Crisis of the Third Century

The Crisis of the Third Century known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis, was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of barbarian invasions and migrations into the Roman territory, civil wars, peasant rebellions, political instability, Roman reliance on barbarian mercenaries known as foederati and commanders nominally working for Rome, debasement of currency, economic depression. The crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Severus Alexander by his own troops in 235; this initiated a 50-year period during which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of emperor prominent Roman army generals, who assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors. By 268, the empire had split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire. Aurelian reunited the empire; the crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284.

The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the empire's institutions, economic life, religion that it is seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity. After the Roman Empire had been stabilized, once again, after the turmoil of the Year of the Five Emperors in the reign of Septimius Severus, the Severan dynasty lost more and more control; the army required larger bribes to remain loyal. Septimius Severus raised the pay of legionaries, gave substantial donativum to the troops; the large and ongoing increase in military expenditure caused problems for all of his successors. His son Caracalla raised the annual pay and lavished many benefits on the army in accordance with the advice of his father to keep their loyalty, considered dividing the Empire into eastern and western sectors with his brother Geta to reduce the conflict in their co-rule; the situation of the Roman Empire became dire in 235. Many Roman legions had been defeated during a previous campaign against Germanic peoples raiding across the borders, while the emperor Severus Alexander had been focused on the dangers from the Sassanid Empire.

Leading his troops the emperor resorted to diplomacy and accepting tribute to pacify the Germanic chieftains rather than military conquest. According to Herodian this cost Severus Alexander the respect of his troops, who may have felt that more severe punishment was required for the tribes that had intruded on Rome's territory; the troops assassinated Severus Alexander and proclaimed the new emperor to be Maximinus Thrax, commander of one of the legions present. Maximinus was the first of the barracks emperors – rulers who were elevated by the troops without having any political experience, a supporting faction, distinguished ancestors, or a legitimate claim to the imperial throne; as their rule rested on military might and generalship, they operated as warlords reliant on the army to maintain power. Maximinus continued the campaigns in Germania but struggled to exert his authority over the whole empire; the Senate was displeased at having to accept a peasant as Emperor. This precipitated the chaotic Year of the Six Emperors during which all of the original claimants were killed: in 238 a revolt broke out in Africa led by Gordian I and Gordian II, soon supported by the Roman Senate, but this was defeated with Gordian II killed and Gordian I committing suicide.

The Senate, fearing Imperial wrath, raised two of their own as co-Emperors and Balbinus with Gordian I's grandson Gordian III as Caesar. Maximinus marched on Rome but was assassinated by his Legio II Parthica, subsequently Pupienus and Balbinus were murdered by the Praetorian Guard. In the following years, numerous generals of the Roman army fought each other for control of the empire and neglected their duties of defending it from invasion. There were frequent raids across the Rhine and Danube frontier by foreign tribes, including the Carpians, Goths and Alamanni, attacks from Sassanids in the east. Climate changes and a sea level rise disrupted the agriculture of what is now the Low Countries, forcing tribes residing in the region to migrate into Roman lands. Further disruption arose in 251; this plague caused large-scale death weakening the empire. The situation was worsened in 260. Throughout the period, numerous usurpers claimed the imperial throne. In the absence of a strong central authority, the empire broke into three competing states.

The Roman provinces of Gaul and Hispania broke off to form the Gallic Empire in 260. The eastern provinces of Syria and Aegyptus became independent as the Palmyrene Empire in 267; the remaining provinces, centered on Italy, stayed under a single ruler but now faced threats on every side. An invasion of Macedonia and Greece by Goths, displaced from their lands on the Black Sea, was defeated by emperor Claudius II Gothicus at the Battle of Naissus in 268 or 269. Historians see this victory as the turning point of the crisis. In its aftermath, a series of tough, energetic barracks emperors were able to reassert central authority. Further victories by Claudius Gothicus drove back the Alamanni and reco

Swimming at the 2011 Pan American Games – Men's 1500 metre freestyle

The men's 1500 metre freestyle competition of the swimming events at the 2011 Pan American Games took place on October 17 and 18 at the Scotiabank Aquatics Center in the municipality of Zapopan, near Guadalajara, Mexico. The defending Pan American Games champion was Chip Peterson of the United States; this race consisted of thirty lengths of the pool. Prior to this competition, the existing world and Pan American Games records were as follows: Each National Olympic Committee was able to enter up to two entrants providing they had met the A standard in the qualifying period. NOCs were permitted to enter one athlete providing they had met the B standard in the same qualifying period. All times are in seconds; the first round was held on October 17. The final was held on October 18

Cleveland Institute of Art

The Cleveland Institute of Art Cleveland School of Art, is a private college focused on art and design and located in Cleveland, Ohio. The college was founded in 1882 as the Western Reserve School of Design for Women, at first attended by one teacher and one pupil in the sitting room of its founder, Sarah Kimball; the school moved several times, first to the attic of the Old Cleveland City Hall to the Old Kelly homestead on Wilson Avenue. Having become a co-educational school, it was renamed the Cleveland School of Art in 1892. After unsuccessful attempts to merge the school with Western Reserve University, the school became independent. In the fall of 1905, the first classes were held in a newly constructed building at the corner of Magnolia Drive and Juniper Road in Cleveland's University Circle. Beginning in 1917, the school offered classes for children and adults in the summer; the school participated in the WPA Federal Art Project during the Great Depression. Medical drawing and mapmaking were added to the curriculum during World War II.

The school began offering a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1947 and it became the Cleveland Institute of Art the following year, in 1948. The college incorporated more academic courses into the curriculum, while retaining its key objective to offer practical training. In 1956 the school moved to a new building on East Boulevard that it would name for George Gund II, who served as the college's board president and generous patron from 1942-1966. In 1981 the college acquired the former Albert Kahn designed Euclid Avenue assembly plant, built by Ford in 1914-1915 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Cleveland Institute of Art named the building the Joseph McCullough Center For Visual Arts following remodeling. In early 2013, CIA announced it would sell its East Boulevard building to the Cleveland Museum of Art and Case Western Reserve University. In 2015, the college unified its operations at the Euclid Avenue site, where it completed construction of an 80,000-square-foot building adjoined to the McCullough Center on the west, named for George Gund II.

This new George Gund Building houses: the Peter B. Lewis Theater, the new home of CIA's year-round, nationally acclaimed Cinematheque film program; the building houses the American Greetings Welcome Center. The new building has been designed to look crisp and contemporary without detracting from the historic McCullough building next door; this campus unification connects CIA to the new Uptown development of retail and residential construction anchored by CIA to the east and the new home of the Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland to the west. Uptown Phase II, at the corner of Euclid Avenue and Ford Drive, includes CIA's new freshman residence hall that opened in August 2014; the institute offers a Bachelor of Fine Arts in many majors as well as Study Abroad Programs, Association of Independent Colleges of Art & Design Mobility Programs, AICAD New York Studio Residency Programs. Services for students include Center for Writing and Learning Support. Other academic programs include: Continuing Education Pre-College Programs Summer Workshops Young Artist Programs The school is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and the National Association of Schools of Art and Design.

Cleveland Institute of Art Is a founding member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design. In 2013, 2014, 2015, Cleveland Institute of Art was named a Best Midwestern College by the Princeton Review. In 2015 CIA was the only college of design to achieve this designation. Princeton Review is an education services company known for its test preparation programs and college and graduate school guides. In 2015, Money magazine named Cleveland Institute of Art to its "Best Colleges for your Money" ranking. Cleveland Cinematheque, a nationally recognized alternative film theater, is part of Cleveland Institute of Art; the completed George Gund Building adjoins the historic Joseph McCullough Center for the Visual Arts at 11610 Euclid Avenue. Reinberger Gallery presents free rotating art exhibits and lectures. Visiting artists present lectures and symposia; the gallery is closed on Sundays. CIA's Uptown Residence Hall houses some 130 first-year students in the Uptown Development on Euclid Avenue.

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