A creed is a statement of the shared beliefs of community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets. The earliest creed in Christianity, originated in the writings of Saint Paul. One of the most used creeds in Christianity is the Nicene Creed, first formulated in AD 325 at the First Council of Nicaea, it was based on Christian understanding of the Canonical Gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Affirmation of this creed, which describes the Trinity, is taken as a fundamental test of orthodoxy for most Christian denominations; the Apostles' Creed is broadly accepted. Some Christian denominations and other groups have rejected the authority of those creeds. Muslims declare the shahada, or testimony: "I bear witness that there is no god but God, I bear witness that Muhammad is God's messenger."Whether Judaism is creedal has been a point of some controversy. Although some say Judaism is noncreedal in nature, others say it recognizes a single creed, the Shema Yisrael, which begins: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one."

The word creed is used for a concise statement, recited as part of liturgy. The term is anglicized from Latin credo "I believe", the incipit of the Latin texts of the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. A creed is sometimes referred to as a symbol in a specialized meaning of that word, after Latin symbolum "creed", after Greek symbolon "token, watchword"; some longer statements of faith in the Protestant tradition are instead called "confessions of faith", or "confession". Within Evangelicalism, the terms "doctrinal statement" or "doctrinal basis" tend to be preferred. Doctrinal statements may include positions on lectionary and translations of the Bible in fundamentalist churches of the King James Only movement; the term creed is sometimes extended to comparable concepts in non-Christian theologies. Several creeds have originated in Christianity. 1 Corinthians 15, 3–7 includes an early creed about Jesus' death and resurrection, received by Paul. The antiquity of the creed has been located by most biblical scholars to no more than five years after Jesus' death originating from the Jerusalem apostolic community.

The Old Roman Creed is an shorter version of the Apostles' Creed. It was based on the 2nd century Rules of Faith and the interrogatory declaration of faith for those receiving baptism, which by the 4th century was everywhere tripartite in structure, following Matthew 28:19; the Apostles' Creed is used by most Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes. The Nicene Creed reflects the concerns of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 which had as their chief purpose to establish what Christians believed; the Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. It defines that Christ is'acknowledged in two natures', which'come together into one person and hypostasis'; the Athanasian Creed is a Christian statement of belief focusing on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity is explicitly stated and differs from the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds in the inclusion of anathemas, or condemnations of those who disagree with the Creed.

The Tridentine Creed was contained in the papal bull Iniunctum Nobis, issued by Pope Pius IV on November 13, 1565. The creed was intended to summarize the teaching of the Council of Trent; the Maasai Creed is a creed composed in 1960 by the Maasai people of East Africa in collaboration with missionaries from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost. The creed attempts to express the essentials of the Christian faith within the Maasai culture; the Credo of the People of God is a profession of faith that Pope Paul VI published with the motu proprio Solemni hac liturgia of 30 June 1968. Pope Paul VI spoke of it as "a profession of faith... a creed which, without being speaking a dogmatic definition, repeats in substance, with some developments called for by the spiritual condition of our time, the creed of Nicea, the creed of the immortal tradition of the holy Church of God." Protestant denominations are associated with confessions of faith, which are similar to creeds but longer. The Sixty-seven Articles of the Swiss reformers, drawn up by Zwingli in 1523.

The Savoy Declaration of 1658, a modification of the Westminster Confession to suit Congregationalist polity.


InfraRecorder is an open-source CD and DVD writing program for Microsoft Windows. First started by Christian Kindahl in the Google Summer of Code 2006, InfraRecorder uses the cdrtools software library to perform the actual burning. Since 0.46, InfraRecorder is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License 3 and is free software. In November 2007, CNET rated InfraRecorder the best free alternative to commercial DVD burning software. InfraRecorder is included on a collection of open source software for Windows. InfraRecorder supports dual-layer DVDs. InfraRecorder can burn a disc from an ISO image file; this program is portable on the Windows operating system. As of version 0.40, InfraRecorder offers features similar to most CD- and DVD-authoring software, including the creation and burning of data and audio disc images, the ability to work with rewritable and multisession discs, the ability to extract WAV and ISO image files from discs. One can use the LAME MP3 encoder to save Audio CD tracks.

InfraRecorder is available in a version. List of optical disc authoring software List of ISO image software Official website InfraRecorder on

Nina Springle

Nina Meredith Springle is an Australian politician. She was a Greens member of the Victorian Legislative Council, having represented South Eastern Metropolitan Region from 2014 to 2018. In 2014 Springle became the first Greens MP to represent the South Eastern Metropolitan Region in Victoria’s Parliament. Springle has worked as a consultant in the education sectors. During her term of office, Springle was the Victorian Greens spokesperson for Families and Children, Multicultural Affairs, Health, Youth Justice, Prevention of Family Violence, Older People, Industrial Relations, Industry & Trade, Small Business, Digital Rights and Waste Management. Nina Springle initiated the "Plastic Free Sea" campaign, which aims to stop marine plastic pollution in Victoria, has worked on developing a container deposit scheme to reduce plastic and metal litter. Springle was appointed the first Deputy Leader of the Victorian Greens on 12 October 2017, a role she retained until losing her seat at the 2018 state election.

She resigned from the party after the election, citing dissatisfaction with the "party establishment" and its response to the loss of seats. Parliamentary voting record of Nina Springle at Victorian Parliament Tracker