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Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, management, control and prevention of criminal behaviour, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, which draws upon the research of sociologists, philosophers, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law; the term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as Criminologia. French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term Criminologie. Paul Topinard's major work appeared in 1879. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the emphasis of criminology was on the reform of criminal law and not on the causes of crime. Scholars such as Beccaria and Bentham, were more concerned with the humanitarian aspects in dealing with criminals and reforming several criminal laws. Great progress in criminology was made after the first quarter of the twentieth century; the first American textbook on criminology was written in 1920 by sociologist Maurice Parmalee under the title Criminology.

Programmes were developed for the specific purpose of training students to be criminologists, but the development was rather slow. From 1900 through to 2000 the study underwent three significant phases in the United States: Golden Age of Research -which has been described as a multiple-factor approach, Golden Age of Theory -which shows that there was no systematic way of connecting criminological research to theory, a 1960-2000 period-which was seen as a significant turning point for criminology. Criminologists are the people researching all of the ins and outs of criminology. Criminologists look for behavioral patterns of a possible criminal in hopes of finding a particular perpetrator, they conduct research and investigations, developing theories, composing results, more than not solve crimes. The interests of criminologists include the study of nature of crime and criminals, origins of criminal law, etiology of crime, social reaction to crime, the functioning of law enforcement agencies and the penal institutions.

It can be broadly said that criminology directs its enquiries along three lines: first, it investigates the nature of criminal law and its administration and conditions under which it develops, second, it analyses the causation of crime and the personality of criminals. Thus, criminology includes within its scope the activities of legislative bodies, law-enforcement agencies, judicial institutions, correctional institutions and educational and public social agencies. In the mid-18th century, criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law. Over time, several schools of thought have developed. There were three main schools of thought in early criminological theory spanning the period from the mid-18th century to the mid-twentieth century: Classical and Chicago; these schools of thought were superseded by several contemporary paradigms of criminology, such as the sub-culture, strain, critical criminology, cultural criminology, postmodern criminology, feminist criminology and others discussed below.

The Classical school has its basis in utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments, Jeremy Bentham, other philosophers in this school argued: People have free will to choose how to act; the basis for deterrence is the idea humans are'hedonists' who seek pleasure and avoid pain and'rational calculators' who weigh the costs and benefits of every action. It ignores the possibility of irrationality and unconscious drives as'motivators'. Punishment can deter people from crime, as the costs outweigh benefits, severity of punishment should be proportionate to the crime; the more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective as a deterrent to criminal behavior. This school developed during a major reform in penology when society began designing prisons for the sake of extreme punishment; this period saw many legal reforms, the French Revolution, the development of the legal system in the United States. The Positivist school argues criminal behavior comes from internal and external factors out of the individual's control.

Its key method of thought is. They argue that criminal behavior is innate and within a person. Philosophers within this school applied the scientific method to study human behavior. Positivism comprises three segments: biological and social positivism. Biological Positivism is the belief that these criminals and their criminal behavior stem from "chemical imbalances" or "abnormalities" within the brain or the DNA due to basic internal "defects". Psychological Positivism is the concept that criminal acts or the people doing said crimes do them because of internal factors driving them, it differs from biological positivism in the thought that that school of thought says criminals are born criminals, whereas the psychological perspective recognizes the internal factors are results of external factor such as, but are not limited to, abusive parents, abusive relationships, drug problems, etc. Social Positivism, which oftentimes referred to as Sociological Positivism, discusses the th

Saint Peter's Abbey, Ghent

Saint Peter's Abbey is a former Benedictine abbey in Ghent, now a museum and exhibition centre. Saint Peter's was founded in the late 7th century by Amandus, a missionary sent by the Frankish kings to Christianize the pagan inhabitants of the region, who founded two monasteries in the area, St. Bavo's, Saint Peter's on the Blandijnberg. During the winter of 879-80, the abbey was raided and plundered by the Normans, it remained poor until the 10th century, when donations of property and relics by Count Arnulf I enriched it, as did further donations by Arnulf's cousin King Edgar of England. By the second half of the century it was the wealthiest abbey in Flanders, the reputation of the abbey school extended far beyond the town. In 984, Gerbert of Aurillac, director of the cathedral school of Reims, inquired whether students from Reims could be admitted to Saint Peter's, its renown as a centre of artes liberales continued into the 11th century. Saint Peter's, through its ownership of large tracts of land played a pioneering role in cultivation during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, transforming forests and marshes into farmland.

In the fifteenth century a large scale programme of construction created the abbey library and scriptorium, enlarged the refectory, the abbey church and other buildings were beautified. Saint Peter's first decline began following the Revolt of Ghent in 1539, by the 1560s the Low Countries were plunged in a religious crisis that resulted in an attack by iconoclasts in 1566 in which the abbey church was wrecked, the library looted, other buildings badly damaged; the infirmary was pressed into service as a temporary home for the monks and the refectory used as a place of worship. However opposition continued and in 1578 the abbot and monks were forced to flee to Douai; the abbey buildings were sold at public auction and were demolished, the materials being used to construct the city walls. The abbey came back into the hands of the church in 1584, it was rebuilt, with a new abbey church, begun in 1629, in the Baroque style, as well as several other new builds and refurbishments. During the 18th century, the abbey was once again flourishing, as new buildings were constructed and older ones enlarged, including the conversion of the old dormitory into a library with more than ten thousand books.

However, the end was not far off, first with the Brabant Revolution of 1789–90 the French invasion of 1793. On 1 September 1796, the Directory abolished all religious institutions. In 1798 the library was emptied and taken to the University of Ghent. From 1798 the abbey church was used as a museum, but was returned to the ownership of the church in 1801 and renamed Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Sint-Pieterskerk. In 1810, the rest of the abbey became the property of the city of Ghent, was demolished for the construction of a military barracks, which remained on the site until 1948. Around 1950 the city launched a programme of restoration, still ongoing, which began with the cloister and chapter house the west wing, including the old refectory and kitchens. Work on the wine cellars and attics was completed in the 1970s, in 1982 work on the abbey gardens was completed, in 1986 the terrace. In the 1990s restoration of the refectory wing began; the abbey is now used as a museum and exhibition centre, which in 2000 housed a major exhibition as part of the Year of Emperor Charles, in October 2001 hosted the 88th meeting of the European Council.

Baldwin II, Margrave of Flanders Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders Arnulf I, Count of Flanders Adele of Vermandois Baldwin III, Count of Flanders Arnulf II, Count of Flanders Rozala of Italy Ogive of Luxembourg Godfrey I, Count of Verdun Lou Tseng-TsiangIsabella of Austria was buried at St. Peter's from her death in 1526 until 1883, when her remains were transferred to Odense Cathedral to lay alongside her husband Christian II of Denmark. Transferred in 1883 were the remains of her son John, who died in 1532. History of early modern period domes Saint Peter's Abbey, Ghent on Facebook "St Peter's Abbey". Visit Ghent. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014

Barzeh, Syria

Barzeh is a municipality and a neighborhood to the north of Damascus, Syria. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Barzeh had a population of 47,339 in the 2004 census; the municipality has been active in the Syrian civil war. The Sunni Barzeh neighborhood is pro-opposition. However, the neighboring Alawite "slum" Esh al-Warwar is pro-government; the Barzeh area has been under truce between the rebels and government since 2014. On 1 April 2015, the rebels launched a military campaign to expel the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant from the Barzeh and Qaboun neighborhoods, which ended in success three days later. On 8 February 2016, an IS car bomb targeting a government officer's club killed eight people in Masakin Barzeh. On 29 May 2017 the Syrian government regained control of the entire district. Al-Abbas Barza al-Balad Ish al-Warwar Al-Manara Masakin Barzeh An-Nuzha The Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology has its main campus in the Hameesh area of Barzeh

Onyekachi Okafor

Onyekachi Okafor is a Nigerian footballer who plays as a forward for Küçük Kaymaklı Türk S. K. in Cyprus. He began his football youth career at Enyimba International F. C. and professional career with Crown F. C. before moved to Warri Wolves in 2014. He played two seasons at Rivers United before he moved to Turkey to play for Giresunspor in 2014. In August 2016, he signed at Giresunspor in TFF First League. In the summer of 2017, he joined Yalova SK, he joined Doğan Türk Birliği in the winter of 2018. He was called up to the senior team for the first time in March 2015 for a friendly against the Cranes of Uganda and South Africa’s Bafana Bafana. Onyekachi Okafor at Eurosport Flashcore KTFF

VĂ­ctimas del Vaciamiento

Víctimas del Vaciamiento is a heavy metal album by Argentine band Hermética, produced in 1994 by Trípoli Discos. It was the best selling album of the band. Hermética was a thrash metal band from Argentina, their first drummer Tony Scotto left the band in 1991 and was replaced by Claudio Strunz, right before they recorded Ácido Argentino. The album was a success, the label allowed the band to record their new studio album in better conditions; the drummer Claudio Strunz had better recording conditions than in Ácido Argentino, as he had both more time to practice the songs and experience with the band. Unlike the previous album, the new one had more varied song structures, a higher coordination with the guitar style of Antonio Romano. All lyrics written by Ricardo Iorio. Claudio O'Connor - lead vocals. Antonio Romano - guitar. Ricardo Iorio - bass guitar, lead vocals on «Olvídalo y volverá por más» and «Del colimba», fragment on «Moraleja» and introduction on «Otro día para ser». Claudio Strunz - drums.

Alvaro Villagra - sound engineer, keyboards on «Otro día para ser» and «Cuando duerme la ciudad», piano on «Moraleja» Marcelo Tommy Moya - Management Marcelo Caputo - Management Information about the disc at Hermética's biography at

Dee Dee's Feathers

Dee Dee's Feathers is a 2015 studio album by American jazz singer Dee Dee Bridgewater recorded together with trumpeter Irvin Mayfield and the eighteen-piece New Orleans Jazz Orchestra. The album was released on 14 August 2015 via OKeh labels. Dee Dee's Feathers was recorded at Esplanade Studios, a historic church of the 1920s turned music studio, located in the heart of the Tremé neighborhood in New Orleans. Says Bridgewater "It was at the groundbreaking ceremony of the future site of the Jazz Market where I had the idea of a collaborative recording... I thought that Irvin Mayfield, NOJO, I needed a musical'calling card' so to speak, a product that epitomized the joys of our accumulative collaborations; when I shared the idea with Irvin, the seed was planted. After several emails, Irvin's song suggestions, song keys picked out over the phone, we found ourselves at Esplanade Studio one month later. Under Irvin Mayfield's skillful leadership, band members had done the arrangements, over the course of three days we recorded, filmed and laughed our way through the most extraordinary recording experience I've had."

Mayfield adds that "This album is a testament to the continued relevance of New Orleans not only as a thriving city but as a muse for communicating truth and beauty. Dee Dee Bridgewater leads us through a new artistic moment while answering a mandate created over a century ago by Jazz geniuses like Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, Sidney Bechet and Louis Armstrong, she proves through her art that New Orleans is not just a city but more an idea that can make your heart and soul feel better." Matt Collar of Allmusic wrote "A collaboration between Bridgewater, New Orleans trumpeter Irvin Mayfield, the New Orleans Jazz Orchestra, the album finds Bridgewater combining her love of New Orleans' musical past with the Crescent City's vibrant present... These are warm acoustic arrangements that breathe with the energy of a live performance... Bridgewater has built a career out of combining her love of the tradition with her desire to push the boundaries of jazz style, Dee Dee's Feathers is no exception."

In his review John Paul of PopMatters stated "Dee Dee Feathers is designed to mark the 10th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina and functions as a love letter of sorts to the city of New Orleans and its rich musical history. Partnering with trumpeter Irvin Mayfield and the New Orleans Jazz Orchestra, Bridgewater tackles a handful of standards and originals associated with the city itself, showing off a range of styles and sentiments afforded by the city’s rich musical and cultural heritage... An undeniably talented force Bridgewater manages to elevate the most staid material here with her vibrant performances and clear love of and appreciation for the work. Through the sheer power of her personality, Dee Dee’s Feathers succeeds where it shouldn’t..." Official website