Cimarron River (Arkansas River tributary)
The Cimarron River extends 698 miles across New Mexico, Oklahoma and Kansas. The headwaters flow from Johnson Mesa west of Folsom in northeastern New Mexico. Much of the river's length lies in Oklahoma, where it either borders or passes through eleven counties. There are no major cities along its route; the river enters the Oklahoma Panhandle near Kenton, crosses the southeastern corner of Colorado into Kansas, re-enters the Oklahoma Panhandle, re-enters Kansas, returns to Oklahoma where it joins the Arkansas River at Keystone Reservoir west of Tulsa, its only impoundment. The Cimarron drains a basin; the river's present name comes from the early Spanish name, Río de los Carneros Cimarrón, translated as River of the Wild Sheep. Early American explorers called it the Red Fork of the Arkansas because of water's red color. Early explorers and map-makers called it by several other names, including Grand Saline, Red Fork, Salt Fork, Salt River. In northeastern New Mexico and in western Oklahoma, the river is known as the Dry Cimarron River.
This is by contrast to a wetter Cimarron River flowing further west through New Mexico. The Dry Cimarron River is not dry, but sometimes its water disappears under the sand in the river bed; the Dry Cimarron Scenic Byway follows the river from Folsom to the Oklahoma border. In Oklahoma, the river flows along the southern edges of Black Mesa, the highest point in that state; as it first crosses the Kansas border, the river flows through the Cimarron National Grassland. The quality of Cimarron water is rated as poor because the river flows through natural mineral deposits, salt plains, saline springs, where it dissolves large amounts of minerals, it collects quantities of red soil, which it carries to its terminus. Before the Keystone Dam was built, this silt was sufficient to discolor the Arkansas River downstream; the first Europeans to see the Cimarron River were Spanish conquistadores led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541. The Spanish seemed to do little to exploit the area; the Osage tribe claimed most of the territory west of the confluence of the Cimarron and the Arkansas as theirs.
In 1819, Thomas Nuttall explored the lower Cimarron and wrote a report describing the flora and fauna that he found there. In 1821, Mexico threw off Spanish rule and William Becknell opened the Santa Fe Trail. One branch of the Santa Fe Trail, known variously as the Cimarron Route, the Cimarron Cutoff, the Middle Crossing, ran through the Cimarron Desert and along the Cimarron River. Lower Cimarron Spring on the bank of the river was camping spot. In 1831 Comanche Indians killed Jedediah Smith on the Santa Fe Trail near the Cimarron River, his body was never recovered. In 1834 General Henry Leavenworth established Camp Arbuckle at the mouth of the Cimarron River; this fort known as Old Fort Arbuckle, was only active for about a year, its former site is now submerged beneath the Arkansas River. It should not be confused with the Fort Arbuckle in Garvin County, Oklahoma. Historic sites along the river include the ruins of Camp Nichols, a stone fort built by Kit Carson in 1865 to protect travelers from raids by Plains Indians on the Cimarron Cutoff.
It was located near Oklahoma. The old Chisholm Trail crossed the river at Red Fork Station near Oklahoma. In the 1890s, the Creek Nation Cave along the Cimarron River near Ingalls in the Oklahoma Territory, was a hideout for the Doolin gang, which included the teenaged bandits, Cattle Annie and Little Britches. On September 18, 1906, a bridge across the Cimarron near Dover, Oklahoma Territory, collapsed beneath a Rock Island train bound for Fort Worth, Texas from Chicago; the bridge was a temporary structure unable to withstand the pressure of debris and high water. Replacement with a permanent structure had been delayed by the railroad for financial reasons. Several sources report; the true number may be as low as four. List of rivers of Colorado List of rivers of Kansas List of rivers of New Mexico List of rivers of Oklahoma List of longest rivers of the United States Cimarron National Grassland Folsom Falls Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge Point of Rocks Santa Fe Trail Anshutz, Carrie W. Schmoker.
W. Anshutz. Cimarron Chronicles: Saga of the Open Range. Meade, Kansas: Ohnick Enterprises, 2003. ISBN 0-9746222-0-6 Dary, David; the Santa Fe Trail: Its History and Lore. New York: Penguin, 2002. ISBN 0-14-200058-2 Hanners, Laverne; the Lords of the Valley: Including the Complete Text of Our Unsheltered Lives. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8061-2804-6 Hoig, Stan. Beyond the Frontier: Exploring the Indian Country. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3052-0 Schumm, Stanley A. Channel Widening and Flood-Plain Construction along Cimarron River in Southwestern Kansas: Erosion and Sedimentation in a Semiarid Environment. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1963. ISBN B0007EFJLY Schumm, Stanley A. River Variability and Complexity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-84671-4 Stovall, John Willis. Geology of the Cimarron River Valley in Cimarron County, Oklahoma. Chicago, 1938. Woodhouse, S. W.. A Naturalist in Indian Territory: The Journals of S. W.
Woodhouse, 1849-50. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8061-2805
Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district
Oklahoma's Third Congressional District is the largest congressional district in the state, covering an area of 34,088.49 square miles, over 48 percent the state's land mass. The district is bordered by New Mexico, Colorado and the Texas panhandle. Altogether, the district includes a total of 32 counties, covers more territory than the state's other four districts combined, it is one of the largest districts in the nation. As of 2015, the district is represented by Republican Frank Lucas. Prior to 2003, most of the territory now in the 3rd district was in the 6th district. Meanwhile, from 1915 to 2003, the 3rd district was located in southeastern Oklahoma, an area known as Little Dixie, it had a different voting history from the current 3rd. It was the district of Carl Albert, Speaker of the House from 1971 to 1977; the district borders New Mexico to the west and Kansas to the north, the Texas panhandle to the south. To the far west, the district includes the three counties of the Oklahoma Panhandle, Harper, Woodward, Major, Grant, Kay, Osage, Creek, Lincoln, Kingfisher, Canadian, Custer, Rogers Mills, Washita, Kiowa, Greer and Jackson.
Some of the principal cities in the district include Guymon, Ponca City, Enid, Yukon, Guthrie and Altus. It includes portions of Oklahoma City and Tulsa. Half of the district's inhabitants are urban and 3 percent of adults working in the district use public transportation, ride a bike, or walk; the district's population is 3 percent foreign-born. The political success of the Republican party in the region is tied to the state's settlement patterns. Northwest Oklahoma was settled out of Kansas while southeast was settled by Southerners that brought with them Democratic traditions; the Great Depression hurt the GOP, but it has since regained its place in the state, the growing social conservative bent in the state has allowed it to overtake the Democrats. It is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation. George W. Bush received 72 percent of the district's vote in 2004. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Tulsa metropolitan area
The Tulsa Metropolitan Area defined as the Tulsa-Broken Arrow-Owasso Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in northeastern Oklahoma centered around the city of Tulsa and encompassing Tulsa, Wagoner, Creek and Pawnee counties. It has an estimated population of 991,005 and 1,251,172 people in the larger Combined Statistical area as of 2015; the Tulsa Metropolitan Area consists of the following counties, listed in descending order of population: Tulsa County Rogers County Wagoner County Creek County Osage County Okmulgee County Pawnee CountyOsage County, the largest county by land area in Oklahoma comprises 36 percent of the TMA. Wagoner County, with 8 percent of the area, is the smallest county of the TMA. Tulsa County has the highest population density by far and Osage County has the lowest; the Tulsa Metropolitan Area's anchor city, Tulsa, is surrounded by two primary rings of suburbs. Connected by suburban sprawl, the cityscapes of Tulsa and its initial outlying ring of suburbs form to make the immediate Tulsa Urban Area, an area that sits apart from a second ring of noncontiguous suburbs.
Comprising the first ring of suburbs are: Catoosa, Broken Arrow, Owasso, Sand Springs and Turley. Cities and towns in the second ring of suburbs include, Okmulgee, Collinsville, Coweta and Inola. Tulsa, home to 413,906 people in 2017, is the principal cultural and economic hub of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area; the city, once known as the Oil Capital of the World, is still home to a large array of international oil-related industries, financial corporations, manufacturing bases. The city contains the region's only public two-year college Tulsa Community College, only private four-year universities, Oral Roberts University, the University of Tulsa; the Tulsa International Airport and Tulsa Port of Catoosa serve as the region's primary international travel and shipping hubs. Broken Arrow is the metropolitan area's second largest city. According to the 2010 US Census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth largest city in the state. However, a July 2017, estimate reports that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States.
Once a bedroom community for nearby Tulsa, Broken Arrow has emerged in recent decades as an economic center in its own right. In 2007, the city was rated the safest city in Oklahoma and 20th safest in the nation, as well as one of the nation's 100 best places to live. Bartlesville is an exurb of the city of Tulsa. With 35,750 people in 2010, the city is the third largest in the Tulsa-Bartlesville Combined Statistical Area, though it is not considered part of the immediate Tulsa Statistical Area by the Census Bureau, it is the county seat of Washington County, contains the only skyscraper built by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the Price Tower. Oklahoma Wesleyan University, the only private four-year university in the outlying cities of the Tulsa regional area, is Bartlesville's primary institution of higher education. Owasso, a bedroom community of 28,915 people in 2010, is the third largest city in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area and one of the fastest-growing in the state. Situated just north of the Tulsa International Airport and the Tulsa Zoo in Tulsa and Rogers counties, the city is connected to Tulsa by Highway 169 and contains a large base of upscale retail.
Bixby, located south of Tulsa, is a growing city and the fourth largest city in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area. It had a population of 20,884 at a 58.6 percent increase from the 2000 census. It has the largest per capita income in the TMA. An agricultural community known as "The Garden Spot of Oklahoma", it has become a bedroom community in the Tulsa area. Jenks is another growing suburb of Tulsa, located southwest of Tulsa between the Arkansas River and U. S. Route 75. A portion of the Jenks Public School District extends east of the Arkansas River encompassing a part of the city of Tulsa south of 81st street, it is one of the fastest growing cities in Oklahoma. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 9,557, but by 2010, the population had grown to 16,924, an increase of 77.1 percent. Jenks is known as the "Antiques Capitol of Oklahoma" and is home to the Oklahoma Aquarium. Claremore is the county seat of Rogers County; the population was 18,581 at the 2010 census. It is home to Rogers State University, a public four-year university located on the city's west side.
The city is home to many historical figures such as Will Rogers, a famous actor, Lynn Riggs, author of the novel that inspired the musical Oklahoma. Claremore is the setting of Oklahoma the musical. Country singer Garth Brooks lives just outside Claremore; the Will Rogers Memorial is located in Claremore. Sand Springs, a diverse urban community is one of the oldest suburbs of Tulsa; the population was 18,906 in the 2010 U. S. Census, it is located along the Arkansas River, just five miles west of downtown Tulsa. It is recognized as a hub of industrial activity. Attractions in Sand Springs include the Keystone Ancient Forest, Sand Springs Pogue Airport, the Canyons at Blackjack Ridge Golf Course and easy access to Keystone State Park; the city is connected to Tulsa by Highway 412/64, 41st Avery Drive. Sapulpa is a city in Creek and Tulsa counties, with its town center located 14 miles southwest of downtown Tulsa; the population was 20,544 at the 2010 United States census, making it the fourth largest city in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area.
It is the cou
Sapulpa is a city in Creek and Tulsa counties in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The population was 20,544 at the 2010 United States census, compared to 19,166 at the 2000 census; as of 2013 the estimated population was 20,836. It is the county seat of Creek County; the town was named after the area's first permanent settler, a full-blood Lower Creek Indian named Sapulpa, of the Kasihta Tribe, from Osocheetown, Alabama. About 1850, he established a trading post near the meeting of Rock creeks; when the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad built a spur to this area in 1886, it was known as Sapulpa Station. The Sapulpa post office was chartered July 1, 1889; the town was incorporated March 31, 1898. After Oklahoma became a state, each county held an election to determine the location of the county seat. Sapulpa competed with Bristow for county seat of Creek County. After five years of contested elections and court suits, the question was settled by the Oklahoma Supreme Court on August 1, 1913. Sapulpa was ruled the winner.
The county courthouse was completed in 1914, replacing an earlier structure built in 1902. The area around Sapulpa produced walnuts when the town was founded. In 1898, the Sapulpa Pressed Brick was established, followed in a few years by the Sapulpa Brick Company; this began the clay products industry. The founding of Premium Glass Company in 1912 marked Sapulpa's entry to glass manufacturing. Premium Glass was absorbed into Liberty Glass Company in 1918. Other glass producers in the city were Bartlett-Collins Glass Company, Schram Glass Company, Sunflower Glass Company. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History, Sapulpa became known as "The Crystal City of the Southwest". Sapulpa is the home of Frankoma Pottery. In 1889 the Frisco route between Oklahoma City and Tulsa, passing through Sapulpa, was opened; the Frisco built a railyard in Sapulpa and by 1900 designated Sapulpa as the location of an overhaul base for its rolling stock. In 1900, construction of the line from Sapulpa to Denison, Texas was started and rushed to completion by March 1901.
With changes in ownership over the years, the portion of the old Frisco line between Sapulpa and Del City, near Oklahoma City ended up owned by the State of Oklahoma. In 1998, the line was leased to Stillwater Central Railroad, in 2014 was sold to that company; the sale contract included a requirement to start a six-month daily passenger service trial run before August 2019, with a financial penalty for not meeting the deadline set at $2.8 million. In June of 2018, the Stillwater Central, being only a freight operator, issued a request for proposal to begin the process of securing another private rail carrier to provide the passenger service, such service known locally as the Eastern Flyer; the terms include an initial period of 10 years, involves only the route between Sapulpa and Del City, but with the expectation of working with city officials to expand service to the downtowns of both Tulsa and Oklahoma City. Separately, Sapulpa in the early days was on the route of the Sapulpa & Interurban Railway streetcar/interurban line connecting to Tulsa in one direction, Kiefer and Mounds in the other.
S&I subsequently went through a series of mergers and name changes, with only the Tulsa-to-Sapulpa portion continuing as the Tulsa-Sapulpa Union Railway. Sapulpa is located in the northeast corner of Creek County at 36°0′13″N 96°6′17″W. A small portion of the city extends north into Tulsa County and was annexed into the city in 2004. Downtown Tulsa is 14 miles to the northeast via Interstate 44; the Creek Turnpike branches east from I-44 in northeastern Sapulpa and provides a southern and eastern bypass of Tulsa. In January 2018, the Sapulpa City Council voted to approve the annexation of 300 acres of land in West Tulsa; the land is bordered to the north by 51st street, to the south by Southwest Blvd, to the west by 65th West Avenue. This annexation included the future site of the interchange of the Gilcrease Expressway and I-44. However, the city has now planned to de-anex this area back to the city of Tulsa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Sapulpa has a total area of 25.1 square miles, of which 24.3 square miles is land and 0.81 square miles, or 3.21%, is water.
As of the 2010 census, there were 20,544 people, 8,015 households, 5,497 families residing in the city. The population density was 844.3 people per square mile. There were 8,903 housing units at an average density of 435.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 3.0% African American, 10.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 6.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 7,430 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,372 and the median income for a family was $52,639. Males had a median income of
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2016, the population was 413,505, an increase of 12,591 over that reported in the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".
Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.
They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.
Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.
In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad
The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was a U. S. railroad that owned or operated two disjointed segments, one connecting St. Louis, Missouri with Tulsa and the other connecting Albuquerque, New Mexico with Southern California, it was incorporated by the U. S. Congress in 1866 as a transcontinental railroad connecting Springfield and Van Buren, Arkansas with California; the central portion was never constructed, the two halves became parts of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and Atchison and Santa Fe Railway systems, now both merged into the BNSF Railway; the A&P's earliest predecessor was the Pacific Railroad, incorporated by the Missouri General Assembly in 1849 to connect St. Louis and a point south of Kansas City across the center of the state. In response to an 1852 federal law granting public lands to Missouri to aid in constructing two cross-state railroads, the state approved an amendment to the 1849 Pacific Railroad law in December 1852, adding a Southwest Branch that would receive the grants.
The new branch, defined by state law to lie south of the Osage River, began at Franklin, Missouri, on the main line and headed west-southwesterly across the state. Construction on 71 miles from Franklin to Dillon was completed in 1860, a further 6 miles to Rolla were opened in 1861; the company graded 12 miles more to Arlington, but after it defaulted on bonds, issued for the branch, the state seized the road from Franklin to Rolla and incomplete roadbed to Arlington in March 1866. The property was sold in June for $1.3 million to explorer and politician John C. Frémont, who reorganized it as the Southwest Pacific Railroad in September. In July 1866, Congress passed a law incorporating the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad under control of Frémont and associates; the company was given the power to build near the 35th parallel from Springfield, Missouri west to the Pacific, with a branch from Van Buren, Arkansas. In exchange for its completion by 1878, the railroad would receive land grants along its route.
The same conditions were applied to the Southern Pacific Railroad of California, which could build a branch to connect to the A&P near the eastern border of that state. The A&P purchased the Southwest Pacific in January 1867, that year rails were laid on the grade to Arlington; that company, defaulted on its payments, the state of Missouri again seized the property in June 1867, selling it to a new South Pacific Railroad in July 1868. Ownership of the A&P was transferred to the new owners, which included Clinton B. Fisk of St. Louis. Another 164 miles to Pierce City and 39 miles of grading to Seneca on the state line were completed in 1870, when, in October, the South Pacific sold its property to the A&P; that company laid rails to Neosho that year and to Seneca, beyond to Vinita, Oklahoma, in 1871, in June 1872 it leased the Pacific Railroad, which operated a line to Kansas City and branches, including several into Kansas. The A&P's only branch, 1.5 miles to a mine near Granby, was built in 1875.
But this incarnation had similar financial problems. The owners of the A&P incorporated the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway in September 1876, acquired the property of the Missouri division, a lease on the Central division. Extensions beyond Vinita for 64 miles to Tulsa, 4 miles to Red Fork, 10 miles to Sapulpa were included in the lease; the SL&SF constructed a direct line into St. Louis in 1883, ending its dependence on the Missouri Pacific for access to that city. In January 1880, the SL&SF came to an agreement with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad, which had entered New Mexico from the north, whereby the two companies would jointly control the A&P; the SL&SF would continue to operate the Central division, a new Western division would begin on the AT&SF at Isleta, New Mexico and head west to meet the Southern Pacific at Needles, California. Construction began that year, reached Kingman, Arizona in 1882; the SP began building a branch from Mojave, California that same year, east to Needles, where the two met on August 9, 1883.
The A&P essentially an operating subsidiary of the AT&SF, leased the line from the SP in August 1884, in November 1885 the AT&SF-owned California Southern Railroad completed its line over Cajon Pass to the SP's Needles branch at Barstow, giving the AT&SF access to the coast. In addition to its lease of the SP to Mojave, the A&P operated via trackage rights over the AT&SF from Isleta to Albuquerque; the AT&SF gained control of the SL&SF in 1890, but both companies entered receivership in the December after the Panic of 1893, the A&P followed in January 1894. That road's Western division was sold to the newly created AT&SF subsidiary Santa Fe Pacific Railroad in June 1897, the remaining Central division was sold under foreclosure to the reorganized SL&SF, again independent of the AT&SF, in December 1897, ending the A&P's existence. Through the Santa Fe Pacific, the AT&SF acquired trackage rights in January 1899 over the SP's Tehachapi Pass line, giving it access to the Central Valley of California and San Francisco Bay Area.
The Santa Fe Pacific left the SP at Kern Junction, where the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railway - another AT&SF subsidiary - began, operated into Bakersfield via SF&SJV trackage. The AT&SF bought the railroad property of the Santa Fe Pacific in July 1902, its non-operating
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol