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Crime prevention through environmental design

Crime prevention through environmental design is an agenda for manipulating the built environment to create safer neighborhoods. It originated in America around 1960, when urban renewal strategies were felt to be destroying the social framework needed for self-policing. Architect Oscar Newman created the concept of ‘defensible space’, developed further by criminologist C. Ray Jeffery who coined the term CPTED. Growing interest in environmental criminology led to detailed study of specific topics such as natural surveillance, access control and territoriality; the "broken window" principle demonstrated how neglected zones invite crime, reinforced the need for good property maintenance to assert visible ownership of space. Appropriate environmental design can increase the perceived likelihood of detection and apprehension, known to be the biggest single deterrent to crime, and there has been new interest in the interior design of prisons as an environment that affects decisions to offend. Wide-ranging recommendations to architects include the planting of trees and shrubs, the elimination of escape routes, the correct use of lighting, the encouragement of pedestrian and bicycle traffic in streets.

Tests show. CPTED was coined and formulated by criminologist C. Ray Jeffery. A more limited approach, termed defensible space, was developed concurrently by architect Oscar Newman. Both men built on the previous work of Jane Jacobs and Schlomo Angel. Jeffery's book, "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design" came out in 1971, but his work was ignored throughout the 1970s. Newman's book, "Defensible Space: – Crime Prevention through Urban Design" came out in 1972, his principles were adopted but with mixed success. The defensible space approach was subsequently revised with additional built environment approaches supported by CPTED. Newman credited Jeffery as the originator of the CPTED term. Newman's CPTED-improved defensible space approach enjoyed broader success and resulted in a reexamination of Jeffery's work. Jeffery continued to expand the multi-disciplinary aspects of the approach, advances which he published, with the last one published in 1990; the Jeffery CPTED model is more comprehensive than the Newman CPTED model, which limits itself to the built environment.

Models of CPTED were developed based on the Newman Model, with criminologist Tim Crowe's being the most popular. As of 2004, CPTED is popularly understood to refer to the Newman/Crowe type models, with the Jeffery model treated more as multi-disciplinary approach to crime prevention which incorporates biology and psychology, a situation accepted by Jeffery himself.. A revision of CPTED, initiated in 1997, termed 2nd Generation CPTED, adapts CPTED to offender individuality, further indication that Jeffery's work is not popularly considered to be a part of CPTED. in 2012 Woodbridge introduced and developed CPTED in prison and showed how design flaws allowed criminals to keep offending. In the 1960s Elizabeth Wood developed guidelines for addressing security issues while working with the Chicago Housing Authority, placing emphasis on design features that would support natural surveillability, her guidelines were never implemented but stimulated some of the original thinking that led to CPTED.

Jane Jacobs' book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities argued that urban diversity and vitality were being destroyed by urban planners and their urban renewal strategies. She was challenging the basic tenets of urban planning of the time: that neighborhoods should be isolated from each other. An editor for Architectural Forum magazine, she had no formal training in urban planning, but her work emerged as a founding text for a new way of seeing cities, she felt that the way cities were being designed and built meant that the general public would be unable to develop the social framework needed for effective self-policing. She pointed out that the new forms of urban design broke down many of the traditional controls on criminal behavior, for example, the ability of residents to watch the street and the presence of people using the street both night and day, she suggested. Jacobs developed the concept that crime flourishes when people do not meaningfully interact with their neighbors. In Death and Life, Jacobs listed the three attributes needed to make a city street safe: a clear demarcation of private and public space.

Schlomo Angel studied under noted planner Christopher Alexander. Angel's Ph. D. thesis, Discouraging Crime Through City Planning, was a study of street crime in Oakland, CA. In it he states "The physical environment can exert a direct influence on crime settings by delineating territories, reducing or increasing accessibility by the creation or elimination of boundaries and circulation networks, by facilitating surveillance by the citizenry and the police." He asserted that crime was inversely related to the level of activity on the street, that the commercial strip environment was vulnerable to crime because it thinned out activity, making it easier for individuals to commit street crime. Angel developed and published CPTED concepts in 1970 in work supported and distributed by the United States Department of Justice; the phrase crime prevention through environmental design was first used by C. Ray Jeffery, a criminologist from F

Textbeak

Michael Szewczyk, known as DJ Textbeak, is an American DJ, artist and record producer. DJ Textbeak is known internationally for his varied style of dark and experimental music including remixes for ∆AIMON, Cyanotic, 3Teeth, among others. In 2016, he was a support act for Modern English, he is considered influential in the Witch house genre for his early introduction of the movement and exclusive contributions of remixes. He was a contributor to the Zombie Nation song "The Mind of Many." Textbeak grew up raised by his single mother and grandparents who helped explore his interest in sounds from classical composition to film documentaries and environmental noise. In his early teens, he was able to orchestrate these sounds through modular sampling. Forming his sound, Textbeak was musically grouped with and appealed to punk, dark electro, techno genres. In 1991 he moved to Columbus, Ohio to start the rave group Body Release with Todd Sines, Titonton Duvante and Charles Noel, to tour the United States.

By 1993 Textbeak was known as The Cobbler and signed and released original material through Jevan Records, a goth and industrial label, in what he classified as musically "alien and scary." The group project entitled Bath was nominated for music awards. During this time, he began remixing other acts on the label and befriended artist and poet Lorin Morgan-Richards. In 1998, he began releasing solo material and performing internationally alongside acts Merzbow, Tamara Sky, Larry Tee, Nitzer Ebb, Meat Beat Manifesto to name a few. In 2011, Textbeak started his own 2-hour satellite program entitled TXTBK's CHVяCH XV BяXK3N 7ANGvAG3 featuring original and remixed tracks of new witch, experimental and electro. In the same year, he was invited to participate in an exhibit entitled Necessary Discomforts, a tribute to Rozz Williams at the Hyaena Gallery. In creating artwork, Textbeak's approach is similar to his filter of music, applying collage samples of visual information into a base of painting and illustration.

Textbeak has produced a large body of digital work. In 2016, Auxiliary Magazine nominated Textbeak best DJ of the year. Textbeak official website Textbeak on Soundcloud Facebook page

Bomb Scared

Bomb Scared is a 2017 Spanish dark comedy film about four Basque ETA terrorists who are planning a terrorist attack in Spain. The film was released worldwide on October 2017, by Netflix. Four Basque ETA terrorists, living together with peculiar Spanish neighbors, are planning a terrorist attack in Spain, but await a phone call with instructions from the head of the organization, it takes place in the summer of 2010 in a small Spanish town, when at the same time the Spanish national football team wins the World Cup in South Africa and has the whole country celebrating. Javier Cámara as Martín Julián López as Pernando Miren Ibarguren as Ainara Gorka Otxoa as Álex Ramón Barea as Artexte Luis Bermejo as Armando Josean Bengoetxea as Benito Ane Gabarain as Beitia Tina Sáinz as Lourdes Bárbara Santa-Cruz as Natalia Bomb Scared on Netflix Bomb Scared on IMDb Bomb Scared at Rotten Tomatoes

Crocodile Rock

"Crocodile Rock" is a song written by Elton John and Bernie Taupin, recorded in summer 1972 at the Château d'Hérouville studio in France, where John and his team had recorded the Honky Château album. It was released on 27 October 1972 in the UK and 20 November 1972 in the U. S. as a pre-release single from his forthcoming 1973 album Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player, became his first U. S. number-one single, reaching the top spot on 3 February 1973, stayed there for three weeks. In the U. S. it was certified Gold on 5 February 1973 and Platinum on 13 September 1995 by the RIAA. In Canada, it topped the chart as well, remaining at No.1 on the RPM 100 national singles chart for four weeks from 17 February through 10 March. It was the first song released as a single on the MCA label after MCA dissolved its Uni, Decca and Coral labels. "Crocodile Rock" is dominated by a Farfisa organ, played by John. The lyrics take a nostalgic look at early rock'n' roll and youthful independence of that era.

Elton John band members, including Davey Johnstone on guitars, Dee Murray on bass and Nigel Olsson on drums, were performers on the song. Elton John, did all the vocals, including the falsetto backing vocals; the song was inspired by John's discovery of leading Australian band Daddy Cool and their hit single "Eagle Rock", the most successful Australian single of the early 1970s, remaining at No.1 for a record of 10 weeks. John heard the song and the group on his 1972 Australian tour and was impressed by it. A photo included in the album packaging features John's lyricist, Bernie Taupin, wearing a "Daddy Who?" Promotional badge. The song appears to have been influenced by songs from the late 50s-early 60s, including Del Shannon's 1962 "Cry Myself to Sleep" and "Little Darlin'", lyrically by "Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley and his Comets; the opening riff resembles "Let's Dance" by Chris Montez, the chorus resembles "Speedy Gonzales" by Pat Boone. In a 1974 lawsuit filed in the US District Court of Los Angeles by attorney Donald Barnett on behalf of "Speedy Gonzales"' composer Buddy Kaye, it was alleged that defendants Elton John and Bernie Taupin illegally incorporated chords from "Speedy Gonzales" which produced a falsetto tone into the Crocodile song co-written by defendants.

The parties reached a settlement between them and the case was dismissed. Taupin stated in an interview with a magazine that "Crocodile Rock" was a funny song in that he didn't mind creating it, but it wouldn't be something he'd listen to. John has dismissed criticism of the song that it was "derivative", quoted in the booklet for the 1995 reissue of Don't Shoot Me... as saying, "I wanted it to be a record about all the things I grew up with. Of course it's a rip-off, it's derivative in every sense of the word." John has played the song numerous times in concert, including a ballad version he performed at the Greek Theater with Ray Cooper in 1994. Live versions released include an audio version from 1974 on the Here and There original LP and 1995 CD reissue, a video concert version on the Elton 60 – Live at Madison Square Garden DVD release. Elton John – piano, Farfisa organ, vocals Davey Johnstone – electric guitar Dee Murray – bass Nigel Olsson – drums List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1973 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Antonín Holý

Antonín Holý was a pioneering Czech scientist. He specialised in the field of chemistry and cooperated on the development of important antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV and hepatitis B, he was involved in the creation of the most effective drug in the treatment of AIDS. Antonín Holý holds 60 patents. With more than 400 discoveries to his credit, his work has affected millions of people with viral diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and many other viral diseases. In 2008 he received an Honorary Professorship at the University of Manchester's School of Chemistry. Born in Prague, Antonín Holý studied organic chemistry from 1954 to 1959 at the Faculty of Science of Charles University in Prague. From 1960 he trained at the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague and had been a researcher there since 1963, he became the Institute's lead scientist in 1967, from 1983 headed its working group for nucleic acids. In 1987 he became chief of the Department of Nucleic Acid Chemistry and from 1994 to 2002 he was head of the IOCB.

Since 1976 he had collaborated on the development of new antiretroviral drugs with Erik De Clercq of the Rega Institute for Medical Research at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. His key contribution are the synthesis of nucleotide analogues, synthetic mimetics of the building blocks of RNA and DNA, that have found utility as inhibitors of viral replication; these include Tenofovir and Cidofovir. Although ineffective as synthesized by Holy because of impermeability conferred by the negative charged phosphonate, conjugation with POM and POC pro-drug moieties developed by David Farquhar at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, has made these nucleotide analogues into clinically effective drugs for the treatment of Hepatitis B, biPOC-Tenofovir Tenofovir. Together, these drugs have made an dramatic impact for the treatment of HIV. In particular, Truvada has shown exceptionally useful in preventing HIV transmission and thus has not only helped countless HIV patients, but has in fact prevented countless other healthy individuals from contracting the disease in the first place.

In 2006 the US biopharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic jointly established a new research center, oriented to the development of new preparations. Gilead promised the IOCB a $1.1 million donation. Several antiretroviral drugs based on Holý's discoveries have been licensed. In 1996, Vistide was approved for production in the United States and European Union. Viread was approved in the USA in 2001 for the treatment of AIDS, Hepsera was approved in 2003 for the treatment of hepatitis B. Truvada, a combination of Viread and emtricitabine, was approved in 2006 for use in the USA. Holý had retired a year before his death and died of an unspecified cause, aged 75, on 16 July 2012. A statement from the IOCB called his death "an immense loss", his death occurred two months after the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada for treating HIV, on the same day that the FDA approved Truvada for HIV prevention.

1984 State Prize for Chemistry 1998 Hanuš's Medal of the Czech Chemical Society 1999 Honorary doctorate of the Palacký University in Olomouc 2001 Descartes Prize of the European Union. 2004 Award Praemium Bohemiae. 2006 Member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts 2006 Honorary doctorate of the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague 2007 State Prize "Czech Head" 2008 Honorary Professorship at the School of Chemistry, University of Manchester 2009 Honorary doctorate of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice 2011 Silver memorial medal of the Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic 2012 Silver medal of the City of Prague Adefovir Cidofovir Tenofovir Biography, bibliography Antonín Holý at the website of Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v.v.i. Professor Antonín Holý at www.czech.cz - Personalities of Today Holý's discoveries at the website of 10th International Congress of Dermathology Interview with Antonín Holý about art and science, published in Czech e-daily www.blisty.cz, Slovak daily Obroda, in 2004

Harold G. Maier

Harold G. Maier was a noted scholar in the field of international law, international civil litigation, conflict of laws. After receiving his undergraduate education at the University of Cincinnati, he obtained his law degree from the University of Cincinnati College of Law, he earned an LL. M. from the University of Michigan. He held the title of David Daniels Allen Professor of Law Emeritus at the Vanderbilt University Law School. In addition to being a prolific author, Maier has served as Counselor on International Law to the Legal Adviser at the U. S. Department of State, as a member of the U. S. Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law, as a consultant to the Office of the Secretary of the Army on the Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations. Additionally, he has testified before congressional committees on various issues, including emergency presidential controls on international economic transactions. In 1985 he was an expert witness for the U. S. Government in civil litigation resulting from the Mariel boatlift.

At Vanderbilt, he established the law school's Transnational Studies Program as well as the Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. Biography from Pace Law School