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Crime and Punishment

Crime and Punishment is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. It was first published in the literary journal The Russian Messenger in twelve monthly installments during 1866, it was published in a single volume. It is the second of Dostoevsky's full-length novels following his return from ten years of exile in Siberia. Crime and Punishment is considered the first great novel of his "mature" period of writing. Crime and Punishment focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Rodion Raskolnikov, an impoverished ex-student in Saint Petersburg who formulates a plan to kill an unscrupulous pawnbroker for her money. Before the killing, Raskolnikov believes that with the money he could liberate himself from poverty and go on to perform great deeds. However, once it is done he finds himself racked with confusion and disgust for what he has done, his ethical justifications disintegrate as he struggles with guilt and horror and confronts the real-world moral consequences of his deed. Dostoevsky conceived the idea of Crime and Punishment, prompted by the case of Pierre François Lacenaire, in the summer of 1865.

He had been working on another project at the time entitled The Drunkards, to deal with "the present question of drunkenness... all its ramifications the picture of a family and the bringing up of children in these circumstances, etc. etc." This theme, centering on the story of the Marmeladov family, became ancillary to the story of Raskolnikov and his crime. At the time Dostoevsky owed large sums of money to creditors and was trying to help the family of his brother Mikhail, who had died in early 1864. After appeals elsewhere failed, Dostoevsky turned as a last resort to the publisher Mikhail Katkov and sought an advance on a proposed contribution, he offered his story or novella for publication in Katkov's monthly journal The Russian Messenger—a prestigious publication of its kind, the outlet for both Ivan Turgenev and Leo Tolstoy. Dostoevsky, having carried on quite bruising polemics with Katkov in the early 1860s, had never published anything in its pages before. In a letter to Katkov written in September 1865, Dostoevsky explained to him that the work was to be about a young man who yields to "certain strange,'unfinished' ideas, yet floating in the air".

He planned to explore the moral and psychological dangers of the ideology of "radicalism", felt that the project would appeal to the conservative Katkov. In letters written in November 1865 an important conceptual change occurred: the "story" has become a "novel". From on, Crime and Punishment is referred to as a novel. In the complete edition of Dostoevsky's writings published in the Soviet Union, the editors reassembled the writer's notebooks for Crime and Punishment in a sequence corresponding to the various stages of composition; because of these labors, there is now a fragmentary working draft of the story, or novella, as conceived, as well as two other versions of the text. These have been distinguished as the Wiesbaden edition, the Petersburg edition, the final plan, involving the shift from a first-person narrator to the indigenous variety of third-person form invented by Dostoevsky; the Wiesbaden edition concentrates on the moral and psychological reactions of the narrator after the murder.

It coincides with the story that Dostoevsky described in his letter to Katkov and, written in the form of a diary or journal, corresponds to what became part 2. Why Dostoevsky abandoned his initial version remains a matter of speculation. According to Joseph Frank, "one possibility is that his protagonist began to develop beyond the boundaries in which he had first been conceived"; the notebooks indicate that Dostoevsky became aware of the emergence of new aspects of Raskolnikov's character as the plot developed, he structured the novel in conformity with this "metamorphosis". The final version of Crime and Punishment came into being only when, in November 1865, Dostoevsky decided to recast his novel in the third person; this shift was the culmination of a long struggle, present through all the early stages of composition. Once having decided, Dostoevsky began to rewrite from scratch and was able to integrate sections of the early manuscript into the final text. Frank says. Dostoevsky was under great pressure to finish Crime and Punishment on time, as he was contracted to finish The Gambler for Stellovsky, who had imposed harsh conditions.

Anna Snitkina, a stenographer who became Dostoevsky's wife, was of great help to him during this difficult task. The first part of Crime and Punishment appeared in the January 1866 issue of The Russian Messenger, the last one was published in December 1866. Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov, a former law student, lives in extreme poverty in a tiny, rented room in Saint Petersburg. Isolated and antisocial, he has abandoned all attempts to support himself, is brooding obsessively on a scheme he has devised to murder and rob an elderly pawn-broker. On the pretext of pawning a watch, he remains unable to commit himself. In a tavern he makes the acquaintance of Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov, a drunkard who squandered his family's little wealth. Marmeladov tells him about his teenage daughter, who has chosen to become a prostitute in order to support the family; the next day Raskolnikov receives a letter from his mother in which she describes the problems of his sister Dunya, working as a g

Friend class

A friend class in C++ can access the private and protected members of the class in which it is declared as a friend. A significant use of a friend class is for a part of a data structure, represented by a class, to provide access to the main class representing that data structure; the friend class mechanism allows to extend the storage and access to the parts, while retaining proper encapsulation as seen by the users of the data structure. The following example demonstrates the use of a friend-class for a graph data structure, where the graph is represented by the main class Graph, the graph's vertices are represented by the class Vertex. A proper use of friend classes increases encapsulation, because it allows to extend the private access of a data-structure to its parts --- which the data-structure owns --- without allowing private access to any other external class; this way the data-structure stays protected against accidental attempts at breaking the invariants of the data-structure from outside.

It is important to notice. Rather, a class gives access to its own private parts to another class --- by declaring that class as a friend. In the graph example, Graph cannot declare itself a friend Vertex. Rather, Vertex declares Graph a friend, so provides Graph an access to its private fields; the fact that a class chooses its own friends means. In the graph example, Vertex cannot access private fields of Graph, although Graph can access private fields of Vertex. A similar, but not equivalent, language feature is given by C#'s internal keyword, which allows classes inside the same assembly to access the private parts of other classes; this corresponds to marking each class a friend of another in the same assembly. Programming languages which lack support for friend classes, or a similar language feature, will have to implement workarounds to achieve a safe part-based interface to a data-structure. Examples of such workarounds are: Make the parts' fields public; this solution decreases encapsulation by making it possible to violate invariants of the data-structure from outside.

Move all mutable structural data away from the part to the data-structure, introduce indirection back from each part to its data-structure. This solution changes the organization of the data structure, increases memory consumption in cases where there would otherwise be no need for this information. Friendships are not symmetric – if class A is a friend of class B, class B is not automatically a friend of class A. Friendships are not transitive – if class A is a friend of class B, class B is a friend of class C, class A is not automatically a friend of class C. Friendships are not inherited – if class Base is a friend of class X, subclass Derived is not automatically a friend of class X. However, if class Y is a friend of subclass Derived, class Y will have access to protected portions of class Base, just as subclass Derived does. Friend function

Ganesh Prasad Singh

Ganesh Prasad Singh is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. He represented the Jahanabad constituency of Bihar, he has supported the view that voluntary repatriation of refugees is the best and most durable solution in the case of Afghan refugees. He was born to Ram Briksh Rampati Devi in Masaurhi village of Patna district, he is married to Shyampeyari Devi. He passed matriculation in year 1962 from SMGK High School, Patna, he got BA degree from B. N College and thereafter got degree of M. A and B. Ed from Patna University, he became an advocate and he started legal practice in Patna District court as well in Patna High Court. He got elected from Masaurhi Assembly Constituency as an MLA in the year 1980 for the first time. In the second term again he got elected from Masaurhi Assembly Constituency in the year 1995, he got nominated as a chairman of petition committee in the same year. In 1998, he was nominated as a chairman of Bihar State Khadi Gramudyog Board, Patna and in the tenure of chairman of Khadi Gramudyog board, he twice got elected as the director of Bihar state financial corporation.

In the year 2004, he got elected as MP from Jahanabad parliamentary constituency. He has immense interest in serving the needy people, he has established a high school in his village Masaurhi. In 2005, he visited United States to participate in 60th UN Assembly conference and delivered a lecture on effects of international law and international law of rehabilitation of its implements. Home Page on the Parliament of India's Website

Terra di Bari

The Terra di Bari, in antiquity Peucetia and in the Middle Ages Ager Barianus, is the region around Bari in Apulia. It was one of the justiciarships of the Kingdom of Sicily and Naples, it became a province in the Two Sicilies. Today it is a part of the Province of Bari in Italy. Since 2005, according to the municipal government of Bari, it refers to the metropolitan area of the city and is trademarked for touristic purposes. To the north of the Terra is the Capitanate and to the south the Terra d'Otranto, it is the only plain between the Murgia and the Adriatic and comprises the littoral, centred on Bari, between the river Ofanto and the city of Fasano. The ancient name "Peucetia" is derived from the Peuceti. Matthew, Donald; the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Við Djúpið

Við Djúpið was an annual music festival and a series of summer courses held in the Westfjords of Iceland around summer solstice. The event offered a series of concerts and master classes; the festival offered master classes and concerts with artists such as the cellist Erling Blöndal Bengtsson and pianist Vovka Ashkenazy with the Pacifica Quartet. Evan Ziporyn, composer and a member of the renowned band Bang on a Can gave a master class and concert in Ísafjörður during Við Djúpið 2007. Among performers at the 2008 festival were Pekka Kuusisto, violinist with Simon Crawford-Phillips, pianist and Håkon Austbø, pianist; the festival took place in Ísafjörður and surroundings where music has been part of daily life for a long time. Ísafjörður Music School was the main venue of the festival as well as Rögnvaldur Ólafsson's Art School, which offers great new venues in the Edinborg house. The master classes were held in close cooperation with the Iceland Academy of the Arts, are accredited by its Department of Music.

June 17–23 In the classical department, the artists who we proudly presented were: Pekka Kuusisto, violinist with Simon Crawford-Phillips, pianist as well as Norwegian pianist Håkon Austbø. There was an opera workshop led by Hanna Dóra Sturludóttir and conductor/pianist Kurt Kopecky. Violinist Una Sveinbjarnardóttir taught a violin course; the jazz sector featured jazz pianist Agnar Már Magnússon. Other performers were Anna Guðný Guðmunsdóttir, Berglind María Tómasdóttir and Tinna Þorsteinsdóttir, pianist. June 19–24 Erling Blöndal Bengtsson and Vovka Ashkenazy, pianist held master classes and concerts. A master class in Balinesian music led by Evan Ziporyn, clarinettist and member of the renowned band "Bang on a Can", Christine Southworth, gamelan musician; the young and inventive Icelandic jazz pianist Davíð. The Icelandic experimental modern music group Aton appeared in two concerts, one of them a special Midsummernight's concert, broadcast nationwide by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service.

June 20–25 Sigrún Hjálmtýsdóttir and Anna Guðný Guðmundsdóttir pianist taught a masterclass and gave a concert. Peter Máté, pianist and Guðrún S. Birgisdóttir, flutist taught a master class. Concerts were given by pianist Tinna Þorsteinsdóttir and the Icelandic jazz-trio Flís

Chamaraja Wodeyar III

Maha Mandalaswara Birud-antembara-ganda Hiriya Bettada Vijaya Chamaraja Wodeyar III was fifth raja of the Kingdom of Mysore and the last one to rule as feudal king under the Vijayanagara Empire. He reigned after his father's demise in 1513 until his death in 1553. Chamaraja Wodeyar III ruled under four Vijayanagara emperors of the Tuluva dynasty, he began his kingship under Emperor Krishnadevaraya. Krishnadevaraya's rajaguru was a Mysore-born guru and philosopher. Further, the growing rebel against Vijayanagara was suspended by Chamaraja Wodeyar III's father, Chamaraja Wodeyar II in order to understand Krishnadevaraya first. Krishnadevaraya proved to be an efficient ruler, he was inordinately knowledgeable. His reign focussed on all aspects of livelihood: arts and literature, culture and business, whatnot. Besides, his rule was justified by its benevolence, hence none under him rose against him, he defeated Yusuf Adil Khan's offspring Yusuf Adil Khan of the Bijapur Sultanate and annexed many Bahamani holdings.

During the last days of Krishnadevaraya and after his time, his brother Achyuta Deva Raya took over, continuing in his brother's footsteps. He was succeeded by his son Venkata Raya. However, Venkata Raya's maternal uncle, Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala, had all claimants to the throne assassinated and usurped to power, he went on to place the Bijapur Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah I in his place for seven days in defiance of Venkata Raya's supporters. This was too much for Vijayanagara's nobles to tolerate; this was the apple of discord for all subordinate Hindu rulers, including Chamaraja Wodeyar III. After diplomatically convincing, Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala returned, but Venkata Raya's followers assassinated Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala and installed Achyuta Raya's nephew, Sadasiva Raya, with Krishnadevaraya's son-in-law Rama Raya as royal adviser, who played de facto emperor, was strategically mediating among the Deccan Sultanates with the long-term intention of breaking them apart. During this period, Chamaraja Wodeyar came to begin questioning the authenticity of the Vijayanagara ruling family and what had become of it from the Sangama dynasty to the Tuluva family.

He was queasy about bowing before the centre in Vijayanagara and had unofficially begun to undermine the centre's authority. He thought that it was not necessary any more for Mysore Kingdom to act as feudal lords but as allied friends, but before he could take a political stand, Chamaraja Wodeyar III died. Chamaraja Wodeyar III constructed the fort of Mysore on the site of what was a village called Puragiri, whereupon today stands Mysore Palace; this fort defined for the first time the palace of the monarch of the Kingdom of Mysore. The fort has been built and rebuilt multiple times, like the palace itself it abuts, with the most recent in 1940, commissioned by Maharaja Jayachamaraja Wadiyar during the beginning of his reign. Chamaraja Wodeyar III died on 17 February 1553. Wodeyar dynasty Mysore Palace