Stefan Uroš V
Saint Stefan Uroš V, known in historiography as Uroš the Weak, was the second Emperor of the Serbian Empire, before that he was Serbian King and co-ruler with his father, Emperor Stefan Dušan. Stefan Uroš V was the only son of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan by Helena of Bulgaria, the sister of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria, he had been crowned as king in the capacity of heir and co-ruler after Dušan was crowned emperor in 1346. Although by the time of his succession as sole ruler and emperor in 1355 Stefan Uroš V was no longer a minor, he remained dependent on his mother and various members of the court; the account of the contemporary John VI Kantakouzenos describes a descent of the Serbian Empire into desintegration soon after death of Uroš' father and his accession. However, Kantakouzenos focused on the Greek lands rather than the Serbian core lands. Further the general disorder long with the powerlessness of the center represents the situation that arose much in Uroš's reign. According to Mihaljčić, during the initial years of his rule the threats to the territorial integrity of Uroš's empire in the south came from external attacks.
The death of Uroš's father was followed by the death of Preljub, who governed Thessaly. In the spring of 1356, Nikephoros Orsini landed a force on the coast of Thessaly and overran it, he followed up this success by driving despot Simeon Uroš from Aetolia and Acarnania. Simeon was paternal uncle and the closest male relative of young Emperor Uroš. Retreating to Epirus and western Macedonia, he seized Kostur and proclaimed himself Tsar in hope of becoming co-ruler, or replace young Uroš on the Serbian throne, his claim was not welcomed, the support he gained was limited to the some southern regions. The Sabor held in Skoplje did not accept Simeon's claims and following the endorsement of the magnates, Uroš became more energetic in his political activities, publishing a number of charters. In 1358, Simeon attacked the Skadar region, trying to capture the old Serbia region of Zeta, but was defeated. Defeated in the north, Simeon again turned to south, retaking Epirus and Thessaly in 1359, where he continued to rule with the title "emperor of Serbs and Greeks".
There is one account, early in his reign, in contrast to his general record of incompetence. In 1356, Matthew Kantakouzenos, a pretender to the Byzantine throne, gathered an army of 5,000 Turks and marched on Serres, the Serbian-held capital of Jovan Uglješa. Uroš V, whose mother ruled from Serres, decided to raise an army to defend his mother. In 1357, when Matthew and his Turks attacked, the Serbian army under Vojihna of Drama came to aid; the Turks were defeated. Matthew Kantakouzenos was captured and held hostage until his ransom was paid by the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos. In following years, Serbian Empire fragmented into a conglomeration of principalities, some of which did not nominally acknowledge Uroš's rule, his position was not helped by his mother Helena, who started to rule autonomously from Serres in alliance with Jovan Uglješa. A autonomous posture was assumed by the Dejanović family, the Balšić family, Nikola Altomanović. By 1365, the most powerful Serbian nobleman became Uglješa's brother Vukašin Mrnjavčević who became co-ruler with Emperor Uroš and was granted the title of Serbian King.
By 1369, as Uroš was childless, Vukašin designated his eldest son Prince Marko as hair to the throne, with the title of "young king". Stefan Uroš V died childless in December 1371, after much of the Serbian nobility had been destroyed by the Turks in the Battle of Maritsa earlier that year; the exact cause of his death at a young age remains unknown. Vukašin's son Prince Marko inherited his father's royal title, but real power in northern Serbia was held by Lazar Hrebeljanović; the latter did not assume the imperial or royal titles, in 1377 accepted King Tvrtko I of Bosnia as titular king of Serbia. Serbia proper became a vassal of the Ottomans in 1390, but remained ruled by the Lazarević family and by their Branković successors until the fall of Smederevo in 1459. Following the great conquests of his father, Uroš became a victim of new nobles in a Serbia enriched by recent war and pillaging; the maintaining of order and state instruments was impossible because of weak or nonexistent infrastructure between the old and new territories.
The exceptional modesty and tolerance of this ruler was the main reason he was called "the weak", the reason he was canonized 211 years after his death. Stefan Uroš V was canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church, his body is kept in the Jazak monastery on Fruška Gora mountain. Today, Stefan Uroš V is viewed in contrast to his able and strong-willed father, as a lacking and indecisive ruler, unable to keep the Serbian nobility under his control, whose weak and unassertive personality contributed to the fall of the Empire and the eventual destruction of the Serbian state by the Ottomans. In Serbian folklore and epic poems he is described as a just, well-intentioned ruler of pleasant appearance but weak character. While this view is popular among historians as well, some argue that he was not incompetent in his role as Emperor of Serbia, that the decline of the empire was much less spectacular and started much into his rule than popular opinion suggests. For a long time, it was considered a historical fact that he was murdered by his co-ruler, Vukašin Mrnjavčević, but Vukašin was pro
Lake Skadar — called Lake Scutari, Lake Shkodër and Lake Shkodra — lies on the border of Albania and Montenegro, is the largest lake in Southern Europe. It is named after the city of Shkodër in northern Albania, it is a karst lake. The Montenegrin section has been designated as national park, while the Albanian section as a nature reserve and a ramsar site. Lake Skadar is the largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula with a surface area that seasonally fluctuates between 370 km2 to 530 km2. Lake Skadar itself is located on the western Balkan with two-third of its surface belonging to Montenegro and about one-third to Albania; the lake’s water level varies seasonally from 4.7 to 9.8 m above sea level. The lake extends in the NW-SE direction, it is 44 km long; the Bojana River connects the lake with the Adriatic Sea, the Drin River provides a link with the Ohrid Lake. The lake is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača and drained into the Adriatic by the 41 km long Bojana, which forms the international border on the lower half of its length.
The largest inflow is from the Morača. Total drainage area is 5490 km2. There are additionally some fresh water sources at the lake bottom. A characteristic feature of Lake Skadar’s water balance is the high inflow from a number of temporary and permanent karstic springs, some of which are sublacustrine in cryptodepressians; the Southern and southwestern sides of the lake are rocky and steep, having bays in which the sublacustrine springs, are to be found. On the northern side there is an enormous inundated area, the boundaries of which change as water levels fluctuate; some small islands like Beška, with two churches on it and Grmožur, a former fortress and prison can be found on the southwest side of the lake. The climate type is hot-summer Mediterranean climate with dry summers, under Köppen climate classification; the Montenegrin part of the lake and its surrounding area were declared a national park in 1983. The Albanian part has been designated as a Managed Nature Reserve. In 1996, by Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, it was included in the Ramsar list of wetlands of international importance.
Near the mouth of Rijeka Crnojevića, 11 m below the surface of the water there is a well preserved wreck of the steamboat Skanderbeg sank by Partisans in 1942, during the Second World War. Lake Skadar is an ancient lake, although it is a young ancient lake. Most authors agree that the Lake Skadar basin is of tectonic origin, formed due to the complex folding and faulting within north eastern wing of Old Montenegro anticlynorium; these movements took place during the Cenozoic period. The Lake basin has been formed as the result of sinking of blocks in the Neogene period or in Paleogene. In the Miocene and the Pliocene marine conditions prevailed in the Zeta Plain, sunk at the beginning of the upper Miocene, that the sea inundated this plain up to Podgorica during the Pliocene. Radoman pointed out that sea must have destroyed all the freshwater populations on this plane and in the Lake Skadar area; the connection of Lake Skadar with the sea was interrupted during the younger Pliocene. The question of the origin of its water is of particular interest for biologists as these waters may have provided its first species and been the basis for its present high degree of endemism.
The Lake Skadar system is a well-known hotspot of freshwater biodiversity and harbors a diverse mollusc fauna. Lake Skadar is one of the largest bird reserves in Europe, having 270 bird species, among which are some of the last pelicans in Europe, thus popular with birders; the lake contains habitats of seagulls and herons. It is abundant in fish in carp and eel. Of the 34 native fish species, 7 are endemic to Lake Skadar. At the scale of Lake Skadar, about 31% of freshwater snails are endemic. At the scale of the Lake Skadar basin, 38% of the total freshwater gastropod fauna appear to be endemic. There were reliably recorded 50 species of freshwater snails from the Lake Skadar basin; the index of freshwater gastropod endemism is 0.478. With this high value, Lake Skadar exceeds such famous lakes as Lake Malawi and Lake Titicaca; the Lake Skadar is inhabited by five species of Bithynia and it is a hot spot of Bithynia evolution. There are 17 amphipod species for 10 of them being endemic; the small range of many endemic species living in the Lake Skadar system together with increasing human pressure make its fauna vulnerable.
This becomes more important in light of ongoing eutrophication, water pollution and sand and gravel exploration activities in the lake and its basin. Research of the phytoplankton community and chlorophyllbased trophic state indices show that the lake is on a betamesosaprobic level of saprobity, which means moderately polluted with organic compounds. Effects of human-induced environmental changes are evident for sublacustrine springs, with eutrophication and using for water supplying being the most serious threats; the 2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species includes 21 endemic species from the Lake Skadar basin. Radio Skadar, a radio station in Montenegro, based in Podgorica is named after Lake Skadar. Shaqari Island This
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness; the word baron comes from a Late Latin barō "man. The scholar Isidore of Seville in the 7th century thought the word was from Greek βᾰρῠ́ς "heavy", but the word is of Old Frankish origin, cognate with Old English beorn meaning "warrior, nobleman". Cornutus in the first century reports a word barones which he took to be of Gaulish origin, he glosses it as meaning servos militum and explains it as meaning "stupid", by reference to classical Latin bārō "simpleton, dunce". During the Ancien Régime, French baronies were much like Scottish ones. Feudal landholders who possessed a barony were entitled to style themselves baron if they were nobles; these baronies could be sold until 1789 when feudal law was abolished. The title of baron was assumed as a titre de courtoisie by many nobles, whether members of the Nobles of the Robe or cadets of Nobles of the Sword who held no title in their own right. Emperor Napoléon created a new imperial nobility.
The titles could not be purchased. In 1815, King Louis XVIII created a new peerage system and a Chamber of Peers, based on the British model. Baron-peer was the lowest title, but the heirs to pre-1789 barons could remain barons, as could the elder sons of viscount-peers and younger sons of count-peers; this peerage system was abolished in 1848. In pre-republican Germany all the knightly families of the Holy Roman Empire were recognised as of baronial rank, although Ritter is the literal translation for "knight", persons who held that title enjoyed a distinct, but lower, rank in Germany's nobility than barons; the wife of a Freiherr is called a Freifrau or sometimes Baronin, his daughter Freiin or sometimes Baroness. Families which had always held this status were called Uradel, were heraldically entitled to a three pointed coronet. Families, ennobled at a definite point in time had seven points on their coronet; these families held their fief in vassalage from a suzerain. The holder of an allodial barony was thus called Freiherr.
Subsequently, sovereigns in Germany conferred the title of Freiherr as a rank in the nobility, without implication of allodial or feudal status. Since 1919, hereditary titles have had no legal status in Germany. In modern, republican Germany and Baron remain heritable only as part of the legal surname. In Austria, hereditary titles have been banned. Thus, a member of the reigning House of Habsburg or members of the former nobility would in most cases be addressed as Herr/Frau in an official/public surrounding, for instance in the media. Still, in both countries, honorary styles like "His/her Highness", "Serenity", etc. persists in social use as a form of courtesy. In Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, barons remain members of the recognized nobility, the sovereigns retain authority to confer the title Generally, all legitimate males of a German baronial family inherit the title Freiherr or Baron from birth, as all legitimate daughters inherit the title of Freiin or Baroness; as a result, German barons have been more numerous than those of such countries where primogeniture with respect to title inheritance prevails as France and the United Kingdom.
In Italy, barone was the lowest rank of feudal nobility except for that of vassallo. The title of baron was most introduced into southern Italy by the Normans during the 11th century. Whereas a barony might consist of two or more manors, by 1700 we see what were single manors erected into baronies, counties or marquisates. Since the early 1800s, when feudalism was abolished in the various Italian states, it has been granted as a simple hereditary title without any territorial designation or predicato; the untitled younger son of a baron is a nobile dei baroni and in informal usage might be called a baron, while certain baronies devolve to heirs male general. Since 1948 titles of nobility have not been recognised by the Italian state. In the absence of a nobiliary or heraldic authority in Italy there are, in fact, numerous persons who claim to be barons or counts without any basis for such claims. Baron and noble are hereditary titles and, as such, could only be created or recognised by the kings of Italy or the pre-unitary Italian states such as the Two Sicilies, Parma or Modena, or by the Holy See or the Republic of San Marino.
Beginning around 1800, a number of signori began to style themselves barone but in many cases this was not sanctioned by decree, while there was less justification in the holder of any large landed estate calling himself a baron. Both were common p
Stefan Uroš III Nemanjić, known as Stefan Dečanski, was the King of Serbia from 6 January 1322 to 8 September 1331. Dečanski was the son of King Stefan Milutin, he defeated several of his family members vying for the throne, he took his epithet Dečanski from the great monastery. Stefan Uroš III was the son of King Stefan Uroš II Milutin and his first wife Jelena, a Serbian noblewoman, he was born before his father took the throne in 1282. While still a youth, he was sent by his father as a hostage with his entourage to Nogai Khan of the Golden Horde, to maintain the peace between the Serbs and Tatars, he stayed at Nogai's court until the Khan's death in 1299. In 1314, Stefan Dečanski quarreled with his father. Dečanski was never blinded and was not blinded at all. In Constantinople, Dečanski was at the court of Andronikos II Palaiologos, indicating good relations between the states. Dečanski wrote a letter to Bishop of Hum, asking him to intervene with Dečanski's father. Danilo wrote to Archbishop Nicodemus of Serbia, who spoke with Milutin and persuaded him to recall his son.
In 1320 Dečanski was permitted to return to Serbia and was given the appanage of Budimlje, while his half-brother Stefan Konstantin, held Zeta. Milutin became ill and died on 29 October 1321, leaving no formal instruction regarding his inheritance. Konstantin was crowned King in Zeta, but civil war broke out as both Stefan Dečanski and his cousin, Stefan Vladislav II, claimed the throne. Dečanski revealed that his eyesight was still intact, claiming a miracle, the populous rallied behind him believing the restoration of his sight to be a sign from God. On 6 January 1322, the Archbishop of Serbia, crowned Dečanski King and his son, Stefan Dušan, Young King. Dečanski granted Zeta to Dušan as an appanage, indicating his intention for Dušan to be his heir. According to one account, Dečanski offered to split the realm with Konstantin. Dečanski invaded Zeta, Konstantin was defeated and killed. In the meantime, Vladislav II had been released from prison upon Milutin's death and recovered the throne of Syrmia, which his father had established in northern Serbia.
Vladislav claimed the throne of Serbia upon Milutin's death and mobilized local support from Rudnik, a former appanage of Vladislav's father. Supported by Hungarians and Bosnians, Vladislav consolidated control over Syrmia and prepared for battle with Dečanski. In 1323, war broke out between Vladislav. In autumn, Vladislav still held Rudnik, but by the end of 1323, the market of Rudnik was held by officials of Dečanski, Vladislav seems to have fled further north; some of Vladislav's supporters from Rudnik, led by Ragusan merchant Menčet, took refuge in the nearby Ostrovica fortress, where they resisted Dečanski's troops. Dečanski sent envoys to capital of Ragusa, to protest the support of Vladislav. Dubrovnik rejected Dečanski's complaint. Dečanski was not satisfied, in 1324 he rounded up all the Ragusan merchants he could find, confiscated their property, held them captive. By year's end, Rudnik was restored to Dečanski, who released the merchants and returned their property. Vladislav was defeated in battle in late 1324, fled to Hungary.
Tensions between Dubrovnik and Serbia continued: in August 1325 Vojvoda Vojin plundered Dubrovnik, resulting in a brief trade ban. On 25 March 1326 Dečanski reaffirmed privileges granted to Ragusa by Milutin. Tensions began again, when Bosnia and Dubrovnik took actions against the Branivojevići. Dečanski maintained an alliance with Andronikos II, aside from occasional disruptions. Dečanski avoided taking a position in the Byzantine civil war between Andronikos II and Andronikos III Palaiologos; as Andronikos III gained control, he developed an alliance with Tsar Michael Asen III of Bulgaria. Michael Asen III divorced Dečanski's sister Anna and married the Byzantine princess Theodora Palaiologina instead; the allies intended to join forces for a major invasion of Serbia in 1330. In the most significant event of Dečanski's reign, he defeated and killed Michael Asen III in the Battle of Velbazhd. Prince Stefan Dušan contributed to the victory. Hearing of Michael's defeat, Andronikos III retreated. Dečanski's subsequent conquests pushed the Serbian border south into Byzantine Macedonia.
Some of his courtiers, were discontented with his policies and conspired to dethrone him in favour of Stefan Dušan. In 1331 Dušan came from Skadar to Nerodimlje to overthrow Dečanski, who fled to Petrič. On 21 August 1331 Dušan captured Petrič after a siege and imprisoned his father in Zvečan Fortress, where he was strangled on 11 November 1331. By his first wife, Theodora of Bulgaria, Stefan Dečanski had two children: Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, who overthrew him and took royal title Dušica By his second wife, Maria Palaiologina, daughter of John Palaiologos, Dečanski had: Simeon tried to usurp imperial title from his nephew, ruled as independent ruler in Thessaly Jelena, who married Mladen III Šubić Teodora, who married Dejan Stefan is seen as a noble character in epic poetry, the Serbian Orthodox Church had him canonized, his remains are venerated at the church of the Visoki Dečani monastery, in Kosovo. Dečanski's royal crown has been preserved until the present and is now kept at the Cetinje Monastery, in Montenegro.
Danilo II, Life of Saintly Stefan Dečanski (Primar
The Serbian Empire is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom. It was established in 1346 by King Stefan Dušan, known as "the Mighty", who expanded the state. Under Dušan's rule Serbia was the major power in the Balkans, a multi-lingual empire that stretched from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth, with its capital in Skopje, he promoted the Serbian Archbishopric to the Serbian Patriarchate. His son and successor, Uroš the Weak, lost most of the territory conquered by Dušan, hence his epithet; the Serbian Empire ended with the death of Uroš V in 1371 and the break-up of the Serbian state. Some successors of Stefan V claimed the title of Emperor in parts of Serbia until 1402, but the territory in Greece was never recovered. Stefan Dušan was the son of the Serbian king Stefan Dečanski. After his father's accession to the throne, Dušan was awarded with the title of "young king". Although this title bore significant power in medieval Serbia, Stefan wanted his younger son, Simeon Uroš, to inherit him instead of Dušan.
However, Dušan had significant support from the major part of the Serbian nobility, including the Serbian archbishop Danilo, some of the king's most trusted generals, such as Jovan Oliver Grčinić. Tensions rose between the king and his son after the battle of Velbužd, where Dušan showed his military capabilities, they seem to have culminated when king Stefan raided Zeta, a province in Serbia where Dušan ruled autonomously, being a tradition of Serbian heirs to rule this province. Advised by the nobility, Dušan marched from Zeta to Nerodimlje, where he besieged his father and forced him to surrender the throne. Stefan was imprisoned in the fortress of Zvečan, where he died. In 1333, Dušan launched a large attack on the Byzantine empire, at the time ruled by the ambitious emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, with the help of a deserted Byzantine general, Syrgian. Dušan conquered the cities of Ohrid and Kastoria, attempted to besiege Thessalonica in 1334, but was prevented conquering the city by the death of Syrgian, assassinated by a Byzantine spy.
Syrgian was a key figure in Dušan's army, as he had earned a great reputation in Greece, convincing Greek citizens to surrender cities rather than fight Dušan's armies. By 1345, Dušan the Mighty had expanded his state to cover half of the Balkans, more territory than either the Byzantine Empire or the Second Bulgarian Empire in that time. Therefore, in 1345, in Serres, Dušan proclaimed himself "Tsar". On 16 April 1346, in Skopje, he had himself crowned "Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks", a title signifying a claim to succession of the Byzantine Empire; the ceremony was performed by the newly elevated Serbian Patriarch Joanikije II, the Bulgarian Patriarch Simeon, Nicholas, the Archbishop of Ohrid. At the same time, Dušan had his son Uroš crowned as King of Serbs and Greeks, giving him nominal rule over the Serbian lands, although Dušan was governing the whole state, with special responsibility for the newly acquired Roman lands. Tsar Dušan doubled the size of Serbian state, seizing territories in all directions south and southeast.
Serbia held large parts of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moravian Serbia, Zeta, modern North Macedonia, modern Albania, half of modern Greece. He did not fight a single field battle. Dušan undertook a campaign against the Byzantine Empire, attempting to avert a deteriorating situation after the destruction caused by the Fourth Crusade. Dušan swiftly seized Thessaly, Albania and most of Macedonia. After besieging the emperor at Salonica in 1340, he imposed a treaty assuring Serbia sovereignty over regions extending from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth, from the Adriatic Sea to the Maritsa river up to the environs of Adrianople. Bulgaria had not yet recovered since its defeat by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbazhd, the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander, whose sister Dušan married, became his vassal, between 1331 and 1365, seen just as an alliance from Bulgarian point of view. Dušan thus ruled over the the entire central Balkan peninsula, with only Bulgaria, southern Greece and Thrace escaping his authority.
He gave sanctuary to the former regent of the Byzantine Empire, John VI Kantakouzenos, in revolt against the government, agreed to an alliance. In 1349 and 1354, Dušan enacted a set of laws known as Dušan's Code; the Code was based on the first Serbian constitution, St. Sava's Nomocanon, it was a Civil and Canon law system, based on the Ecumenical Councils, for the functioning of the state and the Serbian Orthodox Church. In 1355, Dušan began military preparations, assembling an army of 80,000 men, an enormous number at that time. Dušan marched towards Constantinople; the Serbian army was proceeding to Constantinople, located 40 miles to the east, when Dušan died of an unknown illness at 46. His expedition ended as well, the army retreated carrying his body. Dušan was succeeded by his son, Stefan Uroš V, called "the Weak," a term that described the empire as it slid into feudal anarchy; the failure to consolidate its holdings after a sudden conquest led to the fragmentation of the empire. The period was marked by the rise of a new threat: the Ottoman Turkish sultanate spread from Asia to Europe and conquered first Byzantine Thrace, the other Balkan states.
Too incompetent to sustain the empire created by his father, Stefan V could neither repel attacks of foreign enemies nor combat the ind
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 and one below an OF-3; the rank of captain is considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. In some militaries, such as United States Army and Air Force and the British Army, captain is the entry-level rank for officer candidates possessing a professional degree, most medical professionals and lawyers. In the U. S.. Army, lawyers who are not officers at captain rank or above enter as lieutenants during training, are promoted to the rank of captain after completion of their training if they are in the active component, or after a certain amount of time one year from their date of commission as a lieutenant, for the reserve components.
The rank of captain should not be confused with the naval rank of captain or with the UK-influenced air force rank of group captain, both of which are equivalent to the army rank of colonel. The term goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning "chief, prominent"; the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is somewhat earlier, from the 1550s extended in meaning to "master or commander of any kind of vessel". A captain in the period prior to the professionalization of the armed services of European nations subsequent to the French Revolution, during the early modern period, was a nobleman who purchased the right to head a company from the previous holder of that right, he would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant. The funding to provide for the troops came from his government. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the monarch would receive money from another nobleman to command the company.
Otherwise, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. Many air forces, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces and a few non-Commonwealth air forces use an air force-specific rank structure in which flight lieutenant is OF-2. A group captain was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey and increase from OF-1 to OF-5 in half strip increments. A variety of images illustrative of different forces' insignia for captain are shown below: Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church