Crispus Attucks was an American stevedore of African and Native American descent regarded as the first person killed in the Boston Massacre and thus the first American killed in the American Revolution. Historians disagree on whether he was a free man or an escaped slave, but most agree that he was of Natick and African descent. Two major sources of eyewitness testimony about the Boston Massacre published in 1770 did not refer to him as "black" nor as a "Negro". According to a contemporaneous account in the Pennsylvania Gazette, he was a "Mulattoe man, named Crispus Attucks, born in Framingham, but belonged to New-Providence, was here in order to go for North Carolina."Attucks became an icon of the anti-slavery movement in the mid-19th century. Supporters of the abolition movement lauded him for playing a heroic role in the history of the United States. Attucks was born in Massachusetts. Town histories of Framingham written in 1847 and 1887 describe him as a slave of Deacon William Brown, though it is unclear whether Brown was his original owner.
In 1750 Brown advertised for the return of a runaway slave named Crispas. In the advertisement, Brown describes his clothing when he was last seen, he said that a reward of 10 pounds would be given to whoever found and returned Attucks to him. Attucks's status at the time of the massacre as a free person or a runaway slave has been a matter of debate for historians. Attucks did become a sailor and whaler at some point and he spent much of his life at sea or working around the docks along the Atlantic seaboard. In an 1874 article in The American Historical Record, Jebe B. Fisher recounts a passage in the memoirs of Boston Tea Party participant George R. T. Hewees, which stated that at the time of the massacre Attucks "was a Nantucket Indian, belonging on board a whale ship of Mr. Folgers in the harbor, he remembers a distinct war whoop which he yelled... the mob whistling and rending like an Indian yell." Many historians believe Attucks went by the alias Michael Johnson in order to avoid being caught after his escape from slavery.
He may only have been temporarily in Boston in early 1770, having returned from a voyage to the Bahamas. He was due to leave shortly afterwards on a ship for North Carolina. Though he is described as an African American in popular culture, two major sources of eyewitness testimony about the Massacre, both published in 1770, did not refer to Attucks as "black" nor as a "Negro," but rather as a mulatto and an Indian. In an account from the Pennsylvania Gazette, a man who may have been Attucks was referred to as a "Mulattoe man, named Crispas, born in Framingham, but belonged to New-Providence, was here in order to go for North Carolina..." However, during Attucks's time mulatto was used to describe skin tone rather than ethnicity, sometimes referred to full-blooded Native Americans. In Potter's American Monthly, the interchangeability of the two terms is demonstrated by court transcripts from the Attucks trial: "Question: Did you see a mulatto among the persons who surrounded the soldiers? Answer: I did not observe...
Question: Did they seem to be sailors or townsmen? Answer: They were dressed some of them in the habits of sailors. Question: Did you know the Indian, killed? Answer: No. Question: Did you see any of them press on the soldiers with a cordwood stick? Answer: No." Historians differ in opinion on Attucks's heritage: some assert his family had intermarried with African slaves, while others maintain he had no African heritage. It is acknowledged that Attucks had considerable Native American heritage. Biographer Mitch Kachun, as well as multiple 19th century Framingham town histories, have drawn a connection between Attucks and John Attuck of Framingham, a Narragansett man, hanged in Framingham in 1676 during King Philip's War; the word for "deer" in the Narragansett language is "Attuck." Kachun noted a possible connection to a probable Natick woman and possible Attucks mother or relative named Nanny Peterattucks, described as a'negro woman' in the 1747 estate inventory of Framingham slaveholder Joseph Buckminster and, along with Jacob Peterattucks, as'probable descendant of John Attuck, the Indian' in an 1847 history of Framingham.
Other sources refer to their surname as Peter Attucks. In a 1747 history of the Hoosac Valley, a British colonial soldier named Moses Peter Attucks, living in nearby Leicester, is described as'negro slave of John White. Historian William C. Nell reported an 1860 letter from a Natick resident printed in an 1860 edition of The Liberator newspaper that read, several persons are now living in Natick who remember the Attucks family, viz. Cris, killed March 5th; the letter continues, "his sister used to say that if they had not killed Cris, Cris would have killed them." Prince Yonger has been posited as the father of Attucks. However, Yonger
Wakaba Suzuki is a retired Japanese judoka. Suzuki was born in Fujimi and began judo in earnest at the age of a 5th grader, she entered the Saitama University after graduating from high-school. She was counted as a top in Japan by the proud skill and Newaza. In 1993, she participated World Championships held in Hamilton, Ontario but defeated by Almudena Muñoz at semi-final and won a bronze medal, she was expected to get medal of Olympic Games in 1996 but retired in 1995 due to Overtraining. As of 2010, Suzuki coaches judo at Shukutoku University and among her students is former Asian champion Sae Nakazawa. 1985 - All-Japan Selected Championships 3rd 1986 - Fukuoka International Women's Championships 3rd- All-Japan Selected Championships 2nd1987 - Fukuoka International Women's Championships 2nd- Pacific Rim Championships 1st - All-Japan Selected Championships 2nd1988 - All-Japan High School Championships 1st 1989 - Fukuoka International Women's Championships 3rd- All-Japan Selected Championships 3rd - All-Japan University Championships 2nd1990 - All-Japan Selected Championships 3rd 1991 - All-Japan University Championships 3rd 1992 - All-Japan University Championships 2nd 1993 - World Championships 3rd- All-Japan Selected Championships 1st
The 9th Army was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed in September 1914 in Breslau to command troops on the southern sector of the Eastern Front; the army was dissolved on 30 July 1916, but reformed in Transylvania on 6 September 1916 for the Romanian Campaign. It was transferred to the Western Front on 19 June 1918 where it was dissolved on 18 September 1918; the 9th Army Headquarters was established in Breslau on 19 September 1914 and commanded units drawn from the 8th Army, the Western Front and other units in Upper Silesia. It was placed on the southern sector of the Eastern Front on the left flank of the 1st Austro-Hungarian Army. 9th Army was reformed for the Romanian Campaign in September 1916. Along with the 1st Austro-Hungarian Army it formed the Siebenburg Sector and had the following units: XXXIX Reserve Corps Group von Szivo Group Danube 145th Infantry Brigade Group Sunkel 187th Division part of 144th Infantry Brigade part of Alpenkorps Group Krafft part of Alpenkorps Cavalry Corps "Schmettow" 51st Honvéd Infantry Division 3rd Cavalry Division 1st Cavalry Division En route 76th Reserve Division The original 9th Army had the following commanders until it was dissolved 30 July 1916: A "new" 9th Army was formed in Transylvania for the Romanian Campaign on 6 September 1916.
It was dissolved on the Western Front on 18 September 1918. Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army", it is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army. Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command formed as a temporary measure for a specific task. Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander. 9th Army for the equivalent formation in World War II Great Retreat Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914–18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6