Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
Verdugo Wash is a 9.4-mile-long tributary of the Los Angeles River, in the Glendale area of Los Angeles County, California. The stream begins just south of Interstate 210 in the Crescenta Valley, it flows southeast along the eastern edge of the Verdugo Mountains south through a pass between those mountains and the San Rafael Hills, west to join the Los Angeles River just northeast of Griffith Park. Its entire path is located within the city of Glendale. With the exception of the free-flowing stream inside the Verdugo Wash Debris Basin Dam, Verdugo Wash is encased in a concrete flood control channel. From mouth to source: Los Angeles County Department of Public Works Drainage Area Map
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Los Angeles Fire Department
The Los Angeles Fire Department provides emergency medical services, fire cause determination, fire prevention, fire suppression, hazardous materials mitigation, rescue services to the city of Los Angeles, United States. The LAFD is responsible for 4 million people who live in the agency's 471 square miles jurisdiction; the Los Angeles Fire Department founded in 1886 is one of the largest municipal fire departments in the United States, after the New York City Fire Department and the Chicago Fire Department. The department may be unofficially referred to as the Los Angeles City Fire Department or "LA City Fire" to distinguish it from the Los Angeles County Fire Department which serves the county and whose name may directly confuse people, as the county seat is the city. Another possible reason is that the city and the unincorporated County are bordering each other and thus the two appear to be serving the same area; the department is under the command of chief Ralph Terrazas. The Los Angeles Fire Department has it origins in the year 1871.
In September of that year, George M. Fall, the County Clerk for Los Angeles County organized Engine Company No. 1. It was a volunteer firefighting force with a hose jumper; the equipment was hand-drawn to fires. In the spring of 1874, the fire company asked the Los Angeles City Council to purchase horses to pull the engine; the Council refused and the fire company disbanded. Many of the former members of Engine Company No. 1 reorganized under the name of Thirty-Eights No. 1 in May 1875, Engine Co. No. 2 was organized under the name Confidence Engine Company. Los Angeles acquired its first "ladder" truck for the Thirty-Eights, it was ill-adapted to the needs of the city. It was sold to the city of Wilmington. In 1876, another "hook and ladder" truck was purchased, serving in the city until 1881. In 1878, a third fire company was formed by the residents in the neighborhood of Sixth Street and Park, it was given the name of "Park Hose Co. No. 1". East Los Angeles formed a hose company named "East Los Angeles Hose Co.
No. 2" five years later. The final volunteer company was formed in the fall of 1883 in the Morris Vineyard area; this company was called "Morris Vineyard Hose Co. No.3."All of these companies remained in service until February 1, 1886, when the present paid fire department came into existence. In 1877, the first horses were bought for the city fire department; the department would continue to use horses for its equipment for fifty years, phasing out the last horse drawn equipment on July 19, 1921. By 1900, the Department had grown to 18 fire stations with 123 full-time paid firefighters and 80 fire horses; the city had installed 194 fire-alarm boxes allowing citizens to sound the alarm if a fire was spotted. 660 fire hydrants were placed throughout the city, giving firefighters access to a reliable water source. In 1955 Station 78 in Studio City became the first racially integrated station in the department; the department utilizes a wide array of equipment. These are most but not all of the apparatus.
The triple combination Fire Engine or “TRIPLE” is the most common type of firefighting apparatus in Los Angeles. The term “triple combination” refers to the apparatus having three components; the triple can be found as a one-piece engine company or as two engines assigned to a Task Force station. The “Triples” used by the LAFD have several parallel main pumps of varying capacities. Depending upon the area served, this apparatus may carry a combination of any or all of the following sizes of hose; the water tank carrying capacity ranges from 300 gallons to 500 gallons. These apparatus are staffed by four members, including a Captain 1 as the company commander. A number of triples in the LAFD are Paramedic assessment companies – meaning they include a Paramedic as part of the crew; the LAFD uses the concept of Light Forces and Task Forces which can be considered one "Resource", although comprising more than one unit or company. A Light Force is composed of a Ladder Truck. Light forces will always respond together as one unit or resource.
A Task Force is a Light Force coupled with an Engine. An Engine is considered a single unit or "resource". A Task Force responds to larger incidents, such as structural fires, is made up of an Engine, a 200 Series Pump Engine, a Truck, all operating together. While a standard Engine is always staffed with a full crew, a 200 Series Pump Engine is only staffed by a driver; the purpose of the 200 Series Pump Engine is to provide support and equipment to the Truck in a Light Force, either the Truck or the Engine in a Task Force. Rescue Ambulances called'rescues' for short, can be considered either advanced life support, or basic life support. Ambulances number 1-112 are frontline ALS staffed by 2 firefighter / paramedics, while those in the 200 series are ALS reserves. Ambulances in the 800s are BLS staffed by 2 firefighter EMT's, while those in the 900s are BLS reserves; the Air Operations division of the LAFD operates out of Fire Station 114 at Van Nuys Airport. The division has six helicopters available for air medical services.
Copter 1 and Copter 4 are both Bell 412s. Copter 2, Copter 3 and Copter 5 are all AgustaWestland AW139s; the final helicopter, Copter 6, is a Bell 206B. The Port of Los An