Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body. They are usually personal possessions, supplies to smooth the journey into the afterlife or offerings to the gods. Grave goods may be classed as a type of votive deposit, most grave goods recovered by archaeologists consist of inorganic objects such as pottery and stone and metal tools but organic objects that have since decayed were placed in ancient tombs. Funerary art is a term but generally means artworks made specifically to decorate a burial place. Where grave goods appear, grave robbery is a potential problem, etruscans would scratch the word śuθina, Etruscan for from a tomb, on grave goods buried with the dead to discourage their reuse by the living. The tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun is famous because it was one of the few Egyptian tombs that was not thoroughly looted in ancient times, Grave goods can be regarded as a sacrifice intended for the benefit of the deceased in the afterlife. Closely related are customs of worship and offerings to the dead, in modern western culture related to All Souls Day, in East Asia the hell bank note.
Also closely related is the custom of retainer sacrifice, where servants or wives of a deceased chieftain are interred with the body, evidence for intentional burial is found in Neanderthal sites from 130,000 years ago or earlier. In Homo sapiens burials beginning about 100,000 years ago, the body of the deceased was sprinkled with red ochre, and offerings of food and fresh flowers may have been deposited in the grave. Beads made of basalt deposited in graves in the Fertile Crescent date to the end of the Upper Paleolithic, the distribution of grave goods are a potential indicator of the social stratification of a society. It is possible that burial goods indicate a level of concern and consciousness in regard to an afterlife, the expression of social status in rich graves is taken to extremes in the royal graves of the Bronze Age. In the Theban Necropolis in Ancient Egypt, the pyramids and the graves in the Valley of the Kings are among the most elaborate burials in human history. This trend is continued into the Iron Age, an example of an extremely rich royal grave of the Iron Age is the Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.
In the sphere of the Roman Empire, early Christian graves lack grave goods, in the Christian Middle Ages, high-status graves are marked on the exterior, with tomb effigies or expensive tomb stones rather than by the presence of grave goods. The importance of goods, from the simple behavioural and technical to the metaphysical. However, care must be taken to avoid naive interpretation of grave goods as a sample of artefacts in use in a culture. Because of their context, grave goods may represent a special class of artifacts. Burial Grave field Necropolis Mingqi, the traditional Chinese burial goods The Earliest Beads, Treasures From the Ancient World, Museum of Ancient and Modern Art, at muma. org
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions, Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has approximately 5,800,000 inhabitants, the new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015. It is the largest region in France by area, with a slightly larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants. The region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, after Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast, in terms of culture, the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Occitan and Oïl cultures.
Historically, it is the successor to medieval Aquitaine. In June 2016, a group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula. The decision came after the favorite, faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin. The other popular favorite, Grande Aquitaine, was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority, alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working groups conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym ALPC no choice at all. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, frances Conseil dÉtat approved New-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016. Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three communities in Spain to the south, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory.
It is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean, Charente and Dordogne and Adour, giving rivers bordering land dedicated mostly to viticulture and to agriculture. This diverse area is the area of the oyster, the Landes forest, by far the most extensive, covering almost one million hectares, making it the largest artificial forest of Western Europe. The Landes forest is included in the Landes de Gascogne Regional Natural Park
The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity, modern humans are believed to have emerged about 195,000 years ago in Africa. Although these humans were modern in anatomy, their lifestyle changed very little from their contemporaries, such as Homo erectus, about 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record, between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, this new tool technology spread with human migration to Europe. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory.
The first evidence of fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and this probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity. By 50, 000–40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia, by 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61° north latitude in Europe. By 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia above the Arctic Circle, at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed the Bering land bridge and quickly expanded throughout North and South America. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools, archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms and he argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated.
These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, the invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines. The Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and possibly Chatelperronian technology and these tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 years ago. Settlements were often located in valley bottoms, possibly associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer may well be the species of single greatest importance in the anthropological literature on hunting. Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes and racloirs were used to work bone and hides.
Advanced darts and harpoons appear in period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope
In 1864 the fossils description was first published in a scientific magazine and official named. The discovery was made by limestone quarry miners, Neanderthal 1 consists of a skullcap, two femora, the three right arm bones, two of the left arm bones and fragments of a scapula and ribs. The fossils were given to Johann Carl Fuhlrott, a local teacher, the first description of the remains was made by anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen and the find was announced jointly in 1857. In 1997, the specimen was the first to yield Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA fragments, in 2000, the fossil of a second individual from the locality, named Neanderthal 2, was identified as a Homo neanderthalensis. The Neanderthal 1 publication represents the beginning of paleoanthropology as a scientific discipline, the fossil is preserved in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn since 1877. As well as the historical and scientific importance of this specimen it has continued to play a key role since its discovery. Mining of limestone in the Neander Valley has been going on since the early 16th century, from the mid 19th century on it was carried out on an industrial scale.
Upon removing the sediment fillings, the workers unearthed fossilized bones in a depth of 60 cm, the bones came to the attention of the caves owner Wilhelm Beckershoff, who assumed them to be the remains of a cave bear. Beckershoff and quarry co-owner Friedrich Wilhelm Pieper, retrieved 16 bones and fragments from the rubble and handed them to the Elberfelder teacher, Fuhlrott allegedly immediately recognized that the remains are to be attributed to a human who significantly differed from modern man. The removal of the rocks, which certainly is a dreadful deed from a picturesque point of view, revealed a cave. While clearing away this clay a human skeleton was found, which undoubtedly would have been left unconsidered and lost if not, thankfully, Dr. Fuhlrott of Elberfeld had secured and examined the find. Maybe the find can help to settle the issue of whether the skeleton belonged to an early central European original inhabitant people or simply to one of Attilas roaming hordes men. This report lead two Bonn professors of anatomy, Hermann Schaaffhausen and August Franz Josef Karl Mayer, attention to the find and they contacted Fuhlrott and asked him to send the bones.
Fuhlrott personally brought them to Bonn the following winter, where Schaaffhausen had them examined, six months later, on 2 June 1857 Schaaffhausen and Fuhlrott presented the results of their investigations to the members of the Natural History Society of the Prussian Rhineland and Westphalen. The description and interpretation of the find was Schaaffhausens task and they reminded him of the Great Apes. Nevertheless, this was not an ape, and if its features were not pathological, Schaaffhausen published his findings in 1858 in the Archives of Anatomy and Scientific Medicine. A year Fuhlrott published a Treatise on Human remains from a grotto of the Düssel valley in the team sheet of the Natural History Society of the Prussian Rhineland. Following his comments on the geology of the locality he suspected the effect that these bones are ante-diluvial and Schaaffhausens ultimately correct interpretation of the finds was not taken seriously by scholars of their time
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil lies in the Périgord Noir area and it is served by the Gare des Eyzies railway station. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979 and these skeletons included a foetus, and the skulls found were remarkably modern-looking and much rounder than the earlier Neanderthal. Abri Pataud Font-de-Gaume Château de Commarque Communes of the Dordogne department Les Combarelles Micoquien INSEE Tourist office website National Museum of Prehistory
Settlement of the Americas
Available scientific evidence indicates that humanity emerged from Africa over 100,000 years ago, yet did not arrive in the Americas until less than 20,000 years ago. Current understanding of the settlement of the Americas derives from advances in four interrelated disciplines, Pleistocene geology, physical anthropology, in the 2000s, researchers sought to use familiar tools to validate or reject established theories, such as Clovis first. The settlement of the Americas is of intense interest to archaeologists and anthropologists, for an introduction to the radiocarbon dating techniques used by archaeologists and geologists, see radiocarbon dating. During the Wisconsin Glaciation, varying portions of the Earths water were stored as glacier ice, as water accumulated in glaciers, the volume of water in the oceans correspondingly decreased, resulting in lowering of the eustatic sea level. With the rise of sea level after the Last Glacial Maximum, estimates of the final re-submergence of the Beringian land bridge based purely on present bathymetry of the Bering Strait and eustatic sea level curve place the event around 11,000 years BP.
The onset of the Last Glacial Maximum after 30,000 years BP saw the expansion of alpine glaciers, alpine glaciers in the coastal ranges and the Alaskan Peninsula isolated the interior of Beringia from the Pacific coast. As deglaciation occurred, refugia expanded until the coast became ice-free by 15,000 cal years BP, the retreat of glaciers on the Alaskan Peninsula provided access from Beringia to the Pacific coast by around 17,000 cal years BP. The ice barrier between interior Alaska and the Pacific coast broke up starting around 13,500 14C years BP, the ice-free corridor to the interior of North America opened between 13,000 and 12,000 cal years BP. Glaciation in eastern Siberia during the LGM was limited to alpine and valley glaciers in mountain ranges, the paleoclimates and vegetation of eastern Siberia and Alaska during the Wisconsin glaciation have been deduced from high resolution oxygen isotope data and pollen stratigraphy. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, climates in eastern Siberia fluctuated between conditions approximating present day conditions and colder periods, the pre-LGM warm cycles in Arctic Siberia saw flourishes of megafaunas.
A similar record of pollen being replaced with herb pollen as the LGM approached was recovered near the Kolyma River in Arctic Siberia. Diverse, though not necessarily plentiful, megafaunas were present in those environments, herb tundra dominated during the LGM, due to cold and dry conditions. Coastal environments during the Last Glacial Maximum were complex, the lowered sea level, and an isostatic bulge equilibrated with the depression beneath the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, exposed the continental shelf to form a coastal plain. The now-submerged coastal plain has potential for more refugia, pollen data indicate mostly herb/shrub tundra vegetation in unglaciated areas, with some boreal forest towards the southern end of the range of Cordilleran ice. The coastal marine environment remained productive, as indicated by fossils of pinnipeds, the highly productive kelp forests over rocky marine shallows may have been a lure for coastal migration. Reconstruction of the southern Beringian coastline suggests potential for a highly productive coastal marine environment, pollen data indicate a warm period culminating between 14k and 11k 14C years BP followed by cooling between 11k-10k 14C years BP.
Coastal areas deglaciated rapidly as coastal alpine glaciers, lobes of Cordilleran ice, the retreat was accelerated as sea levels rose and floated glacial termini. Estimates of a fully ice-free coast range between 16k and 15k cal years BP, littoral marine organisms colonized shorelines as ocean water replaced glacial meltwater
Louis Lartet was a French geologist and paleontologist. He discovered the original Cro-Magnon skeletons, Louis Lartet was born in Castelnau-Magnoac, in Seissan in the département of Gers. He became a member of the Société géologique de France in 1863 and this resulted in his publication of Exploration géologique de la mer Morte, which formed his doctoral thesis. In 1868, Lartet was asked to conduct excavations in a shelter near the French village of Les Eyzies after workmen stumbled upon extinct animal bones, flint tools. Lartet discovered the skeletons of four prehistoric adults and one infant along with perforated shells used as ornaments, an object made from ivory. These Cro-magnon humans were soon identified as a new human race distinct from the Neanderthal man fossils discovered in Germany in 1856. Lartet began teaching geology at the University of Toulouse in 1873 and he became a member of the Société archéologique du midi de la France in 1879, the Société dagriculture in 1880, the Académie des sciences in 1882 and the Société dhistoire naturelle in 1882. “Mémoire sur une sepulture des anciens troglodytes du Périgord.
”Annales des sciences naturelles, Zoologie et paléontologie ser 5,10, “Une sépulture des troglodytes du Périgord, ” Bulletins de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 3, 335-349. With Chaplain Duparc, “Sur une sépulture des anciens Troglodytes des Pyrénées superposée à un foyer contenant des débris humains associés à des dents sculptées de Lion et dOurs. ”Matériaux pour l’histoire primitive et naturelle de l’homme 2 ser. Sur la dentition des proboscidiens fossiles et sur la distribution géographique et stratigraphique de leurs débris en Europe, obituary for Louis Lartet in Revue des Pyrénées 11, 601-2. List of fossil sites List of hominina fossils
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Neanderthal extinction began around 40,000 years ago in Europe, after anatomically modern humans had reached the continent. The survey did not include sites in Asia, where Neanderthals may have survived longer, in October 2015, studies suggest Neanderthals may have survived even longer, as recently as 24,000 years ago instead. Interbreeding took place in western Asia about 50,000 to 60,000 years ago and it is unlikely that any one of these hypotheses is sufficient on its own, multiple factors probably contributed to the demise of an already widely dispersed population. The study found with the probability that modern humans. Modern humans reached Europe between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, inter-stratification of Neanderthal and modern human remains has been suggested, but is disputed. Some authors have discussed the possibility that Neanderthal extinction was either precipitated or hastened by violent conflict with Homo sapiens and warfare are virtually ubiquitous features of hunter-gatherer societies, including conflicts over limited resources, such as prey and water.
It is therefore plausible to suggest that violence, including primitive warfare, the hypothesis that early humans violently replaced Neanderthals was first proposed by French palaeontologist Marcellin Boule in 1912. Many of these methods were almost entirely exclusive to one group, while it can be acknowledged that inter-species violence did indeed occur, archaeological evidence that neanderthals were wiped out by encroaching homo-sapiens populations remains inconclusive. Another possibility is the spread among the Neanderthal population of pathogens or parasites carried by Homo sapiens, an examination of human and Neanderthal genomes and adaptations regarding pathogens or parasites may shed light on this issue. Slight competitive advantage on the part of humans has accounted for Neanderthals decline on a timescale of thousands of years. Generally small and widely dispersed fossil sites suggest that Neanderthals lived in less numerous, artefacts are of utilitarian nature, symbolic behavioral traits are undocumented before the arrival of modern humans in Europe around 40,000 to 35,000 years ago.
In 2006, two anthropologists of the University of Arizona proposed an explanation for the demise of the Neanderthals. In an article titled Whats a Mother to Do, the Division of Labor among Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Eurasia, Neanderthal division of labor between the sexes was less developed than Middle paleolithic Homo sapiens. Both male and female Neanderthals participated in the occupation of hunting big game, such as bison, gazelles. This hypothesis proposes that the Neanderthals relative lack of labor resulted in less efficient extraction of resources from the environment as compared to Homo sapiens. Researchers including Karen L. Steudel of the University of Wisconsin have highlighted the relationship of Neanderthal anatomy and the ability to run, pat Shipman, from Pennsylvania State University in the United States, argues that the domestication of the dog gave modern humans an advantage when hunting. The oldest remains of domesticated dogs were found in Belgium and in Siberia, a survey of early sites of modern humans and Neanderthals with faunal remains across Spain and France provided an overview of what modern humans and Neanderthals ate.
Rabbit became more frequent, while large mammals – mainly eaten by the Neanderthals – became increasingly rare
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker