Crest (heraldry)

A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to a lesser extent, crests became pictorial after the 16th century. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above, set the helm, on which sits the crest, its base encircled by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse; the use of the crest and torse independently from the rest of the achievement, a practice which became common in the era of paper heraldry, has led the term "crest" to be but erroneously used to refer to the arms displayed on the shield, or to the achievement as a whole. The word "crest" derives from the Latin crista, meaning "tuft" or "plume" related to crinis, "hair". Crests had existed in various forms since ancient times: Roman officers wore fans of feathers or horsehair, which were placed longitudinally or transversely depending on the wearer's rank, Viking helmets were adorned with wings and animal heads.

They first appeared in a heraldic context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were decorative, but may have served a practical purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents' weapons; these fans were of one colour evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline; these were made of cloth, leather or paper over a wooden or wire framework, were in the form of an animal. These were worn only in tournaments, not battle: not only did they add to the considerable weight of the helm, they could have been used by opponents as a handle to pull the wearer's head down. Laces, straps, or rivets were used to affix the crest to the helm, with the join being covered by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse or wreath, or by a coronet in the case of high-ranking nobles. Torses did not come into regular use in Britain until the 15th century, are still uncommon on the Continent, where crests are depicted as continuing into the mantling.

Crests were sometimes mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau, as in the royal crest of England. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, physical crests disappeared, their illustrated equivalents began to be treated as two-dimensional pictures. Many crests from this period are physically impossible to bear on a helm, e.g. the crest granted to Sir Francis Drake in 1581, which consisted of a disembodied hand issuing from clouds and leading a ship around the globe. In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks: sovereigns' and knights' helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers and gentlemen faced to the right. In the medieval period crests would always have faced the same way as the helm, but as a result of these rules, the directions of the crest and the helm might be at variance: a knight whose crest was a lion statant, would have the lion depicted as looking over the side of the helm, rather than towards the viewer. Torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars.

Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many of the illogicalities of previous centuries were discarded. Crests are now not granted unless they could be used on a physical helm, the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed; the use of crests was once restricted to those of'tournament rank', i.e. knights and above, but in modern times nearly all personal arms include crests. They are not used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them; some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as personal devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies, but this is not observed. In continental Europe Germany, crests have a far greater significance than in Britain, it is common for one person to display multiple crests with his arms; this practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, arms with more than one crest are still rare.

In contrast to Continental practice, where a crest is never detached from its helm, a Briton with more than one crest may choose to display only one crested helm, have the other crests floating in space. Though adopted through marriage to an heiress, examples exist of secondary crests being granted as augmentations: after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, Robert Ross was granted, in addition to his original crest, the crest of an arm holding the US flag with a broken flagstaff. After the 16th century, it became common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm, use them in the manner of a badge, displayed on crockery, carriage doors, etc; this led to the erroneous use of the term "crest" to mean "arms", which has become widespread in recent years. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, its use by others is considered usurpation. In Scotland, however, a member of a clan or house is entitled to use a "crest-badge", which consists of th


Scripsit is a word processing application written for the Radio Shack TRS-80 line of computers. Versions were available for most if not all computers sold under the TRS-80 name, including the Color Computer and several pocket computer designs, as well as the Tandy version of the Xenix operating system; some of these versions have no ability to read or write to disk. Scripsit is a rudimentary word processor, it has basic text margin controls, as well as word wrap. Many versions tied to specific platforms were available, each version had its own set of features. Most versions supported variable width fonts for daisy-wheel printers. None had support for graphics other than some character macros depending on the version; the version for the TRS-80 Model I had special handling to make it possible to use lowercase letters though the hardware itself did not support mixed-case type. Despite its limitations, it was seen at the time as a killer application for the TRS-80 line of machines, along with other breakthrough applications such as VisiCalc.

The software market evolved however, its popularity soon gave way to WordPerfect running on the IBM PC. Word processors require the use of special function keys to access editing commands as opposed to text entry; this proved to be a challenge on the TRS-80 Model I and Model III computers, as their keyboards had no non-typewriter modifier keys—not a key. Instead, Tandy drafted the' @' key to access features such as margin load/save. An alternate disk-only version named Superscripsit was available with spellchecking for some platforms the Model I, Model III, Model 4; this version matches the functionally of the normal Scripsit for disk-based platforms such as the Model II, Model 12, Model 16. Some additional features such as boilerplating and integration with Profile, Tandy's database program for all of their TRS-80 platforms, are available for the disk versions. Starting Superscripsit led to a main menu of tasks such as "Open", "Proofread", or "Setup"; because of the limited screen area on most TRS-80 models, there were no visible menus on the editing screen.

RAM was also an issue, since selecting each of the options resulted in heavy floppy disk activity. Superscripsit for the Models III and 4 could handle text files larger than memory by paging text data in and out of RAM to disk. Sometimes this feature created a garbled data file. Rescue utilities were made available to rectify this situation; this was an all-new version written for Tandy/Radio Shack by CompuSoft. The author was Samuel A. Solomon. Scripsit Pro required a TRS-80 Model 4 equipped with the full 128 KB RAM; the text buffer was limited to 32 KB and it lacked Superscripsit's ability to page text from disk. However, it could hold a second 32K text document in banked RAM and split the screen to permit editing of both documents at once, to transfer text between the two buffers, it could chain text files, handle footnotes and columnar text, included a spell checker with a customizable dictionary. The documentation included instructions for the creation of custom printer drivers. Scripsit had a number of significant bugs.

The Model 4 version, for example, would inject random text throughout the document if the user held the control key down for more than a few seconds. If the machine turned off or were reset while a document was still open, the software could not open the document again. Early versions had the counter-intuitive step of "closing the file" which required a special operation before saving and exiting the file. If this step was omitted, the file could not be opened again. No warnings were issued beforehand; this was eliminated in newer versions of Scripsit. One handy and somewhat innovative feature for the time was the ability to add custom control characters in the printer setup; this allowed the user to take advantage of new features in a printer that were not intrinsically supported by Scripsit, such as different fonts or colours, or printing extended ASCII characters to produce simple lines and boxes. This was possible as printer manuals of the day included a full list of supported control character sequences for such functionality.

Isaac Asimov used Scripsit running on a TRS-80 Model II Computer for over nine years, wrote over 11 million words with the program. British thriller author James Follett used Scriptsit, running on a TRS-80 Model I, to write The Tiptoe Boys, filmed as Who Dares Wins. James Fallows praised Scripsit as "the word-processing program I prefer above all others... the best program on the market". On the TV program Mr. Wizard's World, Mr. Wizard used Scripsit on a TRS-80 Model 4 to demonstrate spell checking Further Reading The Misosys Quarterly Volume V.iii, page 36, "Recovering Superscripsit Documents" by David Kelton The Misosys Quarterly Volume IV.iii, page 21, "SuperScripsit Document Format" by Tom Price

The Love War

The Love War is a science fiction ABC Movie of the Week starring Lloyd Bridges as an alien warrior and Angie Dickinson as the woman he befriends. It was advertised and broadcast under the title The Sixth Column. Two warring planets choose to settle their conflict over which of them will take over the planet Earth, each sending a trio of soldiers to Earth to fight to the death; the combatants, disguised as human beings, can only identify each other by using special visors. Kyle, one of the combatants, falls in love with Sandy, a woman he meets during his stay in a small town. In the end, despite cheating by the other side, Kyle is the sole survivor, but before he can signal his people he has won, Sandy shoots him with one of the alien weapons. A dying Kyle learns that Sandy is an alien, she chose duty to her people over her love for him. Weeping as she watches him die, she asks him; the film’s closing shot shows Sandy through the visor as she is: a hideously scarred humanoid. The Earth faces the extermination of humanity.

The setting is north-central California, as the final show-down is held in a small town described as being near the city of Fresno. Lloyd Bridges as Kyle Angie Dickinson as Sandy Harry Basch as Bal Daniel J. Travanti as Ted Allen Jaffe as Hort Bill McLean as Reed Byron Foulger as Will Pepper Martin Bob Nash as Limo Driver Art Lewis It was released on VHS by Guild Home Video. List of American films of 1970 The Love War on IMDb The Love War at AllMovie