In Christian liturgy, the credo is the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed in the Mass, either as spoken text, or sung as Gregorian chant or other musical settings of the Mass. After the formulation of the Nicene Creed, its initial liturgical use was in baptism, which explains why the text uses the singular "I...." instead of "we...." The text was incorporated into the liturgies, first in the east and in Spain, into the north, from the sixth to the ninth century. In 1014 it was accepted by the Church of Rome as a legitimate part of the Mass, it is recited in the Western Mass directly after the Homily on all Solemnities. It is recited in the Orthodox Liturgy following the Litany of Supplication on all occasions; because of its late adoption, the length of the text, there are few chant settings of it. What is identified as "Credo I" in the Liber Usualis was widely considered the only authentic Credo, it is the element of the ordinary, most associated with a single melody; the Liber Usualis contains only two other settings, designated as "Credo V" and "Credo VI,", far fewer than for other settings of the Ordinary.

In musical settings of the Credo, as in the Gloria, the first line is intoned by the celebrant alone, or by a soloist, while the choir or congregation joins in with the second line. This tradition continued through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is followed in more recent settings. In Stravinsky's Mass, for example, a soloist intones the first line, from the plainchant Credo I. In Mass settings of the Baroque and Romantic period the Credo line is set for whole choir, such as in the Symbolum Nicenum of Bach's Mass in B minor, where the composer uses plainchant as the theme for a fugue, in the Masses of Haydn, the Missa Solemnis of Beethoven; the melody of Credo I first appears in eleventh-century manuscripts, but it is believed to be much older, Greek in origin. It is entirely syllabic because of the length of the text, consists of a great deal of repetition of melodic formulas. In polyphonic settings of the Mass, the Credo is the longest movement, but is set more homophonically than other movements because the length of the text demanded a more syllabic approach, as was seen with chant as well.

A few composers have set Credos independently from the rest of the ordinary to allow their insertion into missae breves or their omission where a said or chanted Credo is the custom. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, factorem cæli et terræ, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible: Et in unum Dominum, Jesum Christum, And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula; the only-begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages. Et incarnatus homo factus est.. He was incarnate by the Holy Ghost out of the Virgin Mary, was made man. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est, He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and ascended into heaven, sits on the right hand of the Father: Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, iudicare vivos et mortuos, And the same shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead: cuius regni non erit finis.

Who proceeds from the Father and the Son, Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: who, with the Father and the Son, together is worshiped and glorified, qui locutus est per prophetas. Who has spoken through the prophets. Et unam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam, and one, holy and apostolic Church, Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. I confess one baptism for the remission of sins. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, And I await the resurrection of the dead: et vitam venturi sæculi. Amen. and the life of the coming age. Amen. Settings of alternative texts as a Credo outside the Mass, as a motet, are rare; the first published polyphonic settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum were settings by the French composer Le Brung in 1540, two further settings by the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas in 1578. Creed Hoppin, Richard. Medieval Music. New York: Norton, 1978. Pages 136–138

Manila Cathedral School

Manila Cathedral School is a basic education institution in Tondo, Manila. During the pre-war years, the Manila Cathedral School of Intramuros had a famous "Tiples" all boys choir trained in sacred music; these boys came from different provinces and enjoyed free board and scholarship at the Colegio de Tiples. After the 1945 liberation, the Manila Cathedral and the school for the Tiples were left into runs but the Archbishop of Manila, Most Rev. Michael O'Doherty, D. D. was not disheartened. Foremost in his mind was the education of these young boys; the school was transferred to the present site of Manila Cathedral School in Tayuman, known before as the "Insitutio de Mujeres" co-owned by Doña Rosa Sevilla's family and the Archdiocese of Manila. When the Insitutio de Mojeres decided to transfer in Governor Forbes St. Manila, the Archdiocese of Manila purchased the entire lot thus became the sole owner. For the time, this area served to house different religious congregations. In 1949, the archbishop called all the diocesan priests with education degrees.

They agreed to establish the school for Tiples and for boys who have vocation to the priesthood and classes to commence in June 1949. Thus, Manila Cathedral School was born with about 400 students paying only minimal tuition fee. MCS catered to the poor boys of Tondo. In 1950s, Manila Cathedral School opened its doors to female students. In 1978, Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin invited the Congregation of the Religious Missionaries of St. Dominic to run the school. In 1997, the 10th MCS Directress & Principal, Sr. Maria Esperanza H. Seguban, O. P. started the tertiary level thus making MCS as Manila Cathedral College. However, in 2001, the School Board instead decided to concentrate on the Basic Education. After 21 years of administration, the Dominican Sisters returned MCS administration to the archdiocese under the supervision of the School Board Char Most Rev. Teodoro Bacani, Jr. D. D. Auxiliary Bishop of Manila. In 1999, The Manila Cathedral College again became Manila Cathedral School.

In 2002, Msgr. Claro Matt Garcia became the 12th School Director and Caplain of McS. Under his tenure he renovated and modernized the Offices and Facilities of the school, such as the introduction of air-conditioned classrooms, he expanded the scholarship program for poor children. To give full attention to the development of the school, he invited Dr. Jesusa Bulotano to be the school principal of the school - the first time since 1978 for the school to have a separate director and principal; the tenure of Msgr. Claro Matt Garcia saw the construction of several buildings. In 2014, Manila Cathedral School became a member of the RCAMES North Manila Cluster School together with Espiritu Santo Parochial School, Holy Child Catholic School, St. Joseph School, San Rafael Parochial School, San Pablo Apostol Learning Center. Rev. Fr. Nolan A. Que, Ph. D. the head of Curriculum and Instruction System of RCAMES was appointed as the cluster school Director and Fr. Nicanor A. Celiano Jr. as the cluster school Assistant Director.

It was in his tenure. Clusters 5 & 6 Student Handbook, Manila: 2018 Manila Cathedral School Revised Student Handbook, Manila: 2017 "Manila Cathedral School". Official Website MCS Hymn "Cathedral Beloved"


Deshabhimani is a Malayalam newspaper and the organ of the State Committee of the Communist Party of India. Started as a weekly in Calicut on 6 September 1942 and converted to a daily in 1946; the paper now has ten different printing centres: Calicut, Trivandrum, Kottayam, Palakkad, Alappuzha and Malappuram. At present, P. Rajeev, secretariat member of the CPI is the Chief Editor of the paper, K. J. Thomas, CPI, secretariat member of the CPI, the General Manager and P. M. Manoj, the Resident Editor; as of Indian Readership Survey of 2010, it was in the third position in terms of readership in Kerala, after Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi. Deshabhimani has Prabhatham, it was the manifesto of the socialist group in the Indian National Congress. It was in 1942, through the efforts of eminent leaders like A K Gopalan and E M S Namboodiripad Deshabhimani started and became the voice of the Communist Party of India and became the voice of Communist Party of India, after the split from CPI in 1964. Various personalities like E.

M. S. Namboodiripad, V. T. Induchoodan, K P R Gopalan, E. K. Nayanar and V. S. Achuthanandan, have served as the chief editors of Deshabhimani. Many notable journalists of South India work with Deshabhimani. Journalists who have worked with Deshabhimani includes P Govindapillai, Ezhacherry Ramachandran, Prabha Varma, K. Mohanan, C. M. Abdul Rehman, Narikutti Mohanan, P. M. Manoj and B. Aburaj. Deshabhimani Varanthappathippu Aksharamuttam Sthree Kilivaathil Thozhil Deshabhimani Varika Thathamma Deshabhimani online edition