click links in text for more info


Crochet is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning'small hook'. Hooks can be made from a variety of materials, such as metal, bamboo, or plastic; the key difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps many stitches open at a time. Some variant forms of crochet, such as Tunisian crochet and broomstick lace, do keep multiple crochet stitches open at a time; the word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning "hook". It was used in 17th-century French lace-making, where the term crochetage designated a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace; the word crochet subsequently came to describe both the specific type of textile, the hooked needle used to produce it.

Knitted textiles survive from as early as the 11th century CE, but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric emerges in Europe during the 19th century. Earlier work identified as crochet was made by nålebinding, a different looped yarn technique; the first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to describe the craft in its present sense appeared in the Dutch magazine Penélopé in 1823. This includes a colour plate showing five styles of purse, of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread; the first is "simple open crochet", a mesh of chain-stitch arches. The second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with long segments of slip-stitch crochet, closes with a star made with "double-crochet stitches"; the third purse is made in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques; the earliest dated reference in English to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook—shepherd's knitting—is in The Memoirs of a Highland Lady by Elizabeth Grant.

The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd's hook, recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn. In 1844, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states: Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood, they have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes... Two years the same author writes: Crochet, — a species of knitting practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature, it derives its present name from the French.

This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention. An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or single crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter, it equates "Double" and "French crochet". Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet. French tambour embroidery was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot's Encyclopedia; the tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique. The 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.

This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847. The strong taper of the shepherd's hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but enough to accommodate multiple loops; the design with a cylindrical shaft, commonplace today was reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II; the early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternative use of'ivory, bone, or wooden hooks' and'steel needles in a handle', as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd's- and single crochet, the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd's knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet respectively.

The locus of the fusion of all these elements—the "invention" noted above—has yet to be determined, as does the origin o

Mark Sanger

Mark Sanger is a British film editor. Sanger and Alfonso Cuarón won the Academy Award for Best Film Editing for the 2013 film Gravity. In 2014 he was elected as a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and as a member of the American Cinema Editors. In July 2018 he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from Solent University. Alliance of Women Film Journalists for Best Editing – Gravity Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Editing – Gravity Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Editing – Gravity Las Vegas Film Critics Society for Best Editing – Gravity Los Angeles Film Critics Association for Best Editing – Gravity Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Editing – Gravity Phoenix Film Critics Society for Best Editing – Gravity San Diego Film Critics Society for Best Editing – Gravity San Francisco Film Critics Circle for Best Editing – Gravity Satellite Award for Best Editing – Gravity Washington D. C. Area Film Critics Association for Best Editing – Gravity Academy Award for Best Film Editing – Gravity American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film – Dramatic – Gravity BAFTA Award for Best Editing – Gravity Saturn Award for Best Editing – Gravity 2018: Reflection 2013: Gravity 2015: Last Knights 2017: Transformers: The Last Knight 2018: Mowgli: Legend of the Jungle 2019: Pokémon Detective Pikachu 2021: Jurassic World: Dominion 1997: Tomorrow Never Dies 1998: Respect 1999: Felicia's Journey 1999: The Mummy 1999: The World Is Not Enough 2000: 102 Dalmatians 2001: The Mummy Returns 2002: Possession 2004: If Only 2006: Alex Rider: Operation Stormbreaker 2008: The Secret of Moonacre 2009: Solomon Kane 2002: Die Another Day 2004: Troy 2005: Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 2006: Alex Rider: Operation Stormbreaker 2006: Children of Men 2007: Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street 2008: The Secret of Moonacre 2010: Alice in Wonderland 2018: Transformers: The Last Knight 2019: Detective Pikachu Mark Sanger on IMDb

Alliance of Primorje-Gorski Kotar

The Alliance of Primorje-Gorski Kotar is a minor Croatian liberal regionalist political party of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. They have one representative in the Croatian Parliament in an alliance with the Croatian People's Party; the party originated from the city of Rijeka under the name of Rijeka Democratic Alliance. After winning a seat in 1992 elections, the party expanded its activities to the rest of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County and changed the name accordingly. Before the 2007 elections, PGS has announced coalition with Croatian Peasant Party and Croatian Social Liberal Party. Official website


The Stenotritidae is the smallest of all formally recognized bee families, with only 21 species in two genera, all of them restricted to Australia. They were considered to belong in the family Colletidae, but the stenotritids are presently considered their sister taxon, deserving of family status. Of prime importance is that the stenotritids have unmodified mouthparts, whereas colletids are separated from all other bees by having bilobed glossae, they are large, densely hairy, fast-flying bees, which make simple burrows in the ground and firm, ovoid provision masses in cells lined with a waterproof secretion. The larvae do not spin cocoons. Fossil brood cells of a stenotritid bee have been found in the Pleistocene of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia; the family contains two Genera: Stenotritus. Here is a listing of known species. Ctenocolletes albomarginatus Michener 1965 Ctenocolletes centralis Houston, 1983 Ctenocolletes fulvescens Houston 1983 Ctenocolletes nicholsoni Ctenocolletes nigricans Houston, 1985 Ctenocolletes ordensis Michener 1965 Ctenocolletes rufescens Houston, 1983 Ctenocolletes smaragdinus Ctenocolletes tigris Houston, 1983 Ctenocolletes tricolor Houston, 1983 Stenotritus elegans Smith, 1853 Stenotritus elegantior Cockerell, 1921 Stenotritus ferricornis Stenotritus greavesi Stenotritus murrayensis Stenotritus nigrescens Stenotritus nitidus Stenotritus pubescens Stenotritus rufocollaris Stenotritus splendidus Stenotritus victoriae Michener, C.

D.. The Bees of the World. 1. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801861338

Charles Scharf

Charles W. Scharf is an American businessman who serves as the chief executive officer and president of Wells Fargo, he was the CEO of Visa Inc. and BNY Mellon, was on the Microsoft board of directors. Scharf received a B. A. from The Johns Hopkins University and an M. B. A. from New York University. In 1987, shortly after graduating from college, Scharf was the youngest professional employee at Commercial Credit Corp; the first person the company had hired directly from college in years, Scharf was in fact still a senior at Johns Hopkins University when he started working there part-time, having sent his résumé to Jamie Dimon through family connections. Six months into the job he was named Dimon's assistant and "included in every meeting, learning broadly about business and how decisions get made". Scharf completed his Executive MBA from Stern in 1991, which he said helped put his work experience into perspective: "In my experience, good business is all about stepping back, asking questions, accumulating the expertise to make the best decisions, whether those are business decisions or people decisions."

Prior to joining Visa in November 2012, Scharf was the CEO of Retail Financial Services for JPMorgan Chase & Co. for nine years from July 2004 until June 2012. He was the managing director of One Equity Partners, JPMorgan's private investment section, he was the CEO and CFO at Bank One Corp. prior to his work at JPMorgan Chase & Co from 2000 to 2002. From 1999 to 2000, he was the CFO of the Global Corporate and Investment Bank division at Citigroup, Inc. From 1995 to 1999 he was the CFO at Salomon Smith Barney. At age 48, Scharf took over as Visa's CEO in November 2012, he was appointed as a board member after increasing the size of the board to eleven members from ten. He was a director of Visa and its predecessor, Visa U. S. A. from 2003 to 2011. Scharf received a total compensation of $24.20 million, including base salary, stock grants and incentives in 2013. Under Scharf's tenure, Visa placed at number 238 with $11.7 billion in revenue. On October 17, 2016, Scharf advised his Board of Directors that he can no longer spend enough time in San Francisco "to do the job effectively".

He announced that he would step down on December 1. On September 27, 2019, Scharf's appointment as President and CEO of Wells Fargo was announced. Scharf said he would continue to live in New York with his family and commute to Wells Fargo's headquarters in San Francisco; the Washington Post said his "broad experience makes Scharf a safe political choice, well known by both regulators and lawmakers". On November 7, 2019, Scharf announced that he had appointed BNY Mellon Vice Chairman and former U. S. Secretary of Commerce and White House Chief of Staff Bill Daley to serve as head of Public Affairs for Wells Fargo effective November 13, 2019. Scharf is on the board of trustees for Johns Hopkins University and he is on the board of directors for the Financial Services Roundtable. On February 26, 2014 President Barack Obama announced his intent to nominate individuals to key Administration posts amongst, Charles W. Scharf, Appointee for Member, President’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability for Young Americans.

He is on the Executive Council for UCSF Health and the Board of Directors for Microsoft Corp

Chinese Character Simplification Scheme

The Chinese Character Simplification Scheme is the standardized simplification of Chinese characters promulgated in the 1950s by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. It contains the existing Simplified Chinese characters. To distinguish from the Second round of simplified Chinese characters, this reform is known as the First Chinese Character Simplification Scheme. In 1952, the Language Reform Research Committee of China first drafted the List of Frequently Used Simplification of Chinese Characters, affirming the principle of "only describing and stating the concepts of the ancient people, not creating "; the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme was published on 7 January 1955 for public consultation. It consists of three sections: List of simplification of 798 characters, List of 400 variant characters intended to be abolished and List of simplification in handwriting of character components; the second and third sections were deleted in the modification process. The modified Chinese Character Simplification Scheme was passed by the National Language Reform Meeting after discussion in October 1955, followed by modifications by the Language Reform Committee of China in accordance to the outcome of the discussions.

The modified draft was reviewed by the State Council's Committee for the Application of the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme. The 23rd State Council Plenary Meeting passed the Resolution Regarding the Promulgation of the "Chinese Character Simplification Scheme" on 28 January 1956. On 31 January 1956, the People's Daily published in full about the Resolution Regarding the Promulgation of the "Chinese Character Simplification Scheme" and the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme; the first list of the scheme was used nationwide on 1 February 1956, the rest was put into use in batches later. On 21 November 1955, more than two months earlier, the Ministry of Education issued a Notice Regarding the Implementation of Simplified Chinese Character in All Schools; the People's Liberation Army General Political Department made similar notices in the same month. Significant changes were subsequently made to this scheme, in particular the introduction of the principle of simplification by analogy.

In May 1964, the Language Reform Committee published the List of Simplified Chinese Characters to address the defects found in the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme. It is divided into three parts; the first part records 352 simplified characters. There are a total of 2,238 characters; the Language Reform Committee of China proposed the Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme on 20 December 1977, rescinded in 1986. The Chinese Character Simplification Scheme is divided into three parts; the first part consists of 230 simplified characters. The first and second parts differ in their time of implementation; the simplification of Chinese characters met strong resistance from the academia. The prominent scholar Chen Mengjia was one of the outspoken critics of the scheme; when the Anti-Rightist Movement began in 1957, Chen was labeled a Rightist and attacked as an enemy of the Communist Party. In 1966, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Chen was again persecuted for his ideas and committed suicide.

On 10 January 1958, Premier Zhou Enlai gave a report on the task of Chinese writing reform, in which he criticized that "some rightists launched malicious attacks on the Chinese writing reform, saying that the Chinese character simplification is messed up, all the people oppose it, they demanded the State Council to take back its plan and withdraw the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme", "they want to use this to attack the Party and the government." He went on to say that "the Chinese character simplification is a good thing, in line with the interests of the general public," and "should be given a strong support." Simplified Chinese characters Second round of simplified Chinese characters