It is the opinion of several historians that during the Spanish Civil War, Francos goal was to turn Spain into a totalitarian state based on fascism like Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Franco was able to take advantage of the resources of the Axis Powers, Francos regime evolved into a more classic autocratic regime. The Spanish Civil War started as a coup by the Spanish military on the peninsula, the coup escalated into a civil war lasting for three years once Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany agreed to support Franco, starting with airlifting of the africanistas onto the mainland. However, the Falange remained the party throughout Francos regime and its ideology, National Syndicalism. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the regimes own figures, there were more than 270,000 men and women held in prisons, large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen and it has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship, from 1940–42, as a result of political repression and disease related to the conflict.
This changed with the Cold War that soon followed the end of hostilities in 1945, independent political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship. On July 26,1947 Spain was declared a kingdom, Franco was to be succeeded by his Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco as head of government with the intention of continuing the Francoist regime, but those hopes ended with his 1973 assassination. With the death of Franco on 20 November 1975, Juan Carlos became the King of Spain and he initiated the countrys subsequent transition to democracy, ending with Spain becoming a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. After Francos victory in 1939, the Falange was declared the legal party in Spain. The Organic Law made the government ultimately responsible for passing all laws, as all ministers were appointed and dismissed by Franco as the Chief of state and government, he was effectively the only source of legislation. The law of national referendums, passed in 1945 approved for all laws to be approved by a popular referendum.
Local municipal councils were appointed similarly by heads of families and local corporations through elections, Carrero Blanco was assassinated on the same year and Franco named a civilian, Carlos Arias Navarro as the countrys new Prime Minister. Concerns about the situation, Spains possible entry into World War II. The army maintained a strength of about 400,000 men until the end of the war, Spain attempted to retain control of the last remnants of its colonial empire throughout Francos rule. During the Algerian War, Madrid became the base of the Organisation armée secrète right-wing French Army group which sought to preserve French Algeria, despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. Henceforth, when French Morocco became independent in 1956, he surrendered Spanish Morocco to Mohammed V, the year after, Mohammed V invaded Spanish Sahara during the Ifni War. Only in 1975, with the Green March and the military occupation, in 1968, under United Nations pressure, Franco granted Spains colony of Equatorial Guinea its independence, and the next year, ceded the exclave of Ifni to Morocco
Community of Madrid
The Community of Madrid is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and its capital is the city of Madrid, which is the capital of the country. The Community of Madrid is bounded to the south and east by Castile–La Mancha and to the north and west by Castile and it was formally created in 1983, based on the limits of the province of Madrid, until conventionally included in the historical region of New Castile. The Community of Madrid is the third most populous in Spain with 6,369,167 inhabitants mostly concentrated in the area of Madrid. It is the most densely populated autonomous community, Madrids economy is of roughly equal size to Catalonias, which remains Spains largest. Madrid thus has the highest GDP per capita in the country, some notable discoveries of the region the bell-shaped vase of Ciempozuelos. During the Roman Empire, the region was part of the Citerior Tarraconese province, except for the south-west portion of it and it was crossed by two important Roman roads, the via xxiv-xxix (joining Astorga to laminium and via xxv, and contained some important conurbations.
The city of Complutum became an important metropolis, whereas Titulcia, during the period of the Visigothic Kingdom, the region lost its importance. The population was scattered amongst several small towns, Alcalá de Henares was designated the bishopric seat in the 5th century by orders of Asturio, archbishop of Toledo, but this event was not enough to bring back the lost splendor of the city. The centre of the peninsula was one of the regions of the Al-Andalus until the 11th century when it became important. The Muslim governors created a system of fortresses and towers all across the region with which they tried to stop the advance of the Christian kingdoms of the north. The fortress of Mayrit was built somewhere between 860 and 880 AD, as a walled precinct where a military and religious community lived, and it soon became the most strategic fortress in defense of the city of Toledo above the fortresses of Talamanca de Jarama and Qal-at-Abd-Al-Salam. In 1083, king Alfonso VI of Castile conquered the city of Madrid, Alcalá de Henares fell in 1118 in a new period of Castilian annexation.
The feudal and ecclesiastical lords came into constant conflict with the different councils that had granted the authority to repopulate. Specifically, Alcalá de Henares was under the hands of the archbishopric of Toledo, Castilian monarchs showed a predilection for the center of the peninsula, with abundant forests and game. El Pardo was a region visited frequently by kings since the time of Henry III, the Catholic Monarchs started the construction of the Royal Palace of Aranjuez. In the 16th century, San Lorenzo de El Escorial was built, besides its growing political importance, it became a cultural center with the foundation of the University of Alcalá de Henares in 1508. In 1561, King Philip II made Madrid the capital of the empire, the surrounding territories became economically subordinated to the town itself, even beyond the present day limits of the Community of Madrid
Assembly of Madrid
The Assembly of Madrid or Madrid Assembly is the unicameral regional legislature of the Autonomous Community of Madrid since the approval of the Madrid Charter of Autonomy in 1983. According to the Charter, the Assembly is empowered to draw the Madrid Regional legislation, to control the Regional Governments actions, the Assembly meets in the district of Vallecas of Madrid in a hall inaugurated in 1998 specifically designed to host the Madrid Assembly. The legislature is made up of 129 deputies, elected all at once in closed party lists for terms of 4 years. Seats are allocated using the proportional DHondt method in one constituency, in 2007, this fact moved President Esperanza Aguirre to propose splitting the Community of Madrid into twelve constituencies of 9 to 15 AMs each. Parties that obtain more than 5AMs can form a group, in order to organise. Parties that do not reach that number of seats will be part of the mixed group, the Bureau is tasked with managing the Assembly schedule and interpreting its rules of order, including the power to expel members from the sessions.
Thus, while control of the Bureau and the Spokespersons Council is definitely important, the Assembly organises its work in different committees. Committees are constituted by the bureau of the Assembly on the advice of the Spokespersons Council, the number and grouping of its members is determined at the same time. The election of the membership of the committees is a role of the groups that have to be always represented in the committees. List of Presidents of the Madrid Assembly Official site of the Madrid Assembly - In Spanish by default, has an English version
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
King Juan Carlos University
King Juan Carlos University is a Spanish public research university located in the Southern area of the Community of Madrid, with four campuses at Móstoles, Alcorcón, Vicálvaro and Fuenlabrada. It is named after king Juan Carlos I of Spain and it was established in 1996 and has the Latin motto Non nova, sed nove. With 37,939 students, it is the second biggest public university in the Community of Madrid, URJC is one of 8 universities in the Community of Madrid, and it is the second newest university in the Community. King Juan Carlos University offers a range of degrees, all adapted to the European Higher Education Area, King Juan Carlos University has four campuses in Madrid, Fuenlabrada, Móstoles and Vicálvaro, and a Foundation headquartered on Madrid’s Plaza de Manuel Becerra. The URJC is divided into four campuses and it houses the University Senate and the office of the President. Alcorcón Campus ouses the Faculty of Health Sciences since 1997 and the University Hospital URJC, Vicálvaro Campus is the seat of the Faculty of Juridical and Social Sciences since 1998.
Each school or college is governed by a Dean or School Director, affiliated centers, Institute of Commercial Management and Marketing in Somosaguas. Colleges, Higher Institute of Dance Alicia Alonso, University Centers, University Language Centre, which regularly gives courses in English, German, Italian and Spanish for foreigners. Research and Documentation Centre of the European Union Emile Noël, University Centre for Applied Social Studies. Center for the Study of the Olympic Movement, center for Intelligent Information Technologies and Applications Business Incubator. Center for Innovation, Technology Transfer and Knowledge, Centre of Research and Teaching, located in the so-called Nuncios Palace in Aranjuez. King Juan Carlos University organizes its Summer courses in Aranjuez and his hand-picked successor, dean of the telecommunication school Javier Ramos, was found to have illegally run a business without seeking permission from the university. In 2007 Juan Velarde Fuertes, Iñaki Gabilondo, Luis del Olmo, in 2011 Honorary doctorate was awarded to Harald zur Hausen, Ramón Tamames and Peter Waldmann.
Prof. Yorke, is known for the definition of the mathematical term chaos in 1975
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Complutense University of Madrid
The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as one of the top universities in Spain, according to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. In the course of seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the sciences, fine arts. Alumni include renowned philosophers, scientists, military leaders, foreign leaders, in the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire. On 13 April 1499, Cardinal Cisneros secured from Pope Alexander VI a Papal bull to expand Complutense into a full university and this Papal Bull conferred official recognition throughout Christendom to all degrees granted by the University.
It renamed the institution Universitas Complutensis, after Complutum, which was the Latin name of Alcalá de Henares, in the 1509–1510 school year, the Complutense University already operated with five major schools and Philosophy, Canon law and Medicine. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Complutense University became one of the greatest centers of Academic excellence in the world, many of the leading figures in science and politics of that Age studied or taught in Complutenses classrooms. Special colleges were created for students of foreign origin, such as Flemish or Irish, in 1785, Complutense became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda. In comparison, University of Oxford did not accept female scholars until the year 1920, in 1824, Francisco Tadeo Calomarde further expanded Complutense by merging it with the University of Sigüenza. The University would be known under this name until its name of Complutense was restored in the 1970s.
The University of Madrid awarded Albert Einstein a Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa on 28 February 1923 and this was the first Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa that Albert Einstein accepted from a European University. However, as the situation began to deteriorate throughout Europe. The University greatly expanded during the 19th century, and its accommodations in central Madrid proved to be increasingly inadequate. This situation changed in 1927, when by royal decree King Alfonso XIII officially ceded state-held lands in the proximity of the Palace of La Moncloa to establish space for the University of Madrid. A council appointed by King Alfonso XIII had decided that the new University of Madrid would require the innovative architecture and planning. Indeed, the buildings, exemplary amongst them the Schools of Medicine and Odontology, are an homage to structural functionalism. The city of Alcalá de Henares decided to open a university within the campus buildings
Esperanza Aguirre y Gil de Biedma, Countess of Murillo and Bornos, Grandee of Spain is a Spanish politician and a former President of Madrid. She was President of Madrids Peoples Party and the first female politician to have held the office of President of the Senate and Minister of Education, Aguirre is a former member of Unión Liberal, Partido Liberal and Popular Alliance, which changed its name to Partido Popular in 1989. Since her early years she has been a member of the Club Liberal of Madrid, in 2016, Aguirre resigned from her position as regional party president, ostensibly due to the many corruption cases in the Madrid PP under her watch. She is a niece of the late Catalan poet, Jaime Gil de Biedma and she studied in the La Asunción School and in the British Council School of Madrid and earned a degree in Law in Complutense University in 1974. She is fluent in English and French, Aguirre joined the Technical Division of the Ministry of Information and Tourism as a civil servant in 1976.
She was head of the Department of Publicity and Tourism, where she remained until 1979, she had many different jobs in the Ministry of Culture, serving several Ministers during the Democratic Centre Union governments, especially designated by the Prime Minister himself. In 1979, she was chief of staff of the General Director of Literature and she was appointed Deputy General Director of Studies of the Technical General Secretariat of the Ministry of Culture in 1980. In 1981, she was appointed Deputy General Director in the Advisory Staff of the Secretary of State of Culture and her last position with the Administration was as Deputy General Director of Cultural Associations. Esperanza Aguirre first became a councillor with the defunct Coalición Popular, between 1983 and 1986 she held a seat on Madrid City Council as a member of Peoples Coalition. While in opposition, she was a member of the Standing Committee of the City Council, a CP spokeswoman on the areas of Culture, Education and Sports Affairs, and the Moncloa district.
When Liberal Union merged with the Liberal Party, in December 1984, she held different positions in the National Executive, in 1987 she left the Liberal Party and joined Popular Alliance, which became the Peoples Party. In the new executive, she was designated head of the Department of the Environment. In 1991, under José María Álvarez del Manzano, the Peoples Party won a council majority, two years later, she was designated as Head of the Culture Department and controlled the areas of Sports and Hygiene. In 1995 she became the spokeswoman of Peoples Party in Madrid City Council and was appointed by the City Council to the Caja Madrid Board of Governors, the new President, José María Aznar, appointed her to be Minister of Education and Sports. She was succeeded in those posts in 1999 by Mariano Rajoy, Aguirre, a Senator since 1996, was elected President of the Senate in February 1999, the first woman to do so. In March 2000, she was re-elected Senator for Madrid, becoming the candidate in Spain with 1.55 million votes and 50. 7% of the popular vote.
She resigned in 2002 to run for the Presidency of the Autonomous Community of Madrid in the regional Assembly elections of 2003 and she was substituted as President of the Senate by Juan José Lucas. When the regional elections took place in May 2003, the Peoples Party won a plurality of seats, the Peoples Party won 55 seats in the Madrid Assembly, being the only party of the right in the Assembly