Crisis on Infinite Earths is an American comic book published by DC Comics. The series, written by Marv Wolfman and pencilled by George Pérez, was first serialized as a 12-issue limited series from April 1985 to March 1986; as the main piece of a crossover event, some plot elements were featured in tie-in issues of other publications. Since its initial publication, the series has been reprinted in various editions; the idea for the series stemmed from Wolfman's desire to abandon the DC Multiverse depicted in the company's comics—which he thought was unfriendly to readers—and create a single, unified DC Universe. The foundation of Crisis on Infinite Earths developed through a character introduced in Wolfman's The New Teen Titans in July 1982 before the series itself started. Pérez was not the intended artist for the series, but was excited when he learned of it and called illustrating it some of the most fun he had. At the start of Crisis on Infinite Earths, the Anti-Monitor is unleashed on the DC Multiverse and begins to destroy the various Earths that it comprises.
The Monitor tries to recruit heroes from around the Multiverse but is murdered, while Brainiac collaborates with the villains to conquer the remaining Earths. However, both the heroes and villains are united by the Spectre. Crisis on Infinite Earths is noted for its high death count; the story's events resulted in the entire DCU being rebooted. The series was a bestseller for DC and has been reviewed positively by comic book critics, who praised its ambition and dramatic events; the story is credited with popularizing the idea of a large-scale crossover in comics. "Crisis on Infinite Earths" is the first installment in. The story serves as inspiration for "Crisis on Infinite Earths", an Arrowverse crossover event consisting of an episode each of Arrow, The Flash, Legends of Tomorrow and Batwoman. DC Comics is an American comic book publisher best known for its superhero stories featuring characters including Batman and Wonder Woman; the company debuted in February 1935 with New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine.
Most of DC's comic books take place within a shared universe called the DC Universe allowing plot elements and settings to cross over with each other. The concept of the DCU has provided DC's writers some challenges in maintaining continuity, due to conflicting events within different comics that need to reflect the shared nature of the universe. "The Flash of Two Worlds" from The Flash #123, which featured Barry Allen teaming up with Jay Garrick was the first DC comic to suggest that the DCU was a part of a multiverse. The DC Multiverse concept was expanded in years with the DCU having infinite Earths. Since "Crisis on Earth-One!", DC has used the word "Crisis" to describe important crossovers within the DC Multiverse. Over the years, various writers took liberties creating additional parallel Earths as plot devices and to house characters DC had acquired from other companies, making the DC Multiverse a "convoluted mess". DC's comic book sales were far below those of their competitor Marvel Comics.
According to ComicsAlliance journalist Chris Sims, "the multiverse... felt old-fashioned.... Marvel, on the other hand, felt contemporary and when you stack them up against each other, there's one difference that sticks out above anything else: Marvel feels unified."During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, writer Marv Wolfman became popular among DC's readers for his work on Weird War Tales and The New Teen Titans. George Pérez, who illustrated The New Teen Titans began to rise to prominence in this era. In 1984, Pérez entered into an exclusive contract with DC, extended one year. Although The New Teen Titans was a major success for DC, the company's comic book sales were still below Marvel's. Wolfman began to attribute this to the DC Multiverse, feeling "The Flash of Two Worlds" had created a "nightmare": it was not reader-friendly for new readers to be able to keep track of and writers struggled with the continuity errors it caused. In The New Teen Titans #21, Wolfman introduced a new character: the shadowy villainous Monitor.
In 1981, Wolfman was editing Green Lantern. He got a letter from a fan asking why a character did not recognize Green Lantern in a recent issue despite the two having had worked together in an issue three years earlier. Soon afterward, Wolfman pitched Crisis on Infinite Earths as The History of the DC Universe, seeing it as a way to simplify the DCU and attract new readers; the History of the DC Universe's title was changed to Crisis of Infinite Earths because its premise, involving the destruction of entire worlds, sounded more like a crisis. Wolfman said when he pitched the series to DC, he realized it was going to be a new beginning for the DCU. "I knew up front, they did too, how big this was going to be," he said. "But, no-one knew whether it would sell at all. It was a risk DC was willing to take, because my thoughts were that DC needed a lot of help a
Ruth Elly Abramovitsch Sorel was a German choreographer, artistic director and teacher. She spent the first half of her career working in Europe and was predominantly active in Canada after moving to that nation in 1944. In Canada she worked under the stage name "Ruth Sorel", but in Europe she was known under her maiden name, Abramovitsch; the Canadian Encyclopedia states that Abramovitsch Sorel was, "A well-known, expressive performer, praised by local and international critics for her intensely theatrical German dance style, her literary inspiration and the emotion and precision of her execution... Working in Canada prior to the existence of grants for innovation, Sorel was a pioneer of European expressionism in Québec." As a choreographer she was at the forefront of modern dance and contemporary ballet, combining two contrasting elements: German expressionist dance and classical ballet. For many years she directed her own dance company in Montreal, Les Ballets Ruth Sorel. Born to Polish-Jewish parents in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Abramovitsch Sorel studied Dalcroze eurhythmics before becoming a dancer in Mary Wigman's company in Dresden in 1923 where she remained for six seasons.
From 1927-1933 she was a principal dancer with the Berlin State Opera where she was much admired as the lead soloist in the ballet Legend of Joseph. Abramovitsch Sorel was forced to leave the Berlin State Opera by the Nazis due to her Jewish heritage and Communist leanings, she left Germany for Poland in 1933 where she soon won first prize at the international solo dance competition in Warsaw for her performance of Salomé's dance of the seven veils. From 1933-1939 she directed student productions at Warsaw's advanced dance school, she actively performed in Poland during those years appearing with dancer George Groke with whom she gave performance tours to Palestine and the United States during the 1930s. At the outbreak of World War II she emigrated from Poland to Brazil, she was unsuccessful. In 1944 Abramovitsch Sorel emigrated to Canada with the author Michel Choromanski; the couple settled in Montréal and Sorel soon opened a number of dance studios in the area, including studios in Westmount and Trois-Rivières.
At the latter studio she presented her most gifted students in recital dancing herself. Abramovitsch Sorel established herself as an important choreographer and dancer in the Québec region, now using the stage name "Ruth Sorel", she formed the Les Ballets Ruth Sorel which had a triumphant success representing Québec at the first Canadian Ballet Festival in 1948 in Winnipeg. The National Film Board of Canada's documentary of the CBF included sequences from her celebrated Mea Culpa Mea Culpa, a medieval mystery. Sorel's dance company performed her choreography on tours in Canada and in the United States, notably giving performances at dance festivals in New York City and at Montréal's Chalet du Mont-Royal. In 1949 she had a major success in Montreal with La Gaspésienne, the first choreography with Québécois content, which used music by Pierre Brabant; the ballet was given performances in Toronto, New York City, at the Great Theatre, Warsaw in 1950. In 1955 Abramovitsch Sorel and her husband left Canada for Poland.
She lived in Warsaw for the remainder of her life. She died there in 1974 at the age of 66
Jean Zermatten is a specialist of children's rights. He is the son of the Swiss writer Maurice Zermatten, he is Chairman of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and is the first Swiss member of this Committee. After studying Law at the University of Fribourg, he became clerk, "ad hoc" judge at the Criminal Court for Juveniles in Fribourg. He's President and Dean of the Juvenile Court of the Canton of Valais during 25 years. Between 1989 and 1999, he held. In 2005, he founded the International Institute for the Rights of the Child which he still leads today, he is active in the direction of academics programmes concerning children's rights and protection too. Jean Zermatten is a member of the UN Committee for the Rights of the Child, since 2005. In 2007, he received. Jean Zermatten contributed to draft law projects: charged by the Swiss Confederation to draft a Project for the 1st unified Law for the criminal Procedure for Minors charged by the cantons from the Latin part of Switzerland to draft an inter-cantonal concordat on the implementation of measures for young offenders.
This concordat has been accepted in October 2003 collaborated to the creation of the first Swiss children's rights network, gathering more than 50 Swiss NGOsHe was the President of the Swiss society for the criminal law for juveniles as well as the President of the International Association of Magistrates for Youth and Family. 2012: The Rights of the Child in Internationdal Law – Rights of the Child in a Nutshell and in Context: all about Children’s Rights, Stämpfli Publishers, Bern 2012 2007: Realizing the Rights of the Child, Université de Zürich, Chair of Political Philosophy 2007: 18 Candles. The Convention of the Child Reaches Majority (co-editor with Jane Connors and Anastasia Panayotidis, IDE, Sion 2004: 10 petits Contes pour ne pas s’endormir, Les droits de l’enfant, Éditions Saint-Augustin, Saint-Maurice 2002: Tribunal des mineurs: le petit tailleur et autres histoires de galère, collection Aire de famille, St. Augustin, Suisse Committee on the Rights of the Child International Institute for the Rights of the Child
James Robert Elliott was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia. Born in Gainesville, Georgia, to Thomas M. Elliott, a Methodist minister, Mamie Glenn Elliot, Elliott received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Emory University in 1930, he taught school to earn money for his legal education. He received a Bachelor of Laws from Emory University School of Law in 1934, he entered private practice of law in Columbus, Georgia from 1934 to 1943. He was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1937 to 1943, he was in the United States Navy as a Lieutenant from 1943 to 1946, serving in the Pacific. He returned to private practice in Columbus from 1946 to 1962, he was again a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1947 to 1949. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1948 and 1952. Elliott was nominated by President John F. Kennedy on January 23, 1962, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia vacated by Judge Thomas Hoyt Davis.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 7, 1962, received his commission on February 17, 1962. He served as Chief Judge from 1972 to 1980, his service was terminated on December 2000, due to his retirement. He was the last federal court judge in active service to have been appointed by President Kennedy, he died on June 2006, in Columbus. In his first year on the bench, Elliott issued an order halting a civil rights demonstration led by the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. in Albany, Georgia. He said that the decision — subsequently overturned on appeal — was made due to a threat of violence against Rev. King and his supporters, but King biographer Taylor Branch wrote that Judge Elliott was a "strident segregationist." In 1974, Elliott gained notoriety for overturning the conviction of Army Lt. William Calley for killing 22 people during the 1968 My Lai massacre, a decision overruled by the appeals court. In his years, Elliott was rebuked by the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals for his decisions in cases where defendants failed to produce requested evidence to the Court's satisfaction
The Polish–Muscovite War known as the Polish–Russian War of 1605–1618 or the Dimitriads, was a conflict fought between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1605 to 1618. Russia had been experiencing the Time of Troubles since the death of Tsar Feodor I in 1598, causing political instability and a violent succession crisis upon the extinction of the Rurik dynasty, was ravaged by the major famine of 1601 to 1603. Poland exploited Russia's civil wars when members of the Polish szlachta aristocracy began influencing Russian boyars and supporting False Dmitris for the title of Tsar of Russia against the crowned Boris Godunov and Vasili IV Shuysky. In 1605, King Sigismund III Vasa informally invaded Russia until the death of False Dmitry I in 1606, invaded again in 1607 until Russia formed a military alliance with Sweden in 1609. Sigismund formally declared war on Russia in response, aiming to gain territorial concessions and weaken Sweden's ally, winning many early victories such as the Battle of Klushino.
In 1610, Polish forces entered Moscow and Sweden withdrew from the military alliance with Russia, instead triggering the Ingrian War. Sigismund's son, Prince Władysław of Poland, was elected tsar by the Seven Boyars in September 1610, but Sigismund seized the Russian throne for himself to convert the population to Catholicism, with the pro-Polish boyars ending their support for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1611, Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky formed a new army to launch a popular revolt against the Polish occupation; the Poles captured Smolensk in June 1611 but began to retreat after they were ousted from Moscow in September 1612. Michael Romanov, the son of Patriarch Filaret of Moscow, was elected Tsar of Russia in 1613, beginning the Romanov dynasty and ending the Time of Troubles. With little military action between 1612 and 1617, the war ended in 1618 with the Truce of Deulino, which granted the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth certain territorial concessions but preserved Russia's independence.
To this day historians argue over the significance of the conflict and the devastation or numerous atrocities committed by the Polish army while stationing in Moscow, which tend to be omitted by scholars. The war was the first major sign of rivalry and uneasy relations between Poland and Russia which last to this day, its aftermath had a long-lasting impact on Russian society. It left a noticeable mark in Russian culture, with renowned composers and writers portraying the war in their works such as A Life for the Tsar by Mikhail Glinka, Boris Godunov by Modest Mussorgsky, Boris Godunov by Alexander Pushkin, Pan Voyevoda by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov as well as films Minin and Pozharsky and 1612; the conflict is referred to by different names, most the Russo–Polish War, with the term Russia replacing the term Muscovy. In Polish historiography, the wars are referred to as the Dimitriads: the First Dymitriad and Second Dymitriad and the Polish–Muscovite War, which can subsequently be divided into two wars of 1609–1611 and 1617–1618, may or may not include the 1617–1618 campaign, sometimes referred to as Chodkiewicz Campaign.
According to Russian historiography, the chaotic events of the war fall into the "Time of Troubles". The conflict with Poles is called the Polish Invasion, Polish Intervention, or more the Polish Intervention of the Early Seventeenth Century. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Russia was in a state of economic crisis. After the death of the Tsar Ivan IV in 1584, the death of his son Dimitri in 1591, several factions competed for the tsar's throne. In 1598, Boris Godunov was crowned to the Russian throne, marking the end of the centuries long rule of the Rurik dynasty. While his policies were rather moderate and well-intentioned, his rule was marred by the general perception of its questionable legitimacy and allegations of his involvement in orchestrating the assassination of Dimitri. While Godunov managed to put the opposition to his rule under control, he did not manage to crush it completely. To add to his troubles, the first years of the 17th century were exceptionally cold; the drop in temperature was felt all over the world, was most caused by a severe eruption of a volcano in South America.
In Russia, it resulted in a great famine that swept through the country from 1601 to 1603. In late 1600, a Polish diplomatic mission led by Chancellor Lew Sapieha with Eliasz Pielgrzymowski and Stanisław Warszycki arrived in Moscow and proposed an alliance between the Commonwealth and Russia, which would include a future personal union, they proposed that after one monarch's death without heirs, the other would become the ruler of both countries. However, Tsar Godunov declined the union proposal and settled on extending the Treaty of Jam Zapolski, which ended the Lithuanian wars of the 16th century, by 22 years. Sigismund and the Commonwealth magnates knew full well that they were not capable of any serious invasion of Russia. However, as the situation in Russia deteriorated and many Commonwealth magnates those with estates and forces near the Russian border, began to look for a way to profit from the chaos and weakness of their eastern neighbour; this proved easy, as in the meantime many Russian boyars, disgruntled by the ongoing civil war, tried to entice various neighbors, including the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, into int
The Mark on the Wall is the first published story by Virginia Woolf. It was published in 1917 as part of the first collection of short stories written by Virginia Woolf and her husband, Leonard Woolf, called Two Stories, it was published in New York in 1921 as part of another collection entitled Monday or Tuesday. The Mark on the Wall is written as a "stream of consciousness" monologue; the narrator notices a mark on the wall, muses on the workings of the mind. Themes of religion, self-reflection and uncertainty are explored; the narrator reminisces beginning in childhood. Woolf's style in The Mark on the Wall has been analyzed by literary writers and the story is used as an example of introspective writing; the story acted as the foundation for the music theatre "The Mark on the Wall“ by Stepha Schweiger, premiered in 2017 at Tête à Tête - The Opera Festival in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts. The Mark on the Wall has been included in a number of anthologies. Woolf, Virginia. "A Mark on the Wall."
The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. F. Ed. 8th ed. Ed. Stephen Jahan Ramazani. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. Woolf, Virginia. "A Mark on the Wall." Haunted House and other stories. Hogarth Press, London, 1944. Woolf, Virginia.. Monday or Tuesday: Eight Stories. Start Classics. Pp. 39–. ISBN 978-1-60977-494-3. Woolf, Virginia. "The Mark on the Wall." The Wordsworth Collection of Classic Short Stories. Wordsworth editions, 2007. Pp.1334-. Mark on the Wall, The public domain audiobook at LibriVox