Croatian Military Frontier
The Croatian Military Frontier was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and during Austria-Hungary. Founded in the late 16th century out of lands of the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia, it was a nominal part of that Kingdom, to be transferred in 1627 to direct imperial rule as part of the Military Frontier; the Frontier was located on the border with the Ottoman Empire. In the Frontier zone, the king-emperors promised free land and freedom of religion to people who came to the area with the majority of the population being Croats and Serbs. In exchange, the people who lived in the area had an obligation to militarily fight for the Empire, to protect the land. In 1630 Emperor Ferdinand II enacted the Statuta Valachorum laws, it was known that the soldiers had to fulfill military service from the age of 16 until 66. In the end of the 17th century, Habsburg Monarchy expanded its borders and territory of Croatian Military Frontier was expanded to include some former Ottoman territories in the east.
In 1783 it was placed under the unified control of the Croatian General Command headquartered in Zagreb. The Military Frontier was demilitarized on 8 August 1873. Croatian Military Frontier existed until 15 July 1881, when it was abolished and incorporated into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; this part of the Military Frontier included the geographic regions of Lika, Kordun and bordered the Adriatic Sea to the west, Venetian Republic to the south, Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia to the north-west, the Ottoman Empire to the south-east, Habsburg Kingdom of Slavonia to the east, Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary to the north. It extended onto the Slavonian Military Frontier near the confluence of the Una river into the Sava. Like the rest of the Military Frontier, it ceased to exist as a political entity in the late 19th century. Croatian Military Frontier included three General Command sections which were divided into eight Regiments: Varaždin General Command Križevci Regiment N°V Đurđevac Regiment N°VI Karlovac General Command Lika Regiment N°I Otočac Regiment N°II Ogulin Regiment N°III Slunj Regiment N°IV Zagreb General Command Glina Regiment N°X Petrinja Regiment N°XI In 1802, the estimated population consisted of: 195,300 Roman Catholics 180,800 Orthodox ChristiansIn 1820, estimated population of Croatian Military Frontier included: 207,747 Catholics 198,728 Orthodox ChristiansAccording to Hungarian statistician Elek Fényes, in 1840 the Croatian Military Frontier was populated by 498,947 people and the ethnic structure was: 258,454 Croats 240,493 SerbsThe first modern census from 1857 recorded the religion of the populace of Croatian Military Frontier: 285,344 Roman Catholics 253,429 Orthodox Christians 5,433 Eastern Catholics74.8% of the active population in Croatian-Slavonian Military Frontier were employed in agriculture, 18.63% were inactive soldiers, while 3.11% were working in industry.
Slavonian Military Frontier Banat Military Frontier Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War Rothenberg, Gunther E.. "The Origins of the Austrian Military Frontier in Croatia and the Alleged Treaty of 22 December 1522". The Slavonic and East European Review. Maney Publishing. 38: 493–498. Rothenberg, Gunther E.. "The Struggle over the Dissolution of the Croatian Military Border, 1850–1871". Slavic Review. American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. 23: 63–78. Doi:10.2307/2492376. Fodor, Pál. Ottomans and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. BRILL
First French Empire
The First French Empire the French Empire,Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was granted the title Emperor of the French by the French Sénat and was crowned on 2 December 1804, signifying the end of the French Consulate and of the French First Republic; the French Empire achieved military supremacy in mainland Europe through notable victories in the War of the Third Coalition against Austria, Prussia and allied nations, notably at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. French dominance was reaffirmed during the War of the Fourth Coalition, at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt in 1806 and the Battle of Friedland in 1807.
A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire had 130 departments, ruled over 70 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy and the Duchy of Warsaw, counted Prussia and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many ideological features of the French Revolution throughout Europe: the introduction of the Napoleonic Code throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were aristocratic privileges in all places except Poland. France's defeat in 1814, marked the end of the Empire. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III.
The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, Talleyrand. On 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control, they dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, he thus became the most powerful person in France, a power, increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. The Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea, to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, was thought to prepare a new campaign in the East; the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce.
He extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic. He laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope; when he recognised his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a figurehead, Napoleon produced the Articles Organiques with the goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne. To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now extended to the Rhine and beyond, to Hanover and Cuxhaven. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the old aristocracy. On 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with the exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France; this action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif.
A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life. Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the "Recess of 1803", which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to France's side. William Pitt the Younger, back in power over Britain, appealed once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon to stop the ideals of revolutionary France from spreading. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was given the title of "Emperor of the French" by the Senate. Note 3In four campaigns, the Emperor transformed his "Carolingian" feudal republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire; the memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was never executed, the Battle of Ulm and the Battle of Austerlitz overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, the camp at Boulogne put at Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in the form of La Grande Armée.
In the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon swept away the remnants of the old Holy Roman Empire and created in southern Germany the vassal states of Bavaria
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise re-established the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, no longer subject to the Austrian Empire; the agreement restored the old historic constitution of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Hungarian political leaders had two main goals during the negotiations. One was to regain the traditional status of the Hungarian state, lost after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848; the other was to restore the series of reform laws of the revolutionary parliament of 1848, which were based on the 12 points that established modern civil and political rights and societal reforms in Hungary. Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, headed by a single monarch who reigned as Emperor of Austria in the Austrian half of the empire, as King of Hungary in Kingdom of Hungary; the Cisleithanian and Transleithanian states were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers.
The two countries conducted unified foreign defense policies. For these purposes, "common" ministries of foreign affairs and defence were maintained under the monarch's direct authority, as was a third ministry responsible only for financing the two "common" portfolios. According to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself." In the Middle Ages, the Duchy of Austria was an autonomous state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, the Kingdom of Hungary was a sovereign state outside the empire. In 1526, Hungary was defeated and conquered by the Ottoman Empire. King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia died young in the Battle of Mohács. Louis II's brother-in-law, Ferdinand I of Habsburg was elected King of Hungary by a rump Parliament in Pozsony in December 1526; the Ottomans were subsequently driven out of Hungary by international Western Christian forces led by Prince Eugene of Savoy between 1686 and 1699. From 1526 to 1804, Hungary was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty as kings of Hungary, but remained nominally and separate from the other lands of the Habsburg Monarchy.
In 1804, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about 300 years; until the 1848 revolution, the workings of the overarching structure and the status of Hungary stayed much the same as they had been before 1804. The Kingdom of Hungary had always been considered a separate realm, the country's status was affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy. Hungary's affairs continued to be administered by its own institutions. Thus, under the new arrangements, no imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. From the perspective of the Court since 1723, regnum Hungariae had been a hereditary province of the dynasty's three main branches on both lines. From the perspective of the ország, Hungary was regnum independens, a separate Land as Article X of 1790 stipulated...
In 1804 Emperor Franz assumed the title of Emperor of Austria for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other Lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary formally became part of the Empire of Austria; the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806. The Court reassured the diet, that the assumption of the monarch's new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary; the Hungarian legal system and judicial system remained separated and independent from the unified legal and judicial systems of the other Habsburg ruled areas. The administration and the structures of central government of Kingdom of Hungary remained separated from the Austrian administration and Austrian government until the 1848 revolution. Hungary was governed to a greater degree by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary in Pressburg and, to a lesser extent, by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna, independent of the Imperial Chancellery of AustriaWhile in most Western European countries the king's reign began upon the death of his predecessor, in Hungary the coronation was indispensable as if it were not properly executed, the Kingdom stayed "orphaned".
During the long personal union between Kingdom of Hungary and other Habsburg ruled areas, the Habsburg monarchs had to be crowned as King of Hungary in order to promulgate laws there or exercise his royal prerogatives in the territory of Kingdom of Hungary. Since the Golden Bull of 1222, all Hungarian monarchs had to take a coronation oath during the coronation procedure, where the new monarchs had to agree to uphold the constitutional arrangement of the country, to preserve the liberties of his subjects and the territorial integrity of the realm. From 1526 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs borders, which separated Hungary from the united customs system of other Habsburg ruled territories. In the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Magyars came close to regaining independence and were defeated by the Austrian Empire only by the military intervention of the Russian Empire. After the restoration of Habsb
Baron Josip Šokčević, was a Croatian lieutenant marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Army who served as the ban of Croatia and as the governor of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat. He was born in the town of Vinkovci in Slavonia. After schooling in his birth-town he went to a military academy in 1823 and graduates with honours in 1830, his career was going steeply, starting from the rank of ensign, he was promoted to the rank of colonel in the summer of 1848. He commanded the 37th infantry regiment of Lviv, that consisted of Hungarians. With the regiment he besieged and conquered Venice and it was the down-fall of Italian revolution against the Austrian Empire. With 38 years of age he received the rank of major-general, while in his 46th year he became a lieutenant marshal, he was transferred from the Slavonian military border to the Supreme military command in Graz. When the Croatian ban and baron Josip Jelačić was taken ill, Josip Šokčević was appointed the deputy of the ban by the Emperor Franz Joseph I and sent to Zagreb.
Latter he became the military commander of the Banatian headquarters in Timișoara. In the year 1860 he was exalted into the class of the Austrian baron, was appointed as the governor of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat. In summer of 1860 the Emperor appointed him as the Croatian ban on the references of the Bishop of Bosnia and Syrmia, Josip Juraj Strossmayer; these were the years of great changes in Habsburg politics. The Emperor gave up with the practices of minister Bach and promised to some nations under Austrian rule freedom and prosperity. On the basis of imperial October diploma, Šokčević called up the Conference of the Bandom that issued new electoral law for Croatia and gave suggestions on the reorganization of Habsburg Monarchy. Croatian demands were the same as the peoples demands of 1848 being demands of united Croatia and federative Monarchy. In the spirit of democratization, in the entire Monarchy and in Croatia, old political parties were restored; this was shortly lived, because the Emperor changed his policy in 1861 when he issued Februarial patent, he diminished the power of all of the parliaments in the lands of the Empire.
During his mandate, ban Šokčević proposed the railroad between Vukovar and Rijeka. In 1864 there was organized and manifestation of the first annual Dalmatian and Croatian business exhibition, that latter became a regular occasion. In the year 1866 Austria lost its war with Prussia, were pulled out of the German unification; the entire monarchy was in the state of crisis. Austrians and Hungarians made a political deal, better known as Austro-Hungarian compromise, this forced Croatia to reach a compromise with the Kingdom of Hungary of its own. Ban Šokčević thought that he was deceived by the Austrian's and thus resign his position on the June 27, 1867, he was retired from the public and political life of Croatia. He moved to Graz and Vienna, where he died in near-obscurity. In 2002 his earthly remains were transferred to his birth-town of Vinkovci and buried in the tomb chapel of the Saint Magdalene that were built at the request of his mother Elisabeth. Šokčević, Josip at enciklopedija.hr
The Habsburg Monarchy – Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch; the dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria was the only Holy Roman Emperor, not Habsburg ruler of Austria. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties.
This Austrian Habsburg Monarchy must not be confused with the House of Habsburg, existing since the 11th century, whose vast domains were split up in 1521 between this "junior" Austrian branch and the "senior" Spanish branch. The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included: Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Empire Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands Austrian Monarchy Danubian Monarchy The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria; the Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary. Names of the territory that became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy: This was an unofficial umbrella term, but frequent, name during that time.
The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary: This name was used in the international relations, though the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on; the Kingdom of Hungary was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown"; the Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown".
Names of some smaller territories: Austrian lands or "Archduchies of Austria" – Lands up and below the Enns: This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria on 12 November 1918. Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna, a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns". Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands: In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. the Austrian lands and Carniola.
In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was used afterwards; the Er
Matica hrvatska is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution. It was founded on February 2, 1842 by the Croatian Count Janko Drašković and other prominent members of the Illyrian movement during the Croatian National Revival, its main goals are to promote Croatian national and cultural identity in the fields of art, spiritual creativity and public life as well as to care for social development of Croatia. Today, in the Palace of Matica hrvatska in the centre of Zagreb more than hundred book presentations, scientific symposia, round table discussions and scientific lectures and concerts of classical music are being organized annually. Matica Hrvatska is one of the largest and most important book and magazine publishers in Croatia. Magazines issued by Matica are Hrvatska revija and Kolo. Matica Hrvatska publishes many books in one of its most famous editions called Stoljeća hrvatske književnosti; as of 2018, Matica has 122 branches in: Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Germany, Montenegro and Slovenia.
The name Matica is best translated as "The Centre", although the term matica in this context translates as "queen bee" or "parent body", the adjective hrvatska refers to Croatia and/or Croats. According to this, the name of Matica hrvatska can be translated into English as "Parent body of the Croats". During the Croatian national revival there was a great need for the establishment of a book publishing company that would publish books with a nationalist content which were meant to be read on meetings of supporters of the Croatian national revival movement. According to this need Croatian parliament issued a conclusion in 1849 that the Society for fostering national language and literature should be established while the Illyrian reading room decided to establish Matica ilirska nothing has changed because neither Government in Vienna nor one in Budapest wanted to confirm the Statute of the Society, a necessary step for society to become a legal entity in order for it to act; the reason for the refusal to accept Statute of the Society was that the Government feared that the establishment of a cultural national institution would threaten the existence of the multiethnicthe Austrian Empire.
Therefore, Count Janko Drašković proposed founding Matica as a part of the Illyrian reading room, founded on August 4, 1838. Matica hrvatska was founded on February 10, 1842 in Zagreb as Matica ilirska, it was stated that its main purpose was: "Publication of old classical Illyrian those from Dubrovnik, other useful books from the latest writers on organic language." Janko Drašković said at the opening ceremony: "The main purpose of our society is to disseminate science and literature in our national language and to give the opportunity to our young people to educate themselves in the spirit of patriotism. We have many old and famous books from the 16th and 17th century written by writers like Andrija Čubranović, Dinko Ranjina, Dinko Zlatarić, Ivan Gundulić, Junije Palmotić, Ignjat Đurđević and many others that should be published in an organic language." From 1846 to 1886, with interruptions, Matica ilirska had its headquarters in the National home palace. In 1862 the same organization as Matica ilirska was founded in Dalmatia, at the time Austrian Crown land in Cisleithania part of the Austrian Empire, as a result of the Congress of Vienna.
Matica dalmatinska had the same role in Dalmatia as Matica ilirska had in Slavonia. Its purpose was to care for croatian cultural and language in Dalmatia as well as to publish books and newspapers for the Croats that lived in Dalmatia, its first president was Croatian politician from Zadar Miho Klaić. In 1912 Matica dalmatinska mergered into Matica hrvatska. First two books published by Matica were printed in Vienna in 1844 because of the censorship imposed by the central Government on Croatia; these books were Osman, historical-romantic epic about the events related to the life and reign of the Turkish Sultan Osman II, written by Ivan Gundulić and completed with the special addition by Ivan Mažuranić and Teuta, drama about the Illyrian Queen Teuta and tragic discord in her state which caused its destruction and subtraction of the freedom of her people, written by Dimitrija Demeter. 1840s and 1850s were difficult for Matica ilirska. Although Statute of Matica was approved in 1847 book publishing and cultural life of the nation were not a priority at the moment due to the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
It was hard for Matica ilirska during the reign of Baron Alexander von Bach between 1850 and 1859, a period, known in the history of the Austrian Empire as neo-absolutism or Bach's absolutism. Bach encouraged centralization of the Austrian Empire in favor of Germanization. In Croatia, the Government and Parliament were abolished, Croatian counties lost their historical independence while German language became official. Matica ilirska started to work as an independent organization in 1850 after the Illyrian reading room was abolished. In this period Matica was publishing magazine Neven; when the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded in 1866 Matica ilirska joined with it so they could together print and publish literary and scientific books. However, due to many disagreements these institutions ended cooperation. During the presidency of Ivan Mažuranić Matica started to publish literary-science magazine Književnik and Vijenac. Hrvatsko k
Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Due to political and economic reasons, many Croats migrated to North and South America as well as Australia and New Zealand, establishing a diaspora in the aftermath of World War II, with grassroots assistance from earlier communities and the Roman Catholic Church. Croats are Roman Catholics; the Croatian language is official in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the European Union, is a recognised minority language within Croatian autochthonous communities and minorities in Montenegro, Italy and Serbia. Evidence is rather scarce for the period between the 7th and 8th centuries, CE. Archaeological evidence shows population continuity in coastal Istria. In contrast, much of the Dinaric hinterland appears to have been depopulated, as all hilltop settlements, from Noricum to Dardania, were abandoned in the early 7th century.
Although the dating of the earliest Slavic settlements is still disputed, there is a hiatus of a century. The origin and nature of the Slavic migrations remain controversial, all available evidence points to the nearby Danubian and Carpathian regions; the ethnonym "Croat" is first attested in the charter of Duke Trpimir. Much uncertainty revolves around the exact circumstances of their appearance given the scarcity of literary sources during the 7th and 8th century "Dark Ages". Traditionally, scholarship has placed the arrival of the Croats in the 7th century on the basis of the Byzantine document De Administrando Imperio; as such, the arrival of the Croats was seen as a second wave of Slavic migrations, which liberated Dalmatia from Avar hegemony. However, as early as the 1970s, scholars questioned the reliability of Porphyrogenitus' work, written as it was in the 10th century. Rather than being an accurate historical account, De Administrando Imperio more reflects the political situation during the 10th century.
It served as Byzantine propaganda praising Emperor Heraclius for repopulating the Balkans with Croats, who were seen by the Byzantines as tributary peoples living on what had always been'Roman land'. Scholars have hypothesized the name Croat may be Iranian, thus suggesting that the Croatians were a Sarmatian tribe from the Pontic region who were part of a larger movement at the same time that the Slavs were moving toward the Adriatic; the major basis for this connection was the perceived similarity between Hrvat and inscriptions from the Tanais dated to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, mentioning the name Khoroathos. Similar arguments have been made for an alleged Gothic-Croat link. Whilst there is indeed possible evidence of population continuity between Gothic and Croatian times in parts of Dalmatia, the idea of a Gothic origin of Croats was more rooted in 20th century Ustaše political aspirations than historical reality. Contemporary scholarship views the rise of "Croats" as an autochthonous, Dalmatian response to the demise of the Avar khanate and the encroachment of Frankish and Byzantine Empires into northern Dalmatia.
They appear to have been based around Klis, down to the Cetina and south of Liburnia. Here, concentrations of the "Old Croat culture" abound, marked by some wealthy warrior burials dating to the 9th century CE. Other, distinct polities existed near the Croat duchy; these included the Guduscans, the Narentines and the Sorabi who ruled some other eastern parts of ex-Roman "Dalmatia". Prominent in the territory of future Croatia was the polity of Prince Liutevid, who ruled the territories between the Drava and Sava rivers, centred from his fort at Sisak. Although Duke Liutevid and his people are seen as a "Pannonian Croats", he is, due to the lack of "evidence that they had a sense of Croat identity" referred to as dux Pannoniae Inferioris, or a Slav, by contemporary sources. However, the Croats became the dominant local power in northern Dalmatia, absorbing Liburnia and expanding their name by conquest and prestige. In the south, while having periods of independence, the Naretines "merged" with Croats under control of Croatian Kings.
With such expansion, Croatia soon became dominant power and absorb other polities between Frankish and Byzantine empire. Although the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja has been dismissed as an unreliable record, the mentioned "Red Croatia" suggests that Croatian clans and families might have settled as far south as Duklja/Zeta and city of Drač in today's Albania; the lands which constitute modern Croatia fell under three major geographic-politic zones during the Middle Ages, which were influenced by powerful neighbour Empires – notably the Byzantines, the Avars and Magyars and Bulgars. Each vied for control of the Northwest Balkan regions. Two independent Slavic dukedoms emerged sometime during the 9th century: the Croat Duchy and Principality of Lower Pannonia. Having been under Avar control, lower Pannonia became a march of the Carolingian Empire around 800. Aided by Vojnomir in 796, the first named Slavic Duke of Pannonia, the Franks wrested control of