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Arvid Gerhard Damm

Arvid Gerhard Damm was a Swedish engineer and inventor. He designed a number of cipher machines, was one of the early inventors of the wired rotor principle for machine encipherment, his company, AB Cryptograph, was a predecessor of Crypto AG. Damm was a textile engineer, worked as an engineering manager in a textile factory in Finland. At this time, he faked a marriage to a Hungarian woman in a sham ceremony conducted by one of Damm's friends posing as a clergyman. After having found a new romantic interest, Damm attempted to "divorce" her, accompanied by false allegations that she was a spy, was embarrassed when his duplicity emerged during the case, revealed by business partner Olof Gyldén. Damm filed for a patent on a rotor machine on 10 October 1919, three days after Hugo Koch filed a patent for a similar invention in the Netherlands. A company, Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, was founded around 19151 to develop Damm's inventions. In 1925, engineer Boris Hagelin was placed in charge of the management of the company and the development of its products, having joined AB Cryptograph in 1922.

Damm died in early 1927. Damm's machines included the "Mecano Cryptographer Model A-1" model and its interoperable portable counterpart, Model A-2; the A-1 was fitted with a keyboard, printed the plaintext together with two copies of the plaintext onto tape. The machine used a chain of links; some of the links moved a 25-disk "key body" forward, some back. Another model, the A-21, was described by Hagelin as Damm's "first fundamentally sound machine"; the A-21 consisted of a cylinder with 26 mixed alphabet strips around it. Another strip, bearing the normal A–Z alphabet was nearby, could take one of two positions, dependent on the movement of chain similar to the A-1. In operation, the cylinder rotated one step, as did the chain, controlling the position of the reference alphabet. To encipher or decipher, a letter could be read off from the reference alphabet to a cylinder alphabet using a slit at the top of the machine; this model was available in a larger "office" model equipped with a keyboard.

A machine was the B-1, used by Sweden's telegraph service. The B-1 proved to be unreliable in operation. Hagelin gives the year as 1915, while Kahn has it as 1916; the following patents were issued to Damm in the United States: U. S. Patent 1,233,035 — "Apparatus for Producing a Series of Signs", filed 21 July 1915, patented 10 July, 1917 U. S. Patent 1,484,477 — "Apparatus for Ciphering and Deciphering Code Expressions", filed 25 March, 1922, patented 19 February, 1924. U. S. Patent 1,502,376 — "Production of Ciphers", filed 2 April, 1920, patented 22 July, 1924.. U. S. Patent 1,540,107 — "Apparatus for the Production of Cipher Documents Especially For Telegraphic Dispatch", filed 1 March, 1922, patented 2 June, 1925. U. S. Patent 1,644,239 — "Apparatus for Producing a Series of Signs", filed 25 September, 1924, patented 4 October, 1927. Filed in Sweden 28 September, 1923. U. S. Patent 1,663,624 — "Electric Apparatus", filed 31 August, 1925, patented 27 March, 1928. Boris C. W. Hagelin, The Story of the Hagelin Cryptos, Cryptologia, 18, July 1994, pp 204–242.

David Kahn, The Codebreakers, 1967, 2nd ed 1996, Chapter 13. Edward Hebern Arthur Scherbius

Ken Inglis

Kenneth Stanley Inglis, was an Australian historian. Inglis completed his Master's degree at the University of Melbourne and his doctorate at the University of Oxford. In 1956 he was appointed as a lecturer to the University of Adelaide, he subsequently became Professor of History at the Australian National University, the University of Papua New Guinea. Inglis has written extensively on the Anzac tradition, the Stuart Case, war memorials, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. In 2008 he joined the Faculty of Arts at Melbourne, as an Adjunct Professor. Inglis died, aged 88, on 1 December 2017. Inglis was born in the Melbourne suburb of Ivanhoe, Victoria, on 7 October 1929, the son of Stan and Rene Inglis, he was educated at Tyler Street Public School, Northcote Boys' High School and Melbourne High School, before going to study at the University of Melbourne. Inglis participated in the Student Christian Movement and amateur dramatics during his studies, worked as a tutor at Ormond College. After graduating with a Bachelor of Arts with first class honours in History and English, he read for a Master of Arts at Melbourne.

Inglis' thesis, a history of the Royal Melbourne Hospital, was revised and published as his first book and Community. 1999: The Age Book of the Year and Non-fiction Award for Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. The book won the: NSW Premier's Literary Awards History Prize 1999 FAW Literature Award 1998 Ernest Scott History Prize 1999 Centre for Australian Cultural Studies Award, Individual Prize 1999. —. Hospital and Community: A History of the Royal Melbourne Hospital. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. —. The Stuart Case. Kingsgrove, New South Wales: Halstead Press.—. The Stuart Case. Melbourne: Black Inc. ISBN 1863952438. —. Churches and the Working Classes in Victorian England. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710045565. —. C. E. W. Bean, Australian historian. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702205834. —. The Australian Colonists: An Exploration of Social History, 1788–1870. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522840728.—. The Australian Colonists: An Exploration of Social History, 1788–1870.

Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522845266. —. This Is the ABC: The Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1932–1983. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522842585.—. This Is the ABC: The Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1932–1983. Melbourne: Black Inc. ISBN 9781863951814. —. The Rehearsal: Australians at War in the Sudan, 1885. Adelaide: Rigby. ISBN 0727020811. —. Lack, John. Anzac Remembered: Selected Writings by K. S. Inglis. Parkville, Victoria: Department of History, University of Melbourne. ISBN 0732515505. —. Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. Carlton, Victoria: Miegunyah Press at Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522847528.—. Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522849768. —. Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 0522851908. —. Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Publishing.

ISBN 9780522854794. —. Wilcox, Craig. Observing Australia, 1959–1999. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522848664. —. Whose ABC?: The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1983–2006. Melbourne: Black Inc. ISBN 9781863951890. —. Dunera Lives: A Visual History. Volume 1. Clayton: Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 9781925495492. —, ed.. Nation: The Life of an Independent Journal of Opinion, 1958–1972. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 052284412X