The Massif Central is a highland region in the middle of Southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus. It covers about 15% of mainland France. Subject to volcanism that has subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by a deep north–south cleft created by the Rhône River and known in French as the sillon rhodanien; the region was a barrier to transport within France until the opening of the A75 motorway, which not only made north–south travel easier, but opened up the massif itself. The Massif Central is an old massif, formed during the Variscan orogeny, consisting of granitic and metamorphic rocks, it was powerfully raised and made to look geologically younger in the eastern section by the uplift of the Alps during the Paleogene period and in the southern section by the uplift of the Pyrenees. The massif thus presents a asymmetrical elevation profile with highlands in the south and in the east dominating the valley of the Rhône and the plains of Languedoc and by contrast, the less elevated region of Limousin in the northwest.
These tectonic movements may be the origin of the volcanism in the massif. In fact, above the crystalline foundation, one can observe many volcanoes of many different types and ages: volcanic plateaus and small recent monogenic volcanoes; the entire region contains a large concentration of around 450 extinct volcanoes. The Chaîne des Puys, a range running north to south and less than 160 km2 long, contains 115 of them; the Auvergne Volcanoes regional natural park is in the massif. In the south, one remarkable region, made up of features called causses in French, consists of raised chalky plateaus cut by deep canyons; the most famous of these is the Gorges du Tarn. Mountain ranges, with notable individual mountains, are: Chaîne des Puys Puy de Dôme Puy de Pariou Puy de Lassolas Puy de la Vache Monts Dore Puy de Sancy Monts du Lyonnais Pilat massif Crêt de la Perdrix Mounts of Cantal Plomb du Cantal Puy Mary Forez Pierre-sur-Haute L'Aubrac Signal de Mailhebiau Monts de La Margeride Signal de Randon Monts du Vivarais Mont Mézenc Mont Gerbier de Jonc Cévennes Mont Lozère, the highest non-volcanic summit Mont Aigoual, near Le Vigan, Florac Monts de Lacaune Montgrand Monts de l'Espinouse Sommet de l'Espinouse Montagne Noire Pic de Nore Causse du Larzac Plateau de Millevaches Plateau de Lévézou Causse du Comtal Causse de Sauveterre Causse de Sévérac Causse Méjean Causse Noir Causse de Blandas The following departments are considered as part of the Massif Central: Allier, Ardèche, Aveyron, Corrèze, Gard, Haute-Loire, Haute-Vienne, Hérault, Lot, Lozère, Puy-de-Dôme, Rhône, Tarn.
The largest cities in the region are Clermont-Ferrand and Saint-Étienne. Geography of France Media related to Massif Central at Wikimedia Commons
Aubusson is a commune in the Creuse department region in central France. Aubusson is situated in the southern part of the département, at the confluence of the Creuse River and the Beauze; the route nationale N141 goes through the town. Local lore held that the community was settled by defeated Berbers following the 8th-century Battle of Tours, but it is now established that Aubusson has existed at least since the Gallo-Roman period; the Camp des Châtres, within the town's boundaries, for a long time considered a Roman fort dates back a little further, to the Iron Age. The town was known as Albuciensis in 936 and under the name Albuconis in 1070; the name originates from a name of a man, Albucius Other scholars claim the name is from a Celtic word meaning craggy. In the Middle Ages the town was ruled by viscounts; the vicecomital family produced a troubadour named Joan d'Aubusson. Aubusson is well known for its tapestry and carpets, which have been famous throughout the world since the 14th century.
Its origins were born with the arrival of weavers from Flanders, who took refuge in Aubusson around 1580. There is a famous collection of Aubusson tapestries at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc; the style of the tapestries produced has changed through the centuries, from scenes of green landscapes through to hunting scenes. In the 17th Century, the Aubusson and Felletin workshops were given "Royal Appointment" status. A downturn in fortunes came after the arrival of wallpaper. However, tapestry made something of a comeback during the 1930s, with artists such as Cocteau, Dali, Braque and Picasso being invited to Aubusson to express themselves through the medium of wool. Aubusson tapestry still thrives today. In 1983, l’Atelier Raymond Picaud chose Burhan Doğançay's Ribbon Series as a tapestry subject. Coventry cathedral's famous Christ in Glory tapestry, designed by artist Graham Sutherland, was woven in nearby Felletin. Installed in 1962, this was the world's largest vertical tapestry up until the 1990s. Created in 1981, the museum exhibits nearly 600 years of tapestry production.
This rich collection is composed of 18th and 19th Century tapestries and carpets. As well as works from its own collection, there are regular exhibitions of tapestries from around the world, showcasing works right up to the present day; this is a permanent exhibition, staged in an ancient Creusois house in Aubusson. The interior tells the history and traditions of tapestry as well as showing furniture of the period; the Clock Tower The old town Sainte-Croix church Ruins of the chateau The Vallenet House In the medieval period, Aubusson was a vicomté, similar to the English vice-county. Its rulers were: Ranulf I?-934 Robert I 934-942 Renaud I 942-958 Ranulf II Cabridel 958-1031 Ranulf III 1031-1060 Renaud III 1060-1069 William I 1069-1106 Renaud IV 1106-? Renaud V The Leper?-1185 Guy I 1185-? Renaud VI?-1249 Ranulf V 1249-c. 1265 William II 1263, lord of La Borne, La Feuillade, Monteil-au-Vicomte, Poux and Damoiseau, started a noble line that continued with his son Renaud VIII and his successors.
Around 1263/1266 the vice-county was sold to the count of La Marche. Jules Sandeau, member of the Académie française André Jorrand and organist Aubusson is twinned with: Eguisheim, France Communes of the Creuse département INSEE "Site du Théâtre Jean Lurçat - Scène nationale". "Site du Musée de la Tapisserie". Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2007-11-14. "Site sur la ville aujourd'hui". Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. "Site de la ville". "Site sur le passé de la ville". Archived from the original on 2007-11-18. "Aubusson on Quid website". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. "Localisation d'Aubusson on a map of France". "Website of the Association Les Amis de l'Orgue d'Aubusson"
Haute-Vienne is a French department named after the river Vienne. It is one of the 12 departments; the neighbouring departments are: Creuse, Corrèze, Charente and Indre. There are three arrondissements in the department; the chief and largest city in the department is Limoges, the other towns in the department each having fewer than twenty thousand inhabitants. Haute-Vienne is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, it is bordered by six departments. The department has two main rivers. To the southeast of the department lies the Massif Central, the highest point in the department is Puy Lagarde, 795 m; the source of the Charente is in the department, in the commune of Chéronnac, near Rochechouart. At the west end of the department is the Rochechouart crater, an impact crater caused by a meteorite that crashed into the earth's surface over 200 million years ago. A few Paleolithic and Mesolithic remains have been found in the department, Neolithic inhabitants are attested to by standing stones and by burial chambers, like the dolmen Chez Boucher in La Croix-sur-Gartempe, others at Berneuil and Breuilaufa.
Artefacts from the Bronze Age include. With the coming of the Romans, trade was opened up and gold and tin were mined. Agriculture developed and grapes were grown. During the reign of Augustus, the city of Augustoritum was founded at a strategic ford across the Vienne; the Romans built roads from here to Brittany and the Mediterranean. The city declined in the 3rd Century; the domination of the Visigoths was short-lived and Clovis I seized control of Limousin after the battle of Vouillé in 507. By 674, the region was attached to the duchy of Aquitaine, the Viscount of Limoges was created. There followed an unsettled period with various powers vying for control. In 1199, Richard Cœur de Lion was mortally wounded during the siege of the Château de Châlus-Chabrol; the region was much involved in the Hundred Years' War and at the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360, France granted England a large area of territory comprising much of Limousin. Limoges city rebelled and gave its allegiance to the French crown, as a result was sacked in 1370.
Further troubled years followed but when peace was restored, the department benefited economically. After a revolt by the peasants, Henri IV brought prosperity to the region of Limousin, he was greeted enthusiastically. The Counter-Reformation led to the creation of numerous convents and religious orders in Limoges. In 1761, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was appointed intendent of Limoges, he negotiated a reduction in taxes payable by the region and developed fairer methods of collecting taxes, as well as improving the road system and encouraging agricultural development. Around 1765, kaolin was discovered near Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche in the south of the department, the porcelain industry developed; the department was created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, the southern half being a subdivision of the Region of Limousin while the northern half was carved out of the county of Marche, as well as some parts of Angoumois and Poitou. At first it was given the number 81, but in the nineteenth century, the number was changed to the 87th department, when further land to the east and northeast was added.
It takes its name from the upper reaches of the Vienne. In 1998, the southwest part of the department, together with the northern part of the region of Périgord was designated as the Parc Naturel Régional Périgord-Limousin. In 2013, twenty million euros were earned from agriculture in the province, as against twenty-one million three hundred thousand from Limousin. There were 351,475 cattle in 22,780 pigs, 320,500 sheep and 6,500 goats. 723,340 hectolitres of milk were produced from 30,690 hectolitres from sheep. In the same year, 1,897,800 hectares of cereals were grown and in the previous year, 12,294 hectares of land were producing organic foodstuffs. In 1801, the population of the department was 245,150, it grew over the next century so that in 1901 it was 381,753. It peaked at 385,732 in 1906, fell back in 1911 to 384,736 and fell to 350,235 in 1921, after the Great War. By 1954 it had dwindled to 324,429 but after that it began to rise again, in 2007 stood at 371,102; the three arrondissements of the Haute-Vienne department are: Arrondissement of Bellac, with 63 communes.
The population of the arrondissement was 42,687 in 1990 and 40,120 in 1999, a decrease of 6.01%. Arrondissement of Limoges, with 108 communes; the population of the arrondissement was 274,643 in 1990 and 278,439 in 1999, an increas
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Puy-de-Dôme is a department in the centre of France named after the famous dormant volcano, the Puy de Dôme. Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the Puy-de-Dôme General Council to Puydômois, this is the name that has since been used in all official documents and publications. Puy-de-Dôme is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Auvergne. The department was to be called Mont-d'Or, but this was changed to Puy-de-Dôme following the intervention of Jean-François Gaultier de Biauzat, a local deputy, because of a concern that the name chosen risked attracting excessive unwelcome attention from the national taxation authorities. Puy-de-Dôme is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Loire, Haute-Loire, Corrèze, Creuse.
The department boasts more than 80 volcanic craters. It is three hours from Paris and an hour from Lyon by highways A71 and A89; the A75 links it to the Mediterranean Sea. Its main cities are Clermont-Ferrand, Riom, Issoire and Cournon-d'Auvergne. Parts of the department belong to the Parc naturel régional Livradois-Forez; the departmental seat, Clermont-Ferrand, is home to one of the country's best known manufacturing businesses and brands, Michelin. Thiers is the oldest industry place in Auvergne with its cutlery tradition from the 14th century; the countryside lends itself to tourism and Puy-de-Dôme is a popular weekend destination for city dwellers. The 1999 census found that 11.7% of the usable homes in the department were being kept as second homes. The department was the electoral constituency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, who served as President of the Republic from 1974 to 1981. Cantons of the Puy-de-Dôme department Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department Arrondissements of the Puy-de-Dôme department Maurice Persat Prefecture website Departmental Council website Puy-de-Dome at Curlie
The hazel is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is placed in the birch family Betulaceae, though some botanists split the hazels into a separate family Corylaceae; the fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut. Hazels have rounded leaves with double-serrate margins; the flowers are produced early in spring before the leaves, are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, the female ones are small and concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1-to-3 mm-long styles visible. The fruits are nuts 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre which to encloses the nut. The shape and structure of the involucre, the growth habit, are important in the identification of the different species of hazel; the pollen of hazel species, which are the cause for allergies in late winter or early spring, can be identified under magnification by their characteristic granular exines bearing three conspicuous pores.
Corylus has 14–18 species. The circumscription of species in eastern Asia is disputed, with WCSP and the Flora of China differing in which taxa are accepted; the species are grouped as follows: Nut surrounded by a soft, leafy involucre, multiple-stemmed, suckering shrubs to 12 m tall Involucre short, about the same length as the nut Corylus americana—American hazel, eastern North America Corylus avellana—Common hazel and western Asia Corylus heterophylla—Asian hazel, Asia Corylus yunnanensis—Yunnan hazel and southern China Involucre long, twice the length of the nut or more, forming a'beak' Corylus colchica—Colchican filbert, Caucasus Corylus cornuta—Beaked hazel, North America Corylus maxima—Filbert, southeastern Europe and southwest Asia Corylus sieboldiana—Asian beaked hazel, northeastern Asia and Japan Nut surrounded by a stiff, spiny involucre, single-stemmed trees to 20–35 m tall Involucre moderately spiny and with glandular hairs Corylus chinensis—Chinese hazel, western China Corylus colurna—Turkish hazel, southeastern Europe and Asia Minor Corylus fargesii—Farges' hazel, western China Corylus jacquemontii—Jacquemont's hazel, Himalaya Corylus wangii—Wang's hazel, southwest China Involucre densely spiny, resembling a chestnut burr Corylus ferox—Himalayan hazel, Himalaya and southwest China.
Several hybrids exist, can occur between species in different sections of the genus, e.g. Corylus × colurnoides; the oldest confirmed hazel species is Corylus johnsonii found as fossils in the Ypresian-age rocks of Ferry County, Washington. The nuts of all hazels are edible; the common hazel is the species most extensively grown for its nuts, followed in importance by the filbert. Nuts are harvested from the other species, but apart from the filbert, none is of significant commercial importance. A number of cultivars of the common hazel and filbert are grown as ornamental plants in gardens, including forms with contorted stems. Hazel is a traditional material used for making wattle, withy fencing and the frames of coracle boats; the tree can be coppiced, regenerating shoots allow for harvests every few years. Hazels are used as food plants by the larvae of various species of Lepidoptera; the Celts believed hazelnuts gave one inspiration. There are numerous variations on an ancient tale that nine hazel trees grew around a sacred pool, dropping into the water nuts that were eaten by salmon, which absorbed the wisdom.
A Druid teacher, in his bid to become omniscient, caught one of these special salmon and asked a student to cook the fish, but not to eat it. While he was cooking it, a blister formed and the pupil used his thumb to burst it, which he sucked to cool, thereby absorbing the fish's wisdom; this boy was called Fionn Mac Cumhail and went on to become one of the most heroic leaders in Gaelic mythology."The Hazel Branch" from Grimms' Fairy Tales claims that hazel branches offer the greatest protection from snakes and other things that creep on the earth. Eichhorn, Markus. "The Hazel Tree". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
The Creuse is a 264-kilometre long river in western France, a tributary of the Vienne. Its source is in a north-western extension of the Massif Central; the Creuse flows northwest through the following departments and towns: Creuse department: Aubusson. Indre department: Argenton-sur-Creuse, Le Blanc. Indre-et-Loire department: Yzeures-sur-Creuse, Descartes Vienne department: La Roche-PosayThe Creuse flows into the Vienne about 20 kilometres north of Châtellerault. A tributary of the Creuse is the Gartempe; the Creuse valley is the setting for paintings by the so-called Crozant School, including works by Armand Guillaumin and a series of vivid landscapes by the Bordeaux artist Alfred Smith. There are six hydroelectric dams on the river. Three are in the Creuse département with one at Chambon-Sainte-Croix above Anzeme, one at Les Chezelles near Le Bourg-d'Hem and one at L'Âge upstream of La Celle-Dunoise; the remaining three are in the Indre including the Éguzon dam, opened in 1926 and was, at the time, the largest dam in Europe.
The lakes created by the dams are popular tourist destinations and several have artificial beaches and leisure facilities. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Creuse at the Sandre database Media related to Creuse river at Wikimedia Commons