attended the University of Georgia and played basketball for the Georgia Bulldogs under Tubby Smith, hired to coach at Georgia the same year. A point guard, Smith joined the starting lineup as a sophomore and averaged 9.5 points and 2.4 rebounds. He played his junior and senior seasons under Ron Jirsa; as a senior, Smith averaged 2.3 rebounds. Smith graduated from Georgia in December 1999 with a degree in physical education. Smith began his coaching career as an assistant coach and teacher at Lexington Catholic High School in Lexington, Kentucky. In the fall of 2000, Smith enrolled at the University of Kentucky for graduate school and joined Tubby Smith's staff as a graduate assistant.
Completing his master's degree in sports management in 2002, Smith became an assistant coach at Tennessee Tech. From 2004 to 2006, Smith was an assistant at Armstrong Atlantic State at Johns Hopkins for the 2006–07 season. After six seasons as an assistant under Jimmy Patsos, Smith succeeded Patsos as head coach at Loyola University Maryland in 2013 after Pastos took the head coaching job at Siena. On March 8, 2018, Smith announced, he was subsequently hired by his father as an assistant at High Point
Theodore Thomas was a German-American violinist and orchestrator of German birth. He is considered the first renowned American orchestral conductor and was the founder and first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Theodore Christian Friedrich Thomas was born in Esens, Germany, on October 11, 1835, the son of Johann August Thomas, his mother, was the daughter of a physician from Göttingen. He received his musical education principally from his father, a violinist of ability, at the age of six years he played the violin in public concerts, his father was the town Stadtpfeifer who arranged music for state occasions. Thomas showed interest in the violin at an early age, by age ten, he was the breadwinner of the family, performing at weddings, in taverns. By 1845, Johann Thomas and his family, convinced there was a better life for a respected musician in America, packed their belongings and made the six-week journey to New York City. In 1848, Thomas and his father joined the Navy Band, but in 1849 his father ceased to support him, he set out on his own.
Thomas soon became a regular member of several pit orchestras, including the Park, the Bowery, the Niblo. He toured the United States performing violin recitals. During this time Thomas served as his own manager, ticket sales, press agent, he reached as far south as Mississippi. Thomas returned to New York in 1850, with the intent of returning to Germany for advanced musical education, he became first violin in the orchestra that accompanied Jenny Lind in that year, Henrietta Sontag in 1852, Giulia Grisi and Giuseppe Mario in 1854. In 1854, at the age of nineteen, he was invited to play with the Philharmonic Society's orchestra, he led the orchestras that accompanied La Grange, Maria Piccolomini, Thalberg through the country. Meanwhile, in 1855, with himself as first violin, Joseph Mosenthal, second violin, George Matzka, Carl Bergmann and William Mason as pianist, he began a series of chamber music soirées which were given at Dodworth's Academy; the Mason-Thomas concerts lasted until his founding of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1864.
That orchestra would in turn have a chamber music connection of its own: Joseph Zoellner, at least for a time its concertmaster went on to form the Zoellner Quartet, another pioneering promoter of classical music in the United States. In 1864, Thomas began a series of summer concerts with his orchestra, first in New York City, in Philadelphia, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago; the orchestra toured and received consistent critical and popular acclaim, despite persistent financial setbacks. One such setback occurred on October 9, 1871, when he and his orchestra arrived in Chicago for a new concert series, where they learned large portions of the city were destroyed by fire the night before, including the Crosby Opera House where he was to perform; the orchestra was dissolved in 1888. Thomas was music director of the New York Philharmonic in 1877-78 and from 1879 to 1891, he was director of the Cincinnati College of Music from 1878 to 1879, from 1873 to 1904 the conductor of the biennial May festivals at Cincinnati.
In his Wagner concerts, Thomas used the Deutscher Liederkranz der Stadt New York choir, that he directed from 1882 to 1884 and from 1887 to 1888. To Theodore Thomas is due the popularization of Richard Wagner's works in America, it was he who founded the Wagner union in 1872. Thomas always received an enthusiastic welcome in Chicago. In 1889, Charles Norman Fay, a Chicago businessman and devoted supporter of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, encountered Thomas in New York and inquired whether he would come to Chicago if he was given a permanent orchestra. Thomas's legendary reply was, "I would go to hell if they gave me a permanent orchestra."On December 17, 1890, the first meeting for incorporation of the Orchestral Association, organized by Fay, was held at the Chicago Club. Less than one year on October 16 and 17, 1891, the first concerts of the Chicago Orchestra, led by Thomas, were given at the Auditorium Theatre; the concert included Wagner's Faust Overture, Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1 with Rafael Joseffy, Beethoven's Symphony No.
5, Dvořák's Hussite Overture. During his tenure, Thomas introduced several new works to his Chicago audiences, including the United States premieres of works of Anton Bruckner, Dvořák, Edward Elgar, Alexander Glazunov, Edvard Grieg, Jules Massenet, Bedřich Smetana and his personal friend Richard Strauss who became the orchestra's first guest conductor, appearing with his wife Pauline de Ahna in April 1904 at Thomas's invitation. During this time, he conducted in other places. For example, on 19 February 1887 at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, he conducted the U. S. premiere of Saint-Saëns's "Organ Symphony". Thomas, never satisfied with the Auditorium Theatre realized his dream of a permanent home, when Orchestra Hall, designed by the Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, was completed. Thomas led the dedicatory concert on December 14, 1904, he would only lead two weeks of subscription concerts in the new hall, after contracting influenza during rehearsals for the dedicatory concert. Though he continued with his customary vigor, he conducted his beloved Chicago Orchestra for the last time on Chris
Call of the Wild is an American film starring Christopher Lloyd, Timothy Bottoms, Veronica Cartwright, Christopher Dempsey, Joyce DeWitt, Aimee Teegarden, Ariel Gade, Devon Graye, Devon Iott, Kameron Knox, Russell Snyder, Wes Studi. A modern-day retelling of Jack London's 1903 classic novel The Call of the Wild. A widowed man, "Grandpa" Bill Hale, in Montana takes his granddaughter Ryann in for several weeks while her parents are out of the country; when a wild wolf-dog hybrid shows up injured on the back porch one night, Ryann decides to take the wolf, whom she names Buck, back to Boston with her as a pet, but Grandpa knows Buck will have to return to the wild. Call of the Wild on IMDb Call of the Wild at Rotten Tomatoes Call of the Wild at AllMovie
Siyah Beyaz Aşk is a Turkish romantic drama television series starring İbrahim Çelikkol, Birce Akalay, Muhammet Uzuner, Arzu Gamze Kılınç, Ece Dizdar and Deniz Celiloğlu. It premiered on Show TV on October 16, 2017 and concluded on May 28, 2018. İbrahim Çelikkol as Ferhat Aslan Birce Akalay as Aslı Çınar Aslan Muhammet Uzuner as Namık Emirhan Arzu Gamze Kılınç as Yeter Aslan Ece Dizdar as İdil Yaman Deniz Celiloğlu as Yiğit Aslan Cahit Gök as Cüneyt Koçak Uğur Aslan as Cem Çınar Sinem Ünsal as Gülsüm Aslan Özlem Zeynep Dinsel as Vildan Koçak Timur Ölkebaş as Abidin Adaklı Fatih Topçuoğlu as Dilsiz Ceylan Odman as Deniz Nihan Aşıcı as Yaprak Burcu Cavrar as Hülya Kadriye Kenter as Handan Adaklı Official website Siyah Beyaz Aşk on IMDb