A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Jerome Bernard Orbach was an American actor and singer, described at the time of his death as "one of the last bona fide leading men of the Broadway musical and global celebrity on television" and a "versatile stage and film actor". Orbach's professional career began on the New York stage, both on and off-Broadway, where he created roles such as El Gallo in the original off-Broadway run of The Fantasticks and became the first performer to sing that show's standard "Try To Remember". Nominated for multiple Tony Awards, Orbach won for his performance as Chuck Baxter in Promises, Promises. In his career, Orbach played supporting roles in films such as Prince of the City, Dirty Dancing and Misdemeanors and Disney's Beauty and the Beast, he made frequent guest appearances on television, including a recurring role on Murder, She Wrote as private detective Harry McGraw. However, he gained worldwide fame for his starring role as NYPD Detective Lennie Briscoe on the long-running NBC crime drama Law & Order.
Orbach was born on October 20, 1935, in the Bronx, the only child of Emily, a greeting card manufacturer and radio singer, Leon Orbach, a restaurant manager and vaudeville performer. His father was a Jewish emigrant from Germany. Orbach stated, his mother, a native of Luzerne County, was a Roman Catholic of Polish-Lithuanian descent, Orbach was raised in her faith. Throughout his childhood, the Orbach family moved living in Mount Vernon, New York. Orbach attended Waukegan High School in Illinois and graduated in 1952, he began learning acting in a speech class. The summer after graduating from high school, Orbach worked at the theatre of Chevy Chase Country Club of Wheeling and enrolled at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in the fall. In 1953, Orbach enrolled at Northwestern University. Orbach left Northwestern before his senior year and moved to New York City in 1955 to pursue acting and to study at the Actors Studio, where one of his instructors was the studio's founder, Lee Strasberg.
Orbach was an accomplished Broadway and off-Broadway actor. His first major role was El Gallo in the original 1960 cast of the decades-running hit The Fantasticks, Orbach became the first to perform the show's signature song and pop standard "Try To Remember", he starred in The Threepenny Opera, Carnival!, the musical version of the movie Lili, in a revival of Guys and Dolls, Promises, the original productions of Chicago, 42nd Street, a revival of The Cradle Will Rock. Orbach made occasional film and TV appearances into the 1970s and appeared as a celebrity panelist on both What's My Line? and Super Password. In the 1980s, Orbach shifted to TV work full-time. Prominent roles included a superb performance as tough, but "allegedly corrupt" NYPD narcotics detective Gus Levy in Sidney Lumet's Prince of the City, he portrayed gangsters in both the action-thriller F/X and the Woody Allen drama Crimes and Misdemeanors. In 1985, Orbach became a regular guest star on Murder, She Wrote as private detective Harry McGraw, which led to him starring in the short-lived spin-off series The Law & Harry McGraw.
In 1987, he was featured in the hit film Dirty Dancing as Dr. Jake Houseman, the father of Jennifer Grey's character "Baby", he made further TV appearances on popular shows such as The Golden Girls, Who's the Boss?, Frasier. In 1991, Orbach starred in Disney's Academy Award-winning animated musical Beauty and the Beast, as the voice of the French-accented candelabrum Lumière, which according to Orbach, he played "halfway between Maurice Chevalier and Pepé Le Pew". At the 64th Academy Awards, Orbach performed a live-action stage rendition of the Oscar-nominated song, "Be Our Guest", that he sang in Beauty and the Beast, he reprised his voice role of Lumière for the film's direct-to-video sequels, multiple episodes of Disney's House of Mouse, the previously-deleted song, added to the Beauty and the Beast 2002 IMAX re-release. In 1992, Orbach joined the main ensemble cast of Law & Order as the world-weary, streetwise NYPD homicide detective Lennie Briscoe, he had guest-starred as a defense attorney on the series, was subsequently cast as the new "senior detective" following Paul Sorvino's departure.
Orbach's portrayal of Detective Briscoe was based on his similar role from Prince of the City years before, which Law & Order creator Dick Wolf had suggested to him at the time of his casting. Orbach starred on Law & Order for 12 years becoming the third longest-serving main cast member in the show's 20-year-run history, as well as one of its most popular. During Orbach's te
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates
Nora Ephron was an American journalist and filmmaker. She is best known for her romantic comedy films and was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Writing: for Silkwood, When Harry Met Sally... and Sleepless in Seattle. She won a BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay for When Harry Met Sally.... She sometimes wrote with her sister Delia Ephron, her last film was Julia. Her first produced play, Imaginary Friends, was honored as one of the ten best plays of the 2002–03 New York theatre season, she co-authored the Drama Desk Award–winning theatrical production Love and What I Wore. In 2013, Ephron received a posthumous Tony Award nomination for Best Play for Lucky Guy. Ephron was born to a Jewish family, she was the eldest of four daughters, grew up in Beverly Hills, California. Her parents and Phoebe Ephron, were both East Coast-born and were noted playwrights and screenwriters. Ephron was named after the protagonist in the play A Doll’s House, written by Henrik Ibsen. Nora's younger sisters and Amy, are screenwriters.
Her sister Hallie Ephron is a journalist, book reviewer, novelist who writes crime fiction. Ephron's parents based the ingenue character in the play and film version of Take Her, She's Mine on the 22-year-old Nora and her letters from college. Both her parents became alcoholics during their declining years; as a high school student, Nora Ephron dreamed of going to New York City to become another Dorothy Parker, an American poet, writer and critic. Ephron has cited her high school journalism teacher, Charles Simms, to inspire her to pursue a career in journalism. Ephron graduated from Beverly Hills High School in 1958, from Wellesley College in Wellesley, Massachusetts, in 1962 with a degree in political science, she was married three times. Her first marriage, to writer Dan Greenburg, ended in divorce after nine years. In 1976, she married journalist Carl Bernstein. In 1979, Ephron had a toddler son and was pregnant with her second son Max when she discovered Bernstein's affair with their mutual friend, married British journalist Margaret Jay.
Ephron was inspired by this to write the 1983 novel Heartburn, made into a 1986 Mike Nichols film starring Jack Nicholson and Meryl Streep. In the book, Ephron wrote of a husband named Mark, "capable of having sex with a Venetian blind." She wrote that the character Thelma looked like a giraffe with "big feet". Bernstein threatened to sue over the film but never did. Ephron was married for more than 20 years to screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi until her death; the couple lived in the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles, in New York City. Ephron's friend Richard Cohen said of her, "She was Jewish and emotionally, she identified as a Jewish woman." However, Ephron was not religious. "You can never have too much butter –, my belief. If I have a religion, that's it", she quipped in an NPR interview about her 2009 movie, Julie & Julia, her son, Jacob Bernstein, directed. After graduating from Wellesley College in 1962, Ephron worked as an intern in the White House of President John F. Kennedy, she applied to be a writer at Newsweek.
After she was told they did not hire women writers, she accepted a position as a mail girl. After quitting Newsweek because she was not allowed to write, Ephron participated in a class action lawsuit against the magazine for sexual discrimination, described in the book The Good Girls Revolt: How the Women of Newsweek Sued Their Bosses and Changed the Workplace by Lynn Povich, both the lawsuit and Ephron's role were fictionalized in a 2016 Amazon series by the similar main title Good Girls Revolt. After a satire in Monocle she wrote lampooning the New York Post caught the editor's eye, Ephron accepted a job at the Post, where she worked as a reporter for five years. In 1966, she broke the news in the Post that Bob Dylan had married Sara Lownds in a private ceremony. Upon becoming a successful writer, she wrote a column on women's issues for Esquire. In this position, Ephron made a name for herself by taking on subjects as wide-ranging as Dorothy Schiff, her former boss and owner of the Post.
A 1968 send-up of Women's Wear Daily in Cosmopolitan resulted in threats of a lawsuit from WWD. She rewrote a script for All the President's Men in the mid-1970s, along with her husband Bernstein. While the script was not used, it was seen by someone who offered Ephron her first screenwriting job, for a television movie, which began her screenwriting career. In 1983, Ephron coscripted the film Silkwood with Alice Arlen; the film, directed by Mike Nichols, stars Meryl Streep as Karen Silkwood, a whistleblower at the Kerr McGee Cimarron nuclear facility who dies under suspicious circumstances. Ephron and Arlen were nominated for Best Original Screenplay in 1984 for Silkwood. Ephron's novel, was published in 1982; the novel is a semi-autobiographical account of her marriage with Carl Bernstein. The film adaptation was released in 1986, directed by Mike Nicols starring Meryl Streep and Jack Nicholson. Ephron adapted her own novel into the screenplay for the film. In the film, Ephron's fictionalized portrayal of herself, played by Streep, is a pregnant food writer when she learns about her husband's affair.
Ephron wrote the script for the romantic comedy When Harry Met Sally... in 1986. The film released in 1989, was directed by Rob Reiner, starred Billy Crystal and Meg Ryan
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws; the first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century AD. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, differences in opinion regarding, to be recognized as a rabbi. For example, Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis. Non-Orthodox movements have chosen to do so for what they view as halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons; the Hebrew word "master" רב rav, which means "great one", is the original Hebrew form of the title.
The form of the title in English and many other languages derives from the possessive form in Hebrew of rav: רַבִּי rabbi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word Rav in turn derives from the Semitic root ר-ב-ב, which in biblical Aramaic means "great" in many senses, including "revered", but appears as a prefix in construct forms. Although the usage rabbim "many" "the majority, the multitude" occurs for the assembly of the community in the Dead Sea scrolls there is no evidence to support an association with the title "Rabbi." The root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning "lord". As a sign of great respect, some great rabbis are called "The Rav". Rabbi is not an occupation found in the Hebrew Bible, ancient generations did not employ related titles such as Rabban, Ribbi, or Rab to describe either the Babylonian sages or the sages in Israel; the titles "Rabban" and "Rabbi" are first mentioned in the Mishnah. The term was first used for Rabban Gamaliel the elder, Rabban Simeon his son, Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai, all of whom were patriarchs or presidents of the Sanhedrin in the first century.
The title "Rabbi" occurs in the books of Matthew and John in the New Testament, where it is used in reference to "Scribes and Pharisees" as well as to Jesus. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī. Other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə; the word could be compared to the Syriac word ܪܒܝ rabi. In ancient Hebrew, rabbi was a proper term of address while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case. While speaking about a superior, in the third person one could say rabbo; the term evolved into a formal title for members of the Patriarchate. Thus, the title gained an irregular plural form: רַבָּנִים rabbanim, not רַבָּי rabbay; the governments of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were based on a system that included the Jewish kings, the Jewish prophets, the legal authority of the high court of Jerusalem, the Great Sanhedrin, the ritual authority of the priesthood. Members of the Sanhedrin had to receive their ordination in an uninterrupted line of transmission from Moses, yet rather than being referred to as rabbis they were called priests or scribes, like Ezra, called in the Bible "Ezra, the priest, the scribe, a scribe of the words of God's commandments and of His statutes unto Israel."
"Rabbi" as a religious title does not appear in the Hebrew Bible. All of the above personalities would have been expected to be steeped in the wisdom of the Torah and the commandments, which would have made them "rabbis" in the modern sense of the word; this is illustrated by a two-thousand-year-old teaching in the Mishnah, Ethics of the Fathers, which observed about King David, "One who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single Torah statement, or a single letter, must treat them with honor. For so we find with David King of Israel, who learned nothing from Ahitophel except two things, yet called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, as it is said:'You are a man of my measure, my guide, my intimate'. One can derive from this the following: If David King of Israel who learned nothing from Ahitophel except for two things, called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, one who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single statement, or a single letter, how much more must they treat them with honor.
And honor is due only for Torah, as it is said:'The wise shall inherit honor','and the perfect shall inherit good'. And only Torah is good, as it is said:'I have given you a good teaching, do not forsake My Torah'." With the destruction of the two Temples in Jerusalem, the end of the Jewish monarchy, the decline of the dual institutions of prophets and the priesthood, the focus of scholarly and spiritual leadership within the Jewish people shifted to the sages of the Men of the Great Assembly. This assembly was composed of the earliest group of "rabbis" in the mor
Sven Vilhem Nykvist was a Swedish cinematographer. He worked on over 120 films, but is known for his work with director Ingmar Bergman, he won Academy Awards for his work on two Bergman films and Whispers in 1973 and Fanny and Alexander in 1983, the Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography for The Unbearable Lightness of Being. His work is noted for its naturalism and simplicity, he is considered by many to be one of the greatest cinematographers of all time. In 2003, Nykvist was judged one of history's ten most influential cinematographers in a survey conducted by the International Cinematographers Guild. Nykvist was born in Kronobergs län, Sweden, his parents were Lutheran missionaries who spent most of their lives in the Belgian Congo, so Nykvist was raised by relatives in Sweden and saw his parents rarely. His father was a keen amateur photographer of African wildlife, whose activities may have sparked Nykvist's interest in the visual arts. A talented athlete in his youth, Nykvist's first cinematic effort was to film himself taking a high jump, to improve his jumping technique.
After a year at the Municipal School for Photographers in Stockholm, he entered the Swedish film industry at the age of 19. In 1941, he became an assistant cameraman at Sandrews studio, he moved to Italy in 1943 to work at Cinecittà Studios. In 1945, aged 23, he became a full-fledged cinematographer, with his first solo credit on The Children from Frostmo Mountain, he worked on many small Swedish films for the next few years, spent some time with his parents in Africa filming wildlife, footage, released as a documentary entitled In the Footsteps of the Witch Doctor. Back in Sweden, he began to work with the director Ingmar Bergman on Tinsel, he was one of three cinematographers to work on the film, the others being Gunnar Fischer and Hilding Bladh. Nykvist would become Bergman's regular cinematographer, he worked as sole cameraman on Bergman's Oscar-winning films The Virgin Spring and Through a Glass Darkly. He revolutionised. After working with other Swedish directors, including Alf Sjöberg on The Judge and Mai Zetterling on Loving Couples, he worked in the United States and elsewhere, on: Richard Fleischer's The Last Run.
Nykvist won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for two of his films: Cries and Whispers, Fanny and Alexander, both of which were Bergman films. At the 9th Guldbagge Awards in 1973 he won the Special Achievement award for his work on Cries and Whispers, he was nominated for a Cinematography Oscar for The Unbearable Lightness of Being, in the category of Best Foreign Language Film for The Ox, in which he directed Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann. Nykvist won a special prize at the Cannes Film Festival for his work on The Sacrifice, the last film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, who by was in exile from his native Russia, he was the first European cinematographer to join the American Society of Cinematographers, received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the ASC in 1996. His ex-wife, died in 1982. Nykvist's career was brought to a sudden end in 1998, he wrote three books, including Curtain Call published in 1999. He is survived by his son, Carl-Gustaf Nykvist, who directed his first film, Woman on the Roof, in 1989 and directed a documentary about his father, Light Keeps Me Company, 1999.
Sawdust and Tinsel Laughing in the Sunshine The Virgin Spring Through a Glass Darkly Winter Light The Silence Persona Shame Hour of the Wolf The Passion of Anna The Touch The Last Run Siddhartha, from the Hermann Hesse novel, directed by Conrad Rooks Cries and Whispers Scenes from a Marriage The Dove Black Moon directed by Louis Malle The Magic Flute The Tenant directed by Roman Polanski Face to Face directed by Ingmar Bergman The Serpent's Egg Autumn Sonata Pretty Baby Starting Over Marmalade Revolution From the Life of the Marionettes The Postman Always Rings Twice Fanny and Alexander Star 80 Agnes of God The Sacrifice The Unbearable Lightness of Being New York Stories Crimes and Misdemeanors Buster's Bedroom The Ox Chaplin Sleepless in Seattle What's Eating Gilbert Grape Something to Talk About Celebrity In-depth interview with Nykvist from 1984 on working with Bergman Ob
Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay. In 2002, the name of the award was changed from Writing to Writing. See the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations. Noted novelists and playwrights who have received nominations in this category include: John Steinbeck, Noël Coward, Raymond Chandler, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Edward Bond, Arthur C. Clarke, Lillian Hellman, Neil Simon, Paddy Chayefsky, Kenneth Lonergan, Tom Stoppard, Terence Rattigan and Martin McDonagh. Woody Allen has the most nominations in this category with 16, the most awards with 3, though Paddy Chayefsky won the Best Adapted Screenplay in 1955 for his adaptation of his own teleplay and won for Original Screenplay for The Hospital and Network.
Woody Allen holds the record as the oldest winner. Ben Affleck is the youngest winner, at the age of 25 for Good Will Hunting. Richard Schweizer was the first to win for Marie-Louise. Other winners for a non-English screenplay include Albert Lamorisse, Pietro Germi, Claude Lelouch, Pedro Almodóvar. Lamorisse is additionally the only person to win or be nominated for Best Original Screenplay for a short film. Muriel Box was the first woman to win in this category; the Boxes are the first married couple to win in this category. Only three other married couples won an Oscar in another category—Earl W. Wallace and Pamela Wallace, Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez. In 1996, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen became the only siblings to win in this category. Francis Ford Coppola and Sofia Coppola are the only father-daughter pair to win. Preston Sturges was nominated for two different films in the same year: Hail the Conquering Hero and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. Oliver Stone achieved the same distinction for Platoon and Salvador.
Maurice Richlin and Stanley Shapiro were nominated in 1959 for both Operation Petticoat and Pillow Talk and won for the latter. At the 2018 ceremony, Get Out writer-director Jordan Peele became the first African-American to win in this category. Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. Academy Award for Best Story Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay