Centennial High School (Compton, California)
Centennial High School is a public high school in Compton, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Construction of Centennial High School began in 1953, and it was erected in 1954 and it is the smallest of the three high schools in the Compton Unified School District, which includes Compton High School and Manuel Dominguez High School. Approximately 1,230 students attend Centennial High School, 48% of the students are Second-Language Learners with 33% of the total enrollment classified as Limited English Proficiency. Special Education students comprise 11% of the total enrollment, of this, 5% are identified as Resource Specialist Program and 6% as Special Day Class. All students in attendance qualify for the National School Lunch Program receiving free or reduced breakfast, the California Department of Education mandates a qualification for subject teaching known as a Clear Credential. 91% of certificated staff hold a Clear Credential and all except for five staff members met the No Child Left Behind Act requirements of Highly Qualified Teacher, the school offers eleven Advanced Placement courses.
Centennial High School is designated by the Compton Unified School District as a Title I school, for over 5 years, the school has remained a Program Improvement school. As of the 2009-2010 school year, Centennial is in state rank 1, Centennial High School has not met its state-identified goals for student progress in all areas each year since 2006. Students failed to meet the No Child Left Behind Acts Adequate Yearly Progress requirements in English Language Arts or Mathematics for all significant subgroups, Centennial remains in year 5+ of school-wide Program Improvement. CAHSEE English Language Arts, In 2010, of 270 sophomores,177 passed the ELA examination, of this number,52 of 82 African-American students passed, or 63%. 122 of 182 Latino students passed, or 67%, CAHSEE Mathematics, In 2010, of 275 sophomores,163 passed the Math examination, or 59%. Of this number,43 of 83 African-American students passed, or 52%,116 of 185 Latino students passed, or 63%. California Standardized Testing and Reporting Program, California requires a minimum Academic Performance Index score of at least 650, as of 2010, Centennial High Schools API was 573, well below the statewide performance target of 800.
Test scores indicate that the vast majority of students are not proficient or advanced, California State and Federal Government guidelines for high school graduation rates dictate that all schools should be at 83%, or grow. 01% over the past year or. 02% over the past 2 years. Currently, the rate at Centennial High School is 58. 9%. Therefore, Centennial has chosen the Transformation Intervention Model in an effort to increase retention of students, student achievement, the Centennial Apaches compete in the Pioneer League of the California Interscholastic Federation. Centennial High School Football has an outstanding record in the CIF. Arron Afflalo, basketball player Larry Allen, former NFL player Deonte Burton, basketball player Ken Dennis Masters world record sprinter Dr
Watts, Los Angeles
Watts is a 2. 12-square-mile neighborhood in Los Angeles, within the South Los Angeles region. It is a high-density, youthful neighborhood with a household size. The district was once a city but was consolidated with Los Angeles in 1926. As a major junction of lines, Watts attracted many railroad workers as residents. The Watts railroad station is on the National Register of Historic Places, Watts is noted for the Watts Towers and for the 1965 Watts riots. The neighborhood was known for its number of youth gangs. Residents engage in activities such as cycling, a toy drive, a Christmas parade. There is a theatre and a dance company. There is one branch, and there are four high schools. Watts has known as a site for motion picture filming. The area now known as Watts is located on the 1843 Rancho La Tajauta Mexican land grant, as on all ranchos, the principal vocation was at that time grazing and beef production. Watts in 1886 for alfalfa and livestock farming, in those days each Tajuata farm had an artesian well.
The arrival of the railroad spurred the settlement and development of the area, most of the first residents were the traqueros and Mexican American rail workers who constructed and maintained the new rail lines. The city voted to annex itself to Los Angeles in 1926, Watts did not become predominantly black until the 1940s. Before then, there were some African American residents, many of whom were Pullman car porters, schoolroom photos from 1909 and 1911 show only two or three black faces among the 30 or so children pictured. By 1914, a realtor, Charles C. Leake, was doing business in the area, racially restrictive covenants prevented blacks from living in any other neighborhoods outside of Central Avenue District and Watts. During World War II, the city built several housing projects for the thousands of new workers in war industries
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11,1888, was the city to incorporate. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 96,455. It is known as the Hub City due to its centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Downtown Compton, the city is generally a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods, and is home to a relatively young community, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 35. In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area, the tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguezs name was applied to the Dominguez Hills community south of Compton. The tree that marked the northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy. The rancho was subdivided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848, American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848.
In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of 30 pioneers to the area and these families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California in search of ways to earn a living other than in the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Originally named Gibsonville, after one of the owners, it was called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, Comptons earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence. The weather continued to be harsh and cold, to gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena. The round trip took almost a week, by 1887, the settlers realized it was time to make improvements to the local government. A series of meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, in January 1888, a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton was forwarded to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature.
On May 11,1888 the city of Compton was incorporated with a population of 500 people, the first City Council meeting was held on May 14,1888. The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, and food to feed them, along with building a barn, and caring for livestock
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Black Panther Party
In 1969, community social programs became a core activity of party members. The party enrolled the largest number of members and made the greatest impact in the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Area, New York, Los Angeles, Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. The program was accused of assassinating Black Panther members. Black Panther Party membership reached a peak in 1970, with offices in 68 cities and thousands of members, after being vilified by the mainstream press, public support for the party waned, and the group became more isolated. In-fighting among Party leadership, caused largely by the FBIs COINTELPRO operation, by 1972 most Panther activity centered on the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. Though under constant police surveillance, the Chicago chapter remained active, the Seattle chapter lasted longer than most, with a breakfast program and medical clinics that continued even after the chapter disbanded in 1977.
Party contractions continued throughout the 1970s, and by 1980 the Black Panther Party had just 27 members, the history of the Black Panther Party is controversial. Other commentators have described the Party as more criminal than political, the sweeping migration of black families out of the South during World War II transformed Oakland and cities throughout the West and the North. But not much changed in the cities of the North and West, Police departments were almost all white. In 1966, only 16 of Oaklands 661 police officers were African American, insurgent civil rights practices proved incapable of redressing these conditions, and the organizations that had led much of the nonviolent civil disobedience such as SNCC and CORE went into decline. Young black people in Oakland and other cities developed a rich ferment of study groups and political organizations, in late October 1966, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party. In formulating a new politics, they drew on their experiences working with a variety of Black Power organizations and Seale first met in 1962 when they were both students at Merritt College.
They joined Donald Warden’s Afro-American Association, where they read widely, dissatisfied with the failure of these organizations to directly challenge police brutality and appeal to the brothers on the block and Bobby sought to take matters into their own hands. After the police killed Matthew Johnson, a young black man in San Francisco. He had an epiphany that would distinguish the Black Panther Party from the multitude of organizations seeking to build Black Power. Newton saw the explosive rebellious anger of the ghetto as a force, inspired by Robert F. Williams armed resistance to the KKK, Newton studied California gun law until he knew it better than many police officers. Like the Community Alert Patrol in Los Angeles after the Watts Rebellion, but with a crucial difference, his patrols would carry loaded guns. According to Bobby Seale, they would sell the books, make the money, buy the guns, well protect a mother, protect a brother, and protect the community from the racist cops
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
Graffiti are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view. Graffiti range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, in modern times and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owners permission is considered defacement and vandalism, Graffiti may express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti have evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, both graffiti and its occasional singular form graffito are from the Italian word graffiato.
Graffiti is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface, a related term is sgraffito, which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, the word originates from Greek γράφειν — graphein — meaning to write. The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD, the first known example of modern style graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus. Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution, located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number.
This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment, the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the world had different connotations than they carry in todays society concerning content. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, mansueta tene. Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose, the majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and even some metalworkers, the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there, one reads, Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a 51-square-mile region of Los Angeles County, comprising 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles and three unincorporated neighborhoods. In the 2000 census, the area of South Los Angeles had a population of 520,461, the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, which hosts the Los Angeles Coliseum. Until the 1920s, West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the city, development of the Wilshire Boulevard corridor drew Los Angeles development west of downtown. As the wealthy were building mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park. Affluent blacks gradually moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park as the decades passed, at the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California. It had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, in an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park routinely accosted blacks who traveled through white areas.
The black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the regions fearsome street gangs, as in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines, the Harbor Freeway ran just to the west of Main Street, and the Santa Monica Freeway just to the north of Washington Boulevard. The Marina Freeway was originally to run near Slauson Avenue all the way to the Orange County line, although the freeways worked in moving cars around, they were decidedly unsuccessful as instruments of integration. The explosive growth of suburbs, most of which barred blacks by a variety of methods and this process accelerated after the Watts Riots of 1965. The riots resulted in an abandonment of southern Los Angeles and its neighboring cities by white residents and merchants, middle-class blacks left the area, moving to the north and west. By the late 1960s most of Los Angeles south of Pico Boulevard, the Santa Monica Freeway formed the northern boundary of the new South Central, primarily dividing the middle-class blacks of Mid-Wilshire from the poor and working-class blacks to the south.
Beginning in the 1970s, the decline of the areas manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and they became even more powerful with money from drugs, especially the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the 2000s, the rate of South L. A. has lowered significantly. Nevertheless, South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time, since then, a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. By the end of the 1980s, South Los Angeles had an number of Hispanics and Latinos
A scout is a boy or a girl, usually 10–18 years of age, participating in the worldwide Scouting movement. Because of the age and development span, many Scouting associations have split this age group into a junior. Scouts are organized into troops averaging 20–30 Scouts under the guidance of one or more Scout Leaders, troops subdivide into patrols of about six Scouts and engage in outdoor and special interest activities. Troops may affiliate with local and international organizations, some national Scouting associations have special interest programs such as Air Scouts, Sea Scouts, outdoor high adventure, Scouting bands, and rider Scouts. Some troops, especially in Europe, have been co-educational since the 1970s, allowing boys, robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts as an organization in 1908, a few months after the first scout encampment at Brownsea Island Scout camp in 1907. Baden-Powell got the idea from his experiences with the British Army in South Africa, many boys joined Scouting activities, resulting in the movement growing rapidly to become the worlds largest youth organization.
The Scout program is designed to develop a degree of self-reliance, courage, integrity, sportsmanship. Scouts should be helpful, understand their society and culture, have respect for the rights of others, the Scout program was aimed at 11- to 16-year-old boys. However, the brothers of Scouts started to attend Troop meetings. While most Scouts may join a troop after finishing Cub Scouts, as Scouts get older, they often seek more challenging and diverse activities. He may join another affiliated program for children, such as Exploring, Venturing. A Scout learns the cornerstones of the Scout method, Scout Promise and these are designed to instill character, personal fitness, and leadership in boys through a structured program of outdoor activities. Cultivating a love and appreciation of the outdoors and outdoor activities are key elements, primary activities include camping, first aid, hiking and sports. Scouts are known throughout the world for performing acts of public good, for example, a scout foiled a 2008 assassination attempt on Maldives President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom by grabbing an attackers knife as the man leapt from a crowd and lunged at the leader.
The Scout, Ibrahim Jaisham, a member of the co-educational The Scout Association of Maldives. Camping most often occurs on a level, such as in the troop. Camporees are events where units from a local area together for a weekend. These often occur a couple times a year and usually have a theme, jamborees are large events on a national or international level held every four years where thousands of Scouts camp together for one to two weeks
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department, officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the law enforcement agency for the city of Los Angeles, United States. With 9,843 officers and 2,773 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the New York City Police Department, the department serves an area of 498 square miles and a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous movies, the department has been associated with a number of controversies, mainly concerned with racism, police brutality, and police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, the Rangers were soon succeeded by the Los Angeles City Guards, another volunteer group. Neither force was particularly efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence, the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren. By 1900, under John M.
Glass, there were 70 officers, in 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200. During World War II, under Clemence B, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots, Parker advocated police professionalism and autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability, under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era. The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named former chief William H. Parker. The new headquarters is the new Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. immediately south of Los Angeles City Hall, the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD.
The board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPDs overall management, the Chief of Police reports to the board, but the rest of the department reports to the chief. The Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department’s internal disciplinary process and it was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners. The current Inspector General is Alexander A. Bustamante who was formerly an Assistant United States Attorney, the OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the system in order to ensure fairness. As well as overseeing the LAPDs disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners, the Office of the Chief of Police is the administrative office comprising the Chief of Staff and the Employee Relations Group.
The majority of the LAPDs approximately 10,000 officers are assigned within the Office of Operations, an Assistant Chief, currently First Assistant Chief Michel Moore, commands the office, and reports directly to the chief of police
Crack cocaine, known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. It offers a short but intense high to smokers, the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack cocaine is used as a recreational drug. In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges, purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form. A crack rock acts as an anesthetic, numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will sink in water or melt at the edges when near a flame, crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or cut with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole has been documented, sodium bicarbonate is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it. This process is frequently done with baking soda, once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid in a reversible acid-base reaction.
The heating accelerates the degradation of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide, loss of CO2 prevents the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. Free base cocaine separates as a layer, floating on the top of the now leftover aqueous phase. It is at point that the oil is picked up rapidly, usually with a pin or long thin object. This pulls the oil up and spins it, allowing air to set and dry the oil, crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C, much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked, crack cocaine when smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, crack cocaine can be injected intravenously with the same effect as powder cocaine. Crack cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria, supreme confidence, loss of appetite, alertness, increased energy, a craving for more cocaine and its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine, a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria.
The high usually lasts from 5–10 minutes, after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed, because crack is an illicit drug, users may consume impure or fake drug, which may pose additional health risks. The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter, cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest
The Crip Walk, known as the C-Walk, is a dance move that originated in the early 1970s by Crip gang members from the South Central Los Angeles area, and has since spread worldwide. The dance is primarily an act of performing quick and intricate footwork and this dance involves the movement of ones feet, classically to the spelling of C-R-I-P. It was used by Crips at parties to display affiliation, particularly vis-a-vis rival gang the Bloods and it was used after killing someone to give the kill a Crip signature. MTV declined to broadcast any music videos that contained the Crip Walk, the Crip Walk originated in the 1970s in Compton, a suburb of Los Angeles, California. The Crip walk is often referred to throughout many rap songs, including Xzibit tracks such as Get Your Walk On, the dance was originally used by Crip members to spell out their names and other Crip symbols. Gang members would often spell out the word Bloods, the name of their rival gang and it is believed that the Crip Walk was performed soon after the slaying of a rival gang member.
In Westside Connections video for the song Hoo Bangin, WC can be doing the Crip Walk. Snoop Dogg can be doing the walk in the video for Drop It Like Its Hot. The song Get Your Walk On by Xzibit heavily references the Crip Walk, the song C Walk by Kurupt. Eight Tray Gangster Crips gang member Damian Football Williams did a celebratory C-Walk after striking truck driver Reginald Denny with a concrete slab during the Rodney King riots, in the music video I by Kendrick Lamar, the artist is seen Crip walking in numerous scenes in the video. Modern day K-Walk is a dance that derives from the original C-Walk, what separates the K-Walk from the one originated by the Crips is the absence of hand signs and other gestures symbolizing gang affiliations. It was introduced sometime in 2013, by Meebo in the West Coast, the Clown Walk is a variation of the Crip Walk. The dance is sometimes abbreviated as C-walk, causing confusion as to people are Crip Walking. Clown is based on, and takes many moves from, the original Crip Walk, Clown Walk moves consist of basic V, Heeltoe, and X-hop.
Dancers who utilize this particular form of dance often customize their own moves to make it unique, the Crown Walk is a variation of the Crip Walk and the Clown Walk. The dance is sometimes abbreviated as C-walk, causing confusion as to people are Crip Walking. Crown Walk moves consist of the set as Clown Walk. The Blood Bounce is a dance performed by the Bloods