Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Courier Journal, locally called The Courier-Journal or The C-J or The Courier, is the largest news organization in Kentucky. According to the 1999 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, the paper is the 48th-largest daily paper in the U. S. and the single-largest in Kentucky. The Courier-Journal was created from the merger of several newspapers introduced in Kentucky in the 19th century. Pioneer paper The Focus of Politics and Literature, was founded in 1826 in Louisville when the city was an early settlement of less than 7,000 individuals. In 1830 a new newspaper, The Louisville Daily Journal, began distribution in the city and, in 1832, absorbed The Focus of Politics and Literature; the Journal was an organ of the Whig Party and edited by George D. Prentice, a New Englander who came to Kentucky to write a biography of Henry Clay. Prentice would edit the Journal for more than 40 years. In 1844, another newspaper, the Louisville Morning Courier was founded in Louisville by Walter Newman Haldeman.
The Louisville Daily Journal and the Louisville Morning Courier were the news leaders in Louisville and were politically opposed throughout the Civil War. The Courier was suppressed by the Union and had to move to Nashville, but returned to Louisville after the war. In 1868, an ailing Prentice persuaded the 28-year-old Henry Watterson to come edit for the Journal. During secret negotiations in 1868, The Journal and the Courier merged and the first edition of The Courier-Journal was delivered to Louisvillians on Sunday morning, November 8, 1868. Henry Watterson, the son of a Tennessee congressman, had written for Harper's Magazine and the New York Times before enlisting in the Confederate Army, he became nationally known for his work as The Courier-Journal emerged as the region's leading paper. He supported the Democratic Party and pushed for the industrialization of Kentucky and the South in general, notably through urging the Southern Exposition be held in Louisville, he attracted controversy for attempting to prove that Christopher Marlowe had written the works of Shakespeare.
He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1917 for editorials demanding the United States enter World War I. The Courier-Journal founded a companion afternoon edition of the paper, The Louisville Times, in May 1884. In 1896, Watterson and Haldeman opposed Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan over his support of "Free Silver" coinage; this unpopular decision upset readers and advertisers, many of whom pulled their support for The Courier-Journal. Kentucky voted for the Republican candidate in 1896, the first time in state history, local political leaders blamed the Courier. Only the popularity of The Louisville Times, which had no strong editorial reputation, saved the newspaper company from bankruptcy; the Courier supported Bryan in future elections. Haldeman had owned the papers until his death in 1902, by 1917 they were owned by his son and Henry Watterson. On August 8, 1918, Robert Worth Bingham purchased two-thirds interest in the newspapers and acquired the remaining stock in 1920; the liberal Bingham clashed with longtime editor Watterson, who remained on board, but was in the twilight of his career.
Watterson's editorials opposing the League of Nations appeared alongside Bingham's favoring it, Watterson retired on April 2, 1919. I have always regarded the newspapers owned by me as a public trust and have endeavored so to conduct them as to render the greatest public service; as publisher, Bingham set the tone for his editorial pages, pushed for improved public education, support of African Americans and the poor of Appalachia. In 1933, the newspapers passed to his son, Barry Bingham, Sr. Barry Bingham would continue in his father's footsteps, guiding the editorial page and modernizing the paper by setting up several news bureaus throughout the state, expanding the news staff. During Barry Bingham, Sr.'s tenure, the paper was considered Kentucky's "Newspaper of Record" and ranked among the 10 best in the nation. In 1971, Barry Bingham, Jr. succeeded his father as the newspapers' publisher. The Binghams were well-liked owners popularly credited with being more concerned with publishing quality journalism than making heavy profits.
They owned the leading local radio and television stations -- WHAS-TV, WHAS-AM, WAMZ-FM—and Standard Gravure, a rotogravure printing company that printed The Courier-Journal's Sunday Magazine as well as similar magazines for other newspapers. Barry Bingham Jr. sought to free the papers from conflicts of interests, through The Louisville Times, experimented with new ideas such as signed editorials. Bingham Jr. parted with tradition by endorsing several Republican candidates for office. In 1974, Carol Sutton became managing editor of The Courier-Journal, the first woman appointed to such a post at a major US daily newspaper. Under the leadership of C. Thomas Hardin, director of photography, the combined photography staff of The Courier-Journal and Louisville Times was awarded the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography for its coverage of school desegregation in Louisville. Barry Bingham, Jr. served as editor and publisher until he resigned in 1986, shortly after his father announced that the newspaper company was for sale, in large measure because of disagreements between Bingham Jr. and his sister Sallie.
In July 1986, Gannett Company, Inc. purchased the newspaper company for $300 million and appointed George N. Gill President and Publisher. Gill had been with the newspaper and the Binghams for over two decades, working his way up from reporter to Chief Executive Officer of the Bingham Companies. In 1993, Gill retired and Edward E. Manassah became President and Publisher. February 1987 saw
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, in Louisville, Kentucky, is the oldest of the six seminaries affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention. The seminary was founded in 1859 at Greenville, South Carolina, where it was at first lodged on the campus of Furman University. After being closed during the Civil War, it moved in 1877 to a newly built campus in downtown Louisville and moved to its current location in the Crescent Hill neighborhood. For more than fifty years Southern has been one of the world's largest theological seminaries, with a current FTE enrollment of over 3,300 students. In the wake of the Civil War, the seminary suspended classes for several years. With the financial help of several wealthy Baptists, including John D. Rockefeller and a group of Kentucky business leaders who promised to underwrite the construction of a new campus, the seminary relocated to Fifth Street and Broadway in downtown Louisville, Kentucky, in 1877. In 1926, during the administration of Southern president Edgar Y.
Mullins, the seminary occupied "The Beeches," a 100-acre suburban campus east of the city center designed by the Frederick Law Olmsted firm. The campus now contains 10 academic and residential buildings in Georgian architecture and three housing villages for married students. According to the Seminary itself, the Seminary used religious ideology in an effort to justify slavery and racial inequality, continued to do so until more than 100 years after emancipation. In December 2016, the Seminary acknowledged. In 1951, President Duke Kimbrough McCall integrated the campus, in defiance of Kentucky state laws that established segregation at public facilities. At the height of the Civil Rights Movement, Southern would become the only SBC agency to host a visit by Baptist minister and civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.. During King's address at SBTS, he mentioned he had been to the seminary's chapel several times in the past when accompanying his mother since King's mother was an organist for the Women's Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention.
As a result, many donors withheld their gifts to Southern, some demanded McCall's resignation for letting King speak in the seminary chapel. In 1938, Southern was among the first group of seminaries and divinity schools accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. Thirty years in 1968, Southern was one of the first seminaries to be accredited by its regional accrediting body, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Throughout its history, Southern has been an innovator in theological education, establishing one of the first Ph. D. programs in religion, the first department of Christian missions, the first curriculum in religious education, the first accredited, seminary-based social work program. In 1953, President McCall and the trustees reorganized the institution along the lines of a small university; the curriculum was distributed among three graduate-professional schools—Theology, headed by Dean Penrose St. Amant. In 1984, Anne Davis became founding dean of the Carver School of Church Social Work, which launched the first seminary-based Master of Social Work program to be accredited by the Council on Social Work Education.
The school was disbanded in 1997 by a subsequent seminary administration. It decided that secular social work was inappropriate for a seminary, replaced the program with a school for training evangelists and church-growth specialists. In 1968, Southern helped establish Kentuckiana Metroversity, a local consortium of two seminaries, two state universities, a community college and two private colleges, they offer a joint library catalog, cross-registration of any student in any member institution, faculty and cultural exchanges. In 1970, Southern helped create the Theological Education Association of Mid-America, one of the United States' first seminary "clusters," a consortium of five schools related to the Presbyterian, Wesleyan Methodist, Disciples of Christ, Roman Catholic and Baptist traditions, they provide inter-institutional team teaching, cross registration among students, a joint library catalog. The seminary is governed by a board of trustees nominated and elected by the SBC, it receives one-third of its $31 million annual budget from the SBC Cooperative Program, the unified financial support system that distributes gifts from the congregations to the agencies and institutions of the denomination.
In fiscal year 2007–08, Southern received $9.5 million through the Cooperative Program. Its endowments and invested reserves totaled $78 million. Southern is organized into three schools: The School of Theology The Billy Graham School of Missions and Ministry Boyce College The seminary's mission statement is: "Under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, the mission of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is to be committed to the Bible as the Word of God, to the Great Commission as our mandate, to be a servant of the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention by training and preparing ministers of the gospel for more faithful service."Southern was one of the first seminaries in the nation to offer the PhD degree, beginning in 1892. During the 1970s and 1980s, it had the largest accredited PhD program in religion in the United States, it was the first seminary in the nation to offer courses in religious education, beginning in 1903. This program expanded into a School of Religious Education in 1953.
In 1907, William Owen Carver founded the Women's Missionary Union Training School, which became the Carver Sc
Clifton is a neighborhood east of downtown Louisville, Kentucky USA. Clifton was named because of its hilly location on the Ohio River valley escarpment. Clifton is bounded by I-64, N Ewing Ave, Brownsboro Road, Mellwood Ave. Unlike other Louisville neighborhoods, Clifton was developed over a period of 60 years, with the first homes built in the 1860s sitting next to homes built in the 1910s, although nearly all homes were built in Victorian styles, its residential areas are much less dense than other nearby areas like Butchertown or the Original Highlands. The Louisville and Lexington toll pike, now called Frankfort Avenue, went through the heart of the area and was lined with small shops; the area began to revitalize in the 1990s, as numerous restaurants and antique shops opened up along Frankfort Avenue. Area attractions include the Kentucky School for the Blind and the American Printing House for the Blind; as of 2000, the population of Clifton was 2,469, of which whites are 87.2%, blacks are 8.1%, people listed as other are 2.2%, Hispanics are 2%.
College graduates are 32.1% of the population, people without a high school degree are 22%. Females outnumber males 53.1% to 46.9%. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Street map of Clifton Car Free Guide to Clifton /field/coveraa/mode/exact/conn/and/order/title/ad/asc/cosuppress/0 Images of Clifton in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collection "Clifton: Residents Knocked'Angora Heights' Down to Earth.
Louisville Free Public Library
The Louisville Free Public Library is the largest public library system in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Opened in 1905, the library's main branch is sited at Fourth and York streets, south of Broadway in downtown Louisville; the library's Head of Reference from its opening until 1910 was Marilla Waite Freeman, who would go on to become one of the most well-known librarians in the country. Additional branches were added over time, including the Western Colored Branch, the first Carnegie-housed library in the U. S. built for African Americans. Thomas Fountain Blue was appointed head of the Colored Branch in 1905 as well as the Eastern Colored Branch when it opened in 1914. During the flood of 1937 the museum, located in the basement, was forced to move to the Monserrat school. In 1950 the library became the first library in the nation to put its own FM-radio station on the air—WFPL. A second station, WFPK, joined it a few years later. In 1969, a $4 million north building was added to the classicizing Carnegie structure.
This provided an additional 110,000 square feet of floor space, compared to the 42,000 sq ft in the original building. At one time LFPL had over 30 branches, but a number of them were forced to close due to lack of funding. There are 17 branches, in addition to the main library site. Internet services and inter-library loan have helped to make up for havig fewer branches. In 2007, a proposed tax increase to pay for Louisville Free Public Library improvements and ongoing costs was soundly defeated in spite of strong support by many political and business leaders. Nonetheless, with the help of the Library Foundation and community support, a new education and technology-driven, $1.9 million branch library was completed and opened in the Newburg area in August 2009. In early August 2009 the main branch was flooded when a storm dropped 7 inches of water on the city in 75 minutes; the library servers, bookmobiles and processing rooms were under 6 feet of water. 50,000 books were destroyed, the building damaged, with a total estimate of $5 million.
Structural, mechanical and computer systems damage were near complete, forcing the main library to close for several weeks. Other branches in the system in hard-hit areas were closed for a few days while damage was assessed and cleanup undertaken; the library system itself remained open for business throughout the event. The last time the main building had flooded was in the Ohio River flood of 1937. Three other branches of the library system were damaged or affected in the flooding as well: Bon Air Regional Branch, Iroquois Branch, Shawnee Branch libraries. Despite the level of damage, library services at all branches, including the main, were able to return to near full service; the August 2009 flooding dumped 3 feet of water into the basement of the Louisville Free Public Library's Main Library. The damages to the facility and its holdings amounted to nearly $8 million. Library management decided that rather than repair the damage, they would move ahead with plans to renovate and improve the Main Library with millions of dollars in capital improvements its South Building, which fronts on York Street.
By the end of 2010, the library expected to have spent about $12 million on renovations and improvements. Reuben T. Durrett, a founder Louisville Free Public Library Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Louisville Free Public Library, The Library, 1905, OCLC 1644732 Louisville Free Public Library, Some books in the Louisville Free Public Library of interest to Catholic readers, Louisville, Ky, OCLC 8107487
The Peterson–Dumesnil House is a Victorian-Italianate house in the Crescent Hill neighborhood of Louisville, United States. Of the remaining large country estates built by Louisvillians in the late 19th century to the east of the city, it is the closest to Downtown Louisville, for that reason, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the house was built on a 31-acre lot in 1869 or 1870. In the post-Civil-War period, wealthy Louisvillians began to build country houses near the city, where they would spend weekends or summers, live as faster transportation to the city became available, it was one of several similar villa-style houses built on large lots on the south side of Frankfort Avenue, overlooking the valley through which Grinstead Drive now runs. Most as close to Downtown as the Peterson–Dumesnil house were demolished to make way for suburban residential development on small lots in the early 20th century. By 1974, only one other old estate remained in Crescent Hill, it was irrepairibly damaged by the tornado that hit Louisville that year.
Joseph Peterson, a wealthy Louisville tobacco merchant, built the house. He was known for his contributions to Louisville architecture, as his 1889 obituary reads, he "built many of the handsome and best structures which adorn our streets"; the house is believed to have been designed by local architect Henry Whitestone. Peterson's granddaughter, Eliza Dumesnil, inherited the house and lived in it until her death in 1948; the Louisville Board of Education purchased it and operated it as a private club for teachers, the only one of its kind in the United States, but this practice was abandoned and in 1982 the board declared it surplus, sold the house to the Peterson–Dumesnil House Foundation. The house is home to the Crescent Hill Community Council in the Louisville Historical League and is rented out for events such as weddings; the Peterson House was built after the Civil War, circa 1869-70, in the asymmetrical Italian villa style. It is built of brick on a limestone foundation, painted white, is two stories tall.
The only major alteration to the structure is a new front porch, built sometime after 1898. The house's Italianate facade is common in mansions of the period, the exterior is marked by a large cupola. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Official page
1974 Super Outbreak
The 1974 Super Outbreak was the second-largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period, just behind the 2011 Super Outbreak. It was the most violent tornado outbreak recorded, with 30 F4/F5 tornadoes confirmed. From April 3 to 4, 1974, there were 148 tornadoes confirmed in 13 U. S. states and the Canadian province of Ontario. In the United States, tornadoes struck Illinois, Michigan, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, West Virginia, New York; the outbreak caused $843 million USD with more than $600 million in damage occurring in the United States. The outbreak extensively damaged 900 sq mi along a total combined path length of 2,600 mi. At one point, as many as 15 separate tornadoes were on the ground simultaneously; the 1974 Super Outbreak was the first tornado outbreak in recorded history to produce more than 100 tornadoes in under a 24-hour period, a feat, not repeated globally until the 1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak and in the United States until the 2011 Super Outbreak.
A powerful spring-time low pressure system developed across the North American Interior Plains on April 1. While moving into the Mississippi and Ohio Valley areas, a surge of moist air intensified the storm further while there were sharp temperature contrasts between both sides of the system. Officials at NOAA and in the National Weather Service forecast offices were expecting a severe weather outbreak on April 3, but not to the extent that occurred. Several F2 and F3 tornadoes had struck portions of the Ohio Valley and the South in a separate, earlier outbreak on April 1 and 2, which included three killer tornadoes in Kentucky and Tennessee; the town of Campbellsburg, northeast of Louisville, was hard-hit in this earlier outbreak, with a large portion of the town destroyed by an F3. Between the two outbreaks, an additional tornado was reported in Indiana in the early morning hours of April 3, several hours before the official start of the outbreak. On Wednesday, April 3, severe weather watches were issued from the morning from south of the Great Lakes, while in portions of the Upper Midwest, snow was reported, with heavy rain falling across central Michigan and much of Ontario.
By 12 UTC on April 3, a large-scale trough extended over most of the contiguous United States, with several modest shortwaves rotating around the broad base of the trough. The mid-latitude low-pressure center over Kansas continued to deepen to 980 mb, wind speeds at the 850-mb level increased to 50 kn over portions of Louisiana and Alabama. Due to significant moisture advection, destabilization proceeded apace. CAPE levels in the region rose to 1,000 j/kg. However, a warm temperature plume in the elevated mixed layer kept thunderstorms from initiating at the surface. Meanwhile, a large mesoscale convective system that had developed overnight in Arkansas continued to strengthen due to strong environmental lapse rates. In the day, strong daytime heating caused instability to further rise: by 18 UTC, CAPE values in excess of 2,500 j/kg were present over the lower Ohio and the Mississippi Valley; as wind speeds in the troposphere increased, Large-scale lifting overspread the warm sector. At the same time, the forward-propagating MCS spread into the Tennessee and Ohio valleys, where it evolved into the first of three main convection bands that produced tornadoes.
This first convective band moved northeast, at times reaching speeds of about 60 kn. However, thunderstorm activity, for the moment, remained elevated in nature. By 1630 UTC, the large MCS began to splinter into two sections: the southern part slowed, lagging into southeast Tennessee, while the northern part accelerated, reaching Pennsylvania by 1930 UTC; the split was related to several factors, including a band of subsidence over eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia. These factors allowed the northern part of the MCS to accelerate due to efficient ducting, while the southern part slowed as the boundary layer warmed and moistened. Numerous surface-based supercells began to develop in the southern area, beginning with one that produced an F3 tornado at about 1630 UTC near Cleveland, Tennessee. Meanwhile, a new band of scattered thunderstorms developed at 1500 UTC over eastern Arkansas and Missouri. In the wake of the MCS, backing low-level winds, rapid diurnal destabilization, cool, mid-level advection had occurred over the warm sector, weakening the convective inhibition layer, favorable wind profiles bolstered helicity to over 230 m²/s²—a combination of factors conducive to tornadogenesis.
The storms increased in intensity and coverage as they moved into Illinois and northern Kentucky, producing several tornadoes, including the first F5 tornado of the day, at 1920 UTC, near Depauw, Indiana. Several of the storms to form between 1920 and 2020 UTC became significant, long-lived supercells, producing many strong or violent tornadoes, including three F5s at Depauw; these storms formed the second of three convective bands to generate tornadoes. While violent tornado activity increased over the warm sector, a third band of convection developed at about 16 UTC and extended