SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cristiano Ronaldo

Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH ComM is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Serie A club Juventus and captains the Portugal national team. Considered the best player in the world and regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, Ronaldo has won five Ballons d'Or and four European Golden Shoes, both of which are records for a European player, he has won 29 trophies in his career, including six league titles, five UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA European Championship, one UEFA Nations League. A prolific goalscorer, Ronaldo holds the records for the most goals scored in the UEFA Champions League and the joint-most goals scored in the UEFA European Championship, he has scored over 700 senior career goals for country. Born and raised in Madeira, Ronaldo began his senior club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United in 2003, aged 18. After winning the FA Cup in his first season, he helped United win three successive Premier League titles, the UEFA Champions League, the FIFA Club World Cup.

In 2009, Ronaldo was the subject of the then-most expensive association football transfer when signed for Real Madrid in a transfer worth €94 million. There, Ronaldo won 15 trophies, including two La Liga titles, two Copas del Rey, four UEFA Champions League titles, became the club's all-time top goalscorer. After joining Madrid, Ronaldo finished runner-up for the Ballon d'Or three times, behind Lionel Messi—his perceived career rival—before winning back-to-back Ballons d'Or from 2013–2014 and again from 2016–2017. After winning a third consecutive Champions League title in 2018, Ronaldo became the first player to win the trophy five times. In 2018, he signed for Juventus in a transfer worth an initial €100 million, the highest paid by an Italian club and the highest paid for a player over 30 years old. With the Italian outfit, he has won one one Supercoppa Italiana. A Portuguese international, Ronaldo was named the best Portuguese player of all time by the Portuguese Football Federation in 2015.

He made his senior debut in 2003 at age 18, has since earned over 160 caps, including appearing and scoring in ten major tournaments, becoming Portugal's most capped player and his country's all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal at Euro 2004 and helped Portugal reach the final of the competition, he assumed full captaincy in July 2008, leading Portugal to their first-ever triumph in a major tournament by winning Euro 2016, received the Silver Boot as the second-highest goalscorer of the tournament. He became the highest European international goalscorer of all-time in 2018. One of the most marketable athletes in the world, Ronaldo was ranked the world's highest-paid athlete by Forbes in 2016 and 2017 and as the world's most famous athlete by ESPN from 2016 to 2019. Time included him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2014; as of January 2020, Ronaldo is the most followed user on Instagram. With earnings of €720 million from 2010 to 2019, he was ranked second in Forbes list of highest-paid athletes of the decade.

Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro was born in São Pedro, Funchal, on the Portuguese island of Madeira, grew up in Santo António, Funchal. He is the fourth and youngest child of Maria Dolores Spinola dos Santos da Aveiro, a cook, José Dinis Aveiro, a municipal gardener and a part-time kit man, his great-grandmother on his father's side, Isabel da Piedade, was from the island of São Vicente, Cape Verde. He has one older brother and two older sisters and Liliana Cátia "Katia", a singer. Ronaldo grew up in a impoverished home, sharing a room with all his siblings; as a child, Ronaldo played for amateur team Andorinha from 1992 to 1995, where his father was the kit man, spent two years with Nacional. In 1997, aged 12, he went on a three-day trial with Sporting CP, who signed him for a fee of £1,500, he subsequently moved from Madeira to Alcochete, near Lisbon, to join Sporting's other youth players at the club's football academy. By age 14, Ronaldo believed he had the ability to play semi-professionally, agreed with his mother to cease his education in order to focus on football.

While popular with other students at school, he had been expelled after throwing a chair at his teacher, who he said had "disrespected" him. However, one year he was diagnosed with a racing heart, a condition that could have forced him to give up playing football. Ronaldo underwent heart surgery where a laser was used to cauterise multiple cardiac pathways into one, altering his resting heart rate, he was resumed training a few days later. At age 16, Ronaldo was promoted from Sporting's youth team by first-team manager László Bölöni, impressed with his dribbling, he subsequently became the first player to play for the club's under-16, under-17 and under-18 teams, the B team, the first team, all within a single season. A year on 7 October 2002, Ronaldo made his debut in the Primeira Liga, against Moreirense, scored two goals in their 3–0 win. Over the course of the 2002–03 season, his representatives suggested the player to Liverpool manager Gérard Houllier and Barcelona president Joan Laporta.

Manager Arsène Wenger, interested in signing the winger, met with him at Arsenal's grounds in November to discuss a possible transfer. Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson, determined to acquire Ronaldo on a permanent move urgently, after Sporting defeated United 3–1 at t

Mark Coulson

Mark Coulson is an English footballer who plays for Southern League Premier Division Central side St Ives Town, where he plays as a defender. Coulson made his Football League debut for Peterborough United in the 5–0 defeat at Tranmere Rovers on 18 March 2005 replacing Ahmed Deen as a substitute, he made eight league appearances for Peterborough, before signing for Histon in 2007. In the year he moved on to Hemel Hempstead Town. In 2009, he signed for Biggleswade Town. In July 2010, Mark moved to Bury Town. Coulson signed for Southern League Premier Division Central side St Ives Town for the 2018–19 season. Mark Coulson at Soccerbase Mark Coulson at Soccerway

Scale (insect anatomy)

The presence of scales on the wings of Lepidoptera, comprising moths and butterflies, characterises this order of insects. The name is derived from Ancient Greek λεπίδος and πτερόν; the wings of Lepidoptera are minutely scaled. Scales cover the head, parts of the thorax and abdomen as well as parts of the genitalia; the morphology of scales has been studied by Downey & Allyn and scales have been classified into three groups, namely: Hair-like or piliform. Blade-like or lamellar. Other variable forms. Primitive moths have ` solid' scales; as per Scoble: Morphologically, scales are macrotrichia, thus homologous with the large hairs that cover the wings of Trichoptera. The Trichoptera which are a sister group of the Lepidoptera have scales, but possess caudal cerci on the abdomen, a feature absent in the Lepidoptera. Though there is great diversity in scale form, they are structured similarly; the body or ` blade' of a typical scale consists of lower lamina. The surface of the lower lamina is smooth whereas the structure of the upper lamina is structured and intricate.

Scales are attached to the substrate by a stalk or'pedicel'. The colouration of butterfly wings is created by the scales which are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, but blues, greens and iridescence are created not by pigments but the microstructure of the scales; this structural coloration is the result of coherent scattering of light by the photonic crystal nature of the scales. The scales cling somewhat loosely to the wing and come off without harming the butterfly. Scales play an important part in the natural history of Lepidoptera. Scales enable development of vivid or indistinct patterns which help the organism protect itself by concealment and camouflage and warning. Besides providing insulation, dark patterns on wings provided by dark colour scales would allow sunlight to be absorbed and thus have a role to play in thermoregulation. Bright and distinctive colour patterns in butterflies which are distasteful to predators help communicate their aposematism thus preventing a predator from preying on it.

In Batesian mimicry, wing colour patterns help edible Lepidopterans mimic inedible models while in Müllerian mimicry inedible butterflies resemble each other to reduce the numbers of individuals sampled by predators. Scales evolved for providing insulation. Scales on the thorax and other parts of the body contribute to maintaining the high body temperatures required during flight. The'solid' scales of basal moths are however not as efficient as those of their more advanced relatives as the presence of a lumen adds air layers and increases the insulation value. Young adults of myrmecophilous Lepidoptera escape from ant's nests by virtue of the deciduous waxy scales with which they are covered when born; these scales stick on the ants as they make their way out of the nest after hatching. Scales reduce fatalities among Lepidoptera after flying into spiderwebs; the detachable scales pull away and enable the insect to escape. Thomas Eisner tested spiderwebs' effectiveness by dropping various insects onto the webs.

Moths were able to escape, all left impact spots where scales had stuck to the web. Eisner found these spots to be common. Scales help increase the lift to drag ratio in gliding flight. Successive close-ups of the scales of a Peacock wing Scale External morphology of Lepidoptera