click links in text for more info


The Croatan are a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. They allied with them; the Croatan people of North Carolina who exist today live in Cumberland and Harnett counties predominantly. The Croatan lived in current Dare County, an area encompassing the Alligator River, Croatan Sound, Roanoke Island, Ocracoke Island, parts of the Outer Banks, including Hatteras Island. Now extinct as a tribe, they were one of the Carolina Algonquian peoples, numerous at the time of English encounter in the 16th century; the Roanoke territory extended to the mainland, where they had their chief town on the western shore of Croatan Sound. For the most part, the groups involved with the Croatan Indians were small. Though the majority of these groups were small, they did have about 30 groups that consisted of 100 plus members in 1930; the Croatan Indians had a group in Robeson County N. C that had nearly 15,000 members. Croatan Americans were a part of the Carolina Algonquians, a southeastern designation of the greater Algonquian source.

Agriculture was the Native Americans' primary food source, the fact that they could feed the colonists, as well as themselves, demonstrates effectively the efficiency of their farming. The Native Americans regulated each person's position in society by public marks; the chiefs or leaders, called werowances, controlled between eighteen towns. The greatest were able to muster eight hundred fighting men; the English marveled at the great awe in which these werowances were held, saying no people in the world carried more respect towards their leaders. Werowance means "he, rich". Chiefs and their families were held in great status and with respect, but they had to convince followers that action or cause was wise, they did not command; the role of the chief was to spread the wealth to his tribe, respect was lost. The legislature on June 30th, 1914 declared a thorough investigation to decide what tribal right the "Cherokees" known Croatan Indians of North Carolina had; the Croatan Indians were granted rights which enabled them to be designated and known as "Croatan Indians".

They were granted the right of "Indians and their descendants shall have separate school for their children, school committees of their own race, shall have the right to choose their own teachers based upon the General assembly of North Carolina. The Native Americans living in the Carolinas believed in the immortality of the soul. Upon death, the soul either enters heaven to live with the gods or goes to a place near the setting sun called Popogusso, to burn for eternity in a huge pit of fire; the concept of heaven and hell was used on the common people to respect leaders and live a life that would be beneficial to them in the afterlife. Conjurors and priests were distinctive spiritual leaders. Priests were leaders of the organized religion. Conjurors, on the other hand, were chosen for their magical abilities. Conjurors were thought to have powers from a personal connection with a supernatural being, it is known. The Algonquian people advocated cooperation; this conflict between tribes and settlers would lead to the Yamasee War.

Tribes that maintained mutually beneficial contact with the settlers gained power through their access to and control of European trade goods. While the English may have held great military superiority over the Carolina Algonquians, the Native Americans' control over food and natural resources was a much more decisive factor in the conflict with early settlers. Despite the varying relationships among tribes, the Roanoke and Croatan were believed to have been on good terms with English Settlers of the Roanoke Colony. Wanchese, the last leader of the Roanoke, accompanied the English on a trip to England; some of the survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke may have joined the Croatan. Governor White reached Roanoke Island on August 18, 1590, three years after he had last seen them there, but he found his colony had been long deserted; the buildings had collapsed and "the houses taken down". The few clues about the colonists' whereabouts included the letters "CROATOAN" carved into a tree. Croatoan was the name of a nearby island in addition to the local tribe of Native Americans.

Roanoke Island was not the planned location for the colony and the idea of moving elsewhere had been discussed. Before the Governor's departure, he and the colonists had agreed that a message would be carved into a tree if they had moved and would include an image of a Maltese Cross if the decision was made by force. White was hopeful that his family was still alive; the Croatan, like other Carolina Algonquians, suffered from epidemics of infectious disease, such as smallpox in 1598. These reduced the tribe's numbers and left them subject to colonial pressure, they are believed to have become extinct as a tribe by the early seventeenth century. Based on legend, some people said that the Lumbee tribe, based in North Carolina, were descendants of the Croatan and survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island. For over a hundred years and other scholars have been examining the question of Lumbee origin. Although there have been many explanations and conjectures, two theories persist. In 1885, Hamilton McMillan, a local historian, state legislator proposed the "Lost Colony" theory.

Based upon oral tradition among the Lumbees and what he deemed as strong circumstantial

List of Bohol flora and fauna

The Philippines supports a rich and varied flora with close botanical connections to Indonesia and mainland Southeast Asia. Forests cover one-half of the land area and are tropical, with the dominant family, representing 75% of the stands; the forest has vines and climbers. Open grasslands, ranging up to 2.4 m in height, occupy one-fourth of the land area. The diverse flora includes 8,000 species of flowering plants, 1,000 kinds of ferns, 800 species of orchids. Seventy to eighty percent of non-flying mammals in the Philippines are found nowhere else in the world. Common mammals include the wild hog, wild carabao, civet cat, various rodents. There are about 196 breeding species of birds, among the more numerous being the megapodes, button quail, jungle fowl, peacock pheasant, pigeon and hornbill. Reptilian life is represented by 190 species; the fauna on Bohol is identical to that on Mindanao and Leyte, but not that on nearby Negros. Scientists believe that the floral and faunal biodiversity unique to the Philippines is caused by the Ice Age.

They believe that the country has the most endangered plant and animal communities on earth. Bohol is its 10th largest island, it is located in the Central Visayas region and has a population of 1,137,000 with an area of 4,117.3 km. This is a list of the most common species and varieties of flora and fauna specific to the province of Bohol in the Philippines, endemic or otherwise. Abihíd-Spondias pinnata Acacia - Rain tree.

HMS Teazer (1917)

HMS Teazer was an R-class destroyer which served with the Royal Navy during World War I. The destroyer was launched in April 1917 and, on trial, proved to be one of the fastest afloat, exceeding 40 knots; the ship was kept in reserve after the war and was sold to be scrapped in 1931. Teazer was one of five destroyers built by Thornycroft of Southampton; the ship had a long overall of a length of 265 feet between perpendiculars. Displacement was 1,208 long tons full load. Three Yarrow boilers fed steam to two sets of Brown-Curtis geared steam turbines rated at 29,000 shaft horsepower and driving two shafts, giving a design speed of 35 knots, although Teazer achieved a class-leading speed of 40.22 knots during trials. Three funnels were fitted. 296 tons of oil were carried. The vessel had a complement of men. Armament consisted of three QF 4in Mk IV guns on the ship's centreline. One was mounted on one aft and one between the second and third funnels; the ship mounted a single 2-pounder pom-pom anti-aircraft gun.

Four 21 in torpedoes in two twin rotating mounts were carried. Fire control included a Vickers range clock. Teazer was one of two R-class destroyers ordered by the British Admiralty from Thornycroft in December 1915 as part of the Seventh War Construction Programme alongside Taurus; the vessel was exceeded 40 knots in trials, achieving 40.22 knots. Teazer served as part of the Tenth Destroyer Flotilla during the war. After the war, the destroyer remained with the Tenth Destroyer Flotilla. Recommissioned on 16 October 1919 and transferred to Devonport, the vessel was reduced to reserve on 11 August 1920; the destroyer was sold on 6 February 1931 to Cashmore of Newport and scrapped

Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs is a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering research on the health effects of alcohol and other drugs. It was established in 1984 as Alkoholpolitik – Tidskrift för nordisk alkoholforskning, it was published as part of a partnership between the Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research and the Finnish alcohol company Alko. It was published by Walter de Gruyter until being acquired by its current publisher, SAGE Publications, in 2017; the editor-in-chief is Matilda Hellman. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 0.683, ranking it 33rd out of 35 journals in the category "Substance Abuse". Official website

Kleist Prize

The Kleist Prize is an annual German literature prize. The prize was first awarded in 1912, on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the death of Heinrich von Kleist; the Kleist Prize was the most important literary award of the Weimar Republic, but was discontinued in 1933. In 1985 the prize was awarded for the first time in over fifty years. Between 1994 and 2000 it was awarded biennially. A monetary sum of €20,000 accompanies the award. Listings of the Kleist Prize winners are maintained by the Kleist-Archiv Sembdner. and Kleist Gesellschaft 1912 Hermann Burte and Reinhard Sorge 1913 Hermann Essig and Oskar Loerke 1914 Fritz von Unruh and Hermann Essig 1915 Robert Michel and Arnold Zweig 1916 Agnes Miegel and Heinrich Lersch 1917 Walter Hasenclever 1918 Leonhard Frank and Paul Zech 1919 Anton Dietzenschmidt and Kurt Heynicke 1920 Hans Henny Jahnn 1921 Paul Gurk 1922 Bertolt Brecht 1923 Wilhelm Lehmann and Robert Musil 1924 Ernst Barlach 1925 Carl Zuckmayer 1926 Alexander Lernet-Holenia and Alfred Neumann, Honorable Mention: Martin Kessel 1927 Gerhard Menzel and Hans Meisel 1928 Anna Seghers 1929 Alfred Brust and Eduard Reinacher 1930 Reinhard Goering 1931 Ödön von Horvath and Erik Reger 1932 Richard Billinger and Else Lasker-Schüler 1933–1984 Discontinued1985 Alexander Kluge for Die Macht der Gefühle 1986 Diana Kempf for Der Wanderer 1987 Thomas Brasch for Robert, Fastnacht und die anderen 1988 Ulrich Horstmann 1989 Ernst Augustin for Der amerikanische Traum 1990 Heiner Müller for Hamletmaschine 1991 Gaston Salvatore for Lektionen der Finsternis 1992 Monika Maron for Stille Zeile Sechs 1993 Ernst Jandl for life works 1994 Herta Müller for Herztier 1996 Hans Joachim Schädlich for Der Kuckuck und die Nachtigall 1998 Dirk von Petersdorff for Wie es weitergeht & Zeitlösung 2000 Barbara Honigmann for Alles, alles Liebe!

2001 Judith Hermann for Sommerhaus, später 2002 Martin Mosebach for Eine lange Nacht, Der Nebenfürst & Das Grab der Pulcinellen 2003 Albert Ostermaier for Vatersprache 2004 Emine Sevgi Özdamar for Seltsame Sterne starren zur Erde. Wedding – Pankow 1976/77 2005 Gert Jonke for Seltsame Sache & Die versunkene Kathedrale 2006 Daniel Kehlmann for Ich und Kaminski & Die Vermessung der Welt 2007 Wilhelm Genazino for Mittelmäßiges Heimweh 2008 Max Goldt for life works 2009 Arnold Stadler for Einmal auf der Welt. Und dann so 2010 Ferdinand von Schirach for Verbrechen 2011 Sibylle Lewitscharoff for Blumenberg 2012 Navid Kermani for life works 2013 Katja Lange-Müller for life works 2014 Marcel Beyer for life works 2015 Monika Rinck 2016 Yoko Tawada 2017 Ralf Rothmann 2018 Christoph Ransmayr 2019 Ilma Rakusa German literature List of literary awards List of years in literature List of years in poetry Heinrich von Kleist Gesellschaft

OFC Futsal Championship

The OFC Futsal Championship is the main national futsal competition of the Oceania Football Confederation nations. It was first held in 1992; the competition was held every four years. From 2008 onwards, however, it became an annual tournament. Australia won every edition of the competition until it left the Oceania Football Confederation in 2006. Solomon Islands have won the three editions of the tournament which have taken place since - including a decisive 8-1 victory over Fiji in the final of the 2009 edition, it is a qualification for the FIFA Futsal World Cup. The original name was the OFC Futsal Championship, from 2019, the tournament will be known as the OFC Futsal Nations Cup; as of 2016 OFC Futsal Championship. Source: Legend1st — Champions 2nd — Runners-up 3rd — Third place 4th — Fourth place SF — Semifinals 5th-8th — Fifth to Eighth place QF — Quarterfinals GS — Group stage R2 — Round 2 R1 — Round 1 q — Qualified for upcoming tournament • — Did not qualify × – Did not enter × – Withdrew / Banned / Entry not accepted by FIFA – To be determined — Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R2 – Round 2 R1 – Round 1 – Hosts Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament OFC Futsal Champions League OFC Official Website