The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic state existing from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage; the khanate was located in present-day Moldova and Ukraine. Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. In 1774, it was released as a sovereign political entity, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, becoming the Taurida Governorate. Though, according to a well-known Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zaitsev Ilya Vladimirovich, the Crimean Khanate was an independent state during all its history. English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries called the territory of the Crimean Khanate and of the Lesser Nogai Horde Little Tartary.
The name "Little Tartary" distinguished the area from Tartary – those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula and the adjacent steppes corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine between the Dnieper and the Donets rivers; the territory controlled by the Crimean Khanate shifted throughout its existence due to the constant incursions by the Cossacks, who had lived along the Don since the disintegration of the Golden Horde in the 15th century. The London-based cartographer Herman Moll in a map of c. 1729 shows "Little Tartary" as including the Crimean peninsula and the steppe between Dnieper and Mius River as far north as the Dnieper bend and the upper Tor River. The Crimean Khanate originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak and decided to make Crimea their yurt. At that time, the Golden Horde of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, with its capital at Qirim.
The local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray traveled from exile in Lithuania, he warred for independence against the Horde in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qırq Yer; the khanate included the Crimean Peninsula as well as the adjacent steppe. The sons of Hacı I Giray contended against each other to succeed him; the Ottomans installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title "Sovereign of Two Continents and Khan of Khans of Two Seas." In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo and Caffa. Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans. The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the khanate rule of the steppes, as the khans were descendants of Genghis Khan.
In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion. After returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects; the khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty, they did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire. On, Crimea lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñli's successor, Mehmed I Giray, he died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan. The alliance of the Crimean Tatars and the Ottomans was comparable to the Polish-Lithuanian Union in its importance and durability; the Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns against Poland and Persia. In 1502, Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde, which put an end to the Horde's claims on Crimea.
The Khanate chose as its capital Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress. The capital was moved a short distance to Bahçeseray, founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray. Both Salaçıq and the Qırq Yer fortress today are part of the expanded city of Bahçeseray; the slave trade was the backbone of the economy of the Crimean Khanate. However, other historians are sure that the role of the slave trade in the economy of the Crimean Khanate is exaggerated by modern historians, the raiding economy is nothing but a historical myth; the Crimeans mounted raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, Muscovy to enslave people whom they could c
McCabe's Guitar Shop is a musical instrument store and live music venue on Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, United States. Opened in 1958 by Gerald L. McCabe, a well-known furniture designer. McCabe's specializes in acoustic and folk instruments, including guitars, mandolins, fiddles, psaltries, sitars and ethnic percussion. Since 1969, McCabe's has been a noted forum for folk concerts; the decor at McCabe's is stripped down, with concerts being given in a back room with folding chairs and walls covered with vintage guitars, banjos and other instruments. A poll by LA Observed rated McCabe's as one of the 32 greatest things about Los Angeles. In The Guide prepared by the Los Angeles Times, McCabe's is described as "an achingly intimate room" with a "bare-bones setting" featuring "the best guitar music west of the 405 Freeway." The Guide continues: "Legends, traveling minstrels and local talent—they all seem to pass through McCabe's at some point. They may be there to get their guitars fixed. Frommer's describes the McCabe's experience as "intimate in the extreme.
The Metromix guide to Los Angeles calls McCabe's "a mild-mannered guitar/stringed instrument shop by day" that "opens up as a world-class concert venue by night." At full capacity the concert room holds 150. McCabe's is owned by Esperanza Riskin. Robert is the son of actress Fay Wray and Robert Riskin" The list of past performers includes some of the genre's finest musicians, including: Owing to its intimate setting and reputation as one of folk's most renowned forums. In the mid-1970s Takoma Records had offices two doors east of McCabes and built a recording studio, with audio and video cables going from the sound booth at McCabes to the control room of the studio, which allowed easy recording of concerts; these master live recordings now reside within the McCabe's Guitar Shop Collection at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Southern Folklife Collection. Numerous artists have recorded live albums at McCabe's including: Norman Blake: Live at McCabe's released in 1976 Mike Bloomfield I'm With You Always Byron Berline: Live at McCabe's released in 1978 Maria Muldaur Gospel Nights Ted Hawkins: The Final Tour Townes Van Zandt: Live at McCabe's recorded in 1995 Ralph Stanley: Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop 2-11-01 Tom Paxton: Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop recorded in 1991 Henry Rollins: Live at McCabe's recorded June 1990 Robin Williamson: Merry Band's Farewell Concert at McCabe's recorded in 1979 Nancy Wilson: Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop released in 1999 Freedy Johnston: Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop released in 1998 John Stewart: Deep in the Neon: Live at McCabe's released in 1991 Chris Smither: Chris Smither Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop 3/14/03 David Hatfield: David Hatfield Live at McCabe's released in 2003 Lyle Ritz & Herb Ohta: A Night of Ukulele Jazz Live at McCabe's recorded in 2000 Paul Siebel: Live at McCabe's released in 1981 Batdorf & Rodney: Live at McCabe's 1975Gene Clark & Carla Olson - Silhouetted In Light A bootleg recording was made of R.
E. M.: Live at McCabe's Guitar Shop in 1987. Numerous audience tapes circulate of McCabe's performances, several soundboards, including a set by T Bone Burnett in December 1993 that featured the Williams Brothers, Maria McKee and a cover of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You." It featured "My Life and the Women Who Lived It." Days Burnett performed at Rockpalast in Europe and claimed that "My Life..." was written on the flight to Europe. That was not true. Bruce Springsteen joined John Wesley Harding onstage at a show to help sing Springsteen's "Wreck on the Highway," which turned up on a Harding release. John Hiatt sang many of his songs from "Bring the Family" at several McCabe's shows just prior to recording that album; those songs included "Memphis in the Meantime," "You Dad Did" and "Lipstick Sunset," among others. McCabe's booker at the time, John Chelew, produced "Bring the Family,", recorded in four days and became Haitt's best-known album. Cromelin, Richard. "Gerald McCabe dies at 82.
2 Andromedae, abbreviated 2 And, is a binary star system in the northern constellation of Andromeda. 2 Andromedae is the Flamsteed designation. It is a faint star system but visible to the naked eye with a combined apparent visual magnitude of 5.09. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 7.7 mas, it is located 420 light years away. The binary nature of the star was discovered by American astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham at Lick Observatory in 1889; the pair orbit each other over a period of 74 years with a high eccentricity of 0.8. The magnitude 5.26 primary, designated component A, is an A-type main-sequence star based on a stellar classification of A1V or A2V, although it may have left the main sequence. It was identified as a candidate Lambda Boötis star, but this was ruled out by Paunzen et al. as it doesn't match the typical characteristics of these objects. Although 2 And does not display a significant infrared excess, it is a shell star that displays varying absorption features due to circumstellar dust grains.
This may indicate it has an orbiting debris disk containing gas, being viewed edge-on. The star is about 100 million years old and is spinning with a projected rotational velocity of 212 km/s; the magnitude 7.43 secondary companion, component B, is a suspected variable star and may be a Delta Scuti variable. Alternatively, it may be an ellipsoidal variable with a brown dwarf companion, it is an F-type main-sequence star with a class of F1V/F4. Image 2 Andromedae