Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing, it breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and aligns the individual fibers to be parallel with each other. In preparing wool fibre for spinning, carding is the step; the word is derived from the Latin carduus meaning thistle or teasel, as dried vegetable teasels were first used to comb the raw wool. These ordered fibres can be passed on to other processes that are specific to the desired end use of the fibre: Cotton, felt, woollen or worsted yarn, etc. Carding can be used to create blends of different fibres or different colours; when blending, the carding process combines the different fibres into a homogeneous mix. Commercial cards have rollers and systems designed to remove some vegetable matter contaminants from the wool. Common to all carders is card clothing.
Card clothing is made from a sturdy flexible backing in which spaced wire pins are embedded. The shape, length and spacing of these wire pins are dictated by the card designer and the particular requirements of the application where the card cloth will be used. A version of the card clothing product developed during the latter half of the 19th century and found only on commercial carding machines, whereby a single piece of serrated wire was wrapped around a roller, became known as metallic card clothing. Carding machines are known as cards. Fibre may be carded by hand for hand spinning. Science historian Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India; the earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India. These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki, would loosen the texture of the fibre by the means of a vibrating string. At the turn of the eighteenth century, wool in England was being carded using pairs of hand cards, it was a two-stage process:'working' with the cards opposed and'stripping' where they are in parallel.
In 1748 Lewis Paul of Birmingham, invented two hand driven carding machines. The first used a coat of wires on a flat table moved by foot pedals; this failed. On the second, a coat of wire slips was placed around a card, wrapped around a cylinder. Daniel Bourn obtained a similar patent in the same year, used it in his spinning mill at Leominster, but this burnt down in 1754; the invention was developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton. Arkwright's second patent for his carding machine was subsequently declared invalid because it lacked originality. From the 1780s, the carding machines were set up in mills in the north of mid-Wales. Priority was given to cotton but woollen fibres were being carded in Yorkshire in 1780. With woollen, two carding machines were used: the first or the scribbler opened and mixed the fibres, the second or the condenser mixed and formed the web; the first in Wales was in a factory at Dolobran near Meifod in 1789. These carding mills produced yarn for the Welsh flannel industry.
In 1834 James Walton invented the first practical machines to use a wire card. He patented this machine and a new form of card with layers of cloth and rubber; the combination of these two inventions became the standard for the carding industry, using machines first built by Parr and Walton in Ancoats, from 1857 by Jams Walton & Sons at Haughton Dale. By 1838, the Spen Valley, centred on Cleckheaton had at least 11 card clothing factories and by 1893, it was accepted as the card cloth capital of the world, though by 2008 only two manufacturers of metallic and flexible card clothing remained in England, Garnett Wire Ltd. dating back to 1851 and Joseph Sellers & Son Ltd established in 1840. Baird from Scotland took carding to Massachusetts in the 1780s. In the 1890s, the town produced one-third of all machine cards in North America. John and Arthur Slater, from Saddleworth went over to work with Slater in 1793. A 1780s scribbling mill would be driven by a water wheel. There were 170 scribbling mills around Leeds at that time.
Each scribbler would require 15–45 horsepower to operate. Modern machines are driven by belting from an overhead shaft via two pulleys. Carding: the fibres are separated and assembled into a loose strand at the conclusion of this stage; the cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, is taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin; the carding machine consists of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered with small teeth, as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer; the cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver. In a wider sense carding can refer to the four processes of willowing, lapping and drawing. In willowing the fibers are loosened. In lapping the dust is removed to create a flat lap of fibres. In drawing a drawing frame combines 4 slivers into one. Repeated drawing increases the quality of the sliver allowing for finer counts to be spun; each sliver will have thin and thick spots, by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached.
Since combining several slivers produces a thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side. Embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom, the word can be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse. Culverts are used both as cross-drains for ditch relief, to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water. Culverts come in many sizes and shapes including round, flat-bottomed, open-bottomed, pear-shaped, box-like constructions; the culvert type and shape selection is based on a number of factors including requirements for hydraulic performance, limitations on upstream water surface elevation, roadway embankment height. If the span of crossing is greater than 12 feet the structure is termed a bridge.
A structure that carries water above land is known as an aqueduct. The process of removing culverts, becoming prevalent, is known as daylighting. In the UK, the practice is known as deculverting. Culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, or plastic. Two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are built on concrete footings. Construction or installation at a culvert site results in disturbance of the site soil, stream banks, or streambed, can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure. Culverts must be properly sized and installed, protected from erosion and scour. Many U. S. agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, Bureau of Land Management, Environmental Protection Agency, as well as state or local authorities, require that culverts be designed and engineered to meet specific federal, state, or local regulations and guidelines to ensure proper function and to protect against culvert failures.
Culverts are classified by standards for their load capacities, water flow capacities, life spans, installation requirements for bedding and backfill. Most agencies adhere to these standards when designing and specifying culverts. Culvert failures can occur for a wide variety of reasons including maintenance and installation related failures, functional or process failures related to capacity and volume causing the erosion of the soil around or under them, structural or material failures that cause culverts to fail due to collapse or corrosion of the materials from which they are made. If the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in loss of life. Sudden road collapses are the result of poorly designed and engineered culvert crossing sites or unexpected changes in the surrounding environment cause design parameters to be exceeded. Water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time; this can cause a sudden failure during medium-sized rain events.
Accidents from culvert failure can occur if a culvert has not been adequately sized and a flood event overwhelms the culvert, or disrupts the road or railway above it. Ongoing culvert function without failure depends on proper design and engineering considerations being given to load, hydraulic flow, surrounding soil analysis and bedding compaction, erosion protection. Improperly designed backfill support around culverts can result in material collapse or failure from inadequate load support. For existing culverts which have experienced degradation, loss of structural integrity or need to meet new codes or standards, rehabilitation using a reline pipe maybe preferred versus replacement. Sizing of a reline culvert uses the same hydraulic flow design criteria as that of a new culvert however as the reline culvert is meant to be inserted into an existing culvert or host pipe, reline installation requires the grouting of the annular space between the host pipe and the surface of reline pipe so as to prevent or reduce seepage and soil migration.
Grouting serves as a means in establishing a structural connection between the liner, host pipe and soil. Depending on the size and annular space to be filled as well as the pipe elevation between the inlet and outlet, grouting maybe required to be performed in multiple stages or "lifts". If multiple lifts are required a grouting plan is required which defines the placement of grout feed tubes, air tubes, type of grout to be used and if injecting or pumping grout the required developed pressure for injection; as the diameter of the reline pipe will be smaller than the host pipe, the cross-sectional flow area will be smaller. By selecting a reline pipe with a smooth internal surface, with an approximate Hazen-Williams Friction Factor, C, value of between 140-150, the decreased flow area can be offset and hydraulic flow rates increased by way of reduced surface flow resistance. Examples of pipe materials with high C-factors are HDPE. Undersized and poorly placed culverts can cause problems for aquatic organisms.
Poorly designed culverts can degrade water quality via scour and erosion, as well as restrict the movement of aquatic organisms between upstream and downstream habitat. Fish are a common victim in the loss of habitat du
Derwent Valley Mills
Derwent Valley Mills is a World Heritage Site along the River Derwent in Derbyshire, designated in December 2001. It is administered by the Derwent Valley Mills Partnership; the modern factory, or'mill', system was born here in the 18th century to accommodate the new technology for spinning cotton developed by Richard Arkwright. With advancements in technology, it became possible to produce cotton continuously; the system was adopted throughout the valley, spread so that by 1788 there were over 200 Arkwright-type mills in Britain. Arkwright's inventions and system of organising labour was exported to the United States. Water-power was first introduced to England by John Lombe at his silk mill in Derby in 1719, but it was Richard Arkwright who applied water-power to the process of producing cotton in the 1770s, his patent of a water frame allowed cotton to be spun continuously, meaning it could be produced by unskilled workers. Cromford Mill was the site of Arkwright's first mill, with nearby Cromford village expanded for his then-new workforce.
To ensure the presence of a labour force, it was necessary to construct housing for the mill workers. Thus, new settlements were established by mill owners around the mills – sometimes developing a pre-existing community – with their own amenities such as schools and markets. Most of the housing still is still in use. Along with the transport infrastructure form part of the site. A transport infrastructure was built to open new markets for the mills' produce. Mills and workers' settlements were established at Belper, Darley Abbey, Milford by Arkwright's competitors. Arkwright-type mills were so successful that sometimes they were copied without paying royalties to Richard Arkwright; the cotton industry in the Derwent Valley went into decline in the first quarter of the 19th century as the market shifted towards Lancashire, better position in relation to markets and raw materials. The mills and their associated buildings are well preserved and have been reused since the cotton industry declined.
Many of the buildings within the World Heritage Site are listed buildings and Scheduled Monuments. Some of the mills now are open to the public; the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site covers an area of 12.3 km2 and spans a 24 km stretch of the Derwent Valley, in Derbyshire, from Matlock Bath in the north to Derby city centre in the south. Within the site are mill complexes, settlements including workers' housing, weirs on the River Derwent, the transport network that supported the mills in the valley; the site consists of the communities of Cromford, Belper and Darley Abbey, includes 838 listed buildings, made up of 16 Grade I, 42 Grade II*, 780 Grade II. A further nine structures are Scheduled Ancient Monuments; the buildings are a mixture of mills, workers' housing, structures associated with the mill communities. The Cromford Canal and Cromford and High Peak Railway, which aided the industrialisation of the area, are part of the World Heritage Site. In the late 17th century silk making expanded due to demand for silk as part of fashionable garments.
In an attempt to increase production through the use of water power, Thomas Cotchett commissioned engineer George Sorocold to build a mill near the centre of Derby on an island in the River Derwent. Although the experiment was unsuccessful, it convinced John Lombe – an employee of Cotchett – that if water power could be perfected there was a market for its produce, he gained plans of Italian machines. He built a five-storey mill 33.5 m × 12 m next to Crotchett's mill. By 1763, 30 years after Lombe's patent had expired, only seven Lombe mills had been built because the silk market was small, but Lombe had introduced a viable form of water powered machinery and had established a template for organised labour that industrialists would follow; as silk was a luxury good, the market was small and saturated by machine produced goods. The next innovation in machine produced textiles came in the cotton industry which had a much wider market and produced more affordable goods. Spinning cotton was a more complex process than silk production.
The water frame for spinning cotton was developed by Richard Arkwright and patented in 1769. The machines could spin yarn continuously and replaced skilled workers with unskilled supervisors to make sure the machines didn't break. Water frames varied in size from 4 to 96 spindles. For these reasons, the water frame became widespread. In 1771, Richard Arkwright took a lease on land in Cromford. By 1774, his first mill was operational, in 1776 he began construction of a second mill at Cromford. During this time, he developed machines in 1775 took out his second patent. With spinning mechanised, the other processes involved in producing cotton could not keep up and required mechanisation, he produced a machine for carding, the process which laid out the cotton fibres parallel, however not all his inventions were successful and cleaning the cotton was performed by hand until the 1790s when an effective machine was invented. Arkwright sought financial assistance, Peter Nightingale – a local landowner – bought the Cromford Estate for £20,000.
Nightingale built Rock House as a residence for Arkwright, overlooking the mill, gave him a further £2,000 to build the second mill and £1,750 for workers' housing. Between 1777 and 1783, Arkwright and his family built mills at Bakewell, Cressbrook and Wirksworth, sp
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal, denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, has a low melting point; when freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a unreactive post-transition metal, its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself. Lead is extracted from its ores. Galena, a principal ore of lead bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of, from recycling.
Lead's high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, batteries and shot, solders, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, its use has since been phased out of many applications. However, many countries still allow the sale of products that expose humans to lead, including some types of paints and bullets. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 4f145d106s26p2; the sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
This is unusual. The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, the small radii of the elements from hafnium onwards; this is due to poor shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The sum of the first four ionization energies of lead exceeds that of tin, contrary to what periodic trends would predict. Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms, contribute to this behavior. One such effect is the inert pair effect: the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, making the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead unusually long. Lead's lighter carbon group congeners form stable or metastable allotropes with the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure; the energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals. In lead, the inert pair effect increases the separation between its s- and p-orbitals, the gap cannot be overcome by the energy that would be released by extra bonds following hybridization.
Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead has a face-centered cubic structure like the sized divalent metals calcium and strontium. Pure lead has a silvery appearance with a hint of blue, it tarnishes on contact with moist air and takes on a dull appearance, the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability and high resistance to corrosion due to passivation. Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm3, greater than that of common metals such as iron and zinc. This density is the origin of the idiom to go over like a lead balloon; some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm3, osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm3 twice that of lead. Lead is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.5. It is somewhat ductile.
The bulk modulus of lead—a measure of its ease of compressibility—is 45.8 GPa. In comparison, that of aluminium is 75.2 GPa. Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low; the melting point of lead—at 327.5 °C —is low compared to most metals. Its boiling point of 1749 °C is the lowest among the carbon group elements; the electrical resistivity of lead at 20 °C is 192 nanoohm-meters an order of magnitude higher than those of other industrial metals. Lead is a superconductor at temperatures lower than 7.19 K.
High Peak Junction
High Peak Junction, near Cromford, England, is the name now used to describe the site where the former Cromford and High Peak Railway, whose workshops were located here, meets the Cromford Canal. It lies within Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site, designated in 2001, today marks the southern end of the High Peak Trail, a 17 miles trail for walkers and horse riders; the Derwent Valley Heritage Way passes this point, popular walks lead from here along the towpath in both directions. As first built, the C&HPR - built to standard gauge proportions after initial plans for it to be constructed as a canal route - terminated at this location, named in the original Act as "beside the Cromford Canal, at or near to Cromford", where freight was transferred between canal barges and railway wagons; the large wharf-side transit shed, with awning over the canal, still stands on the west bank of the canal, a small distance from the workshop complex. From here the double-tracked line ran up the steep Sheep Pasture incline.
Prior to the construction of this larger transit shed, use was made of another shed the other side of the workshops, which opened onto the river. This became a locomotive shed, but has now been demolished, lies beyond the picnic area; this first section of the line, from here to Hurdlow, opened on 29 May 1830, opening throughout in 1831. At this point in time the railway was isolated from any other railway lines, being connected only to canals at either end, namely the Cromford Canal in the south, the Peak Forest Canal at Whaley Bridge in the north. Cromford Canal had been finished in 1794 and linked Sir Richard Arkwright’s mills to the national waterway system; the workshop complex here was built between 1826 and 1830 to serve the new line. There were limited sidings here; the endless chains for the inclines, for instance, were made here from ¾ inch chain supplied by Pritt & Co of Liverpool. At the time of the railway's opening, apart from on the inclines, horses were the main form of power, only minerals and goods were carried.
These goods, which included coal, were for local communities along the route. The carriage of limestone played a predominant part, for this mineral was required in the manufacture of steel, was found in abundance in this upland area. Static steam engines powered the inclines, but in 1833 the first locomotive was acquired for the line, as such was one of the country's earliest railways, coming only 7 years after George Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway had opened, it was to take 30 years before all horse motive-power was replaced by steam, but whilst there were engines on the line, water wagons had to be carried up the inclines from the wharf, for use by the stationary engines, by the locomotives, for supply at isolated properties. There were over 20 rail tanks in total, many converted LNWR tenders, despatched from the wharf at a rate of about 100 a month and left in sidings along the route. Water was sparse up the line, but here at the wharf a hillside spring fed a tank, located at Sheep Pasture bottom, across the line from the workshops.
Apart from repairing wagons and locomotives, the company stock list records that in 1859 two locomotives were built at the workshops, but in reality they were more assembled here, for from 1840 parts were being bought from the Union Foundry in Derby. However, the railway was only a link in the canal network, isolated from other railway lines, it terminated here at its southern end, it was not until two decades that physical connection was made with any main line, eliminating its dependence for trade on the canal. This connection was with the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway at a point between Cromford and Whatstandwell stations; this was the "High Peak Junction", this name not being used for this canal-side site until after closure of the line. The new main line Midland Railway junction was brought into use on 21 February 1853, increasing the length of the C&HPR by 58 chains, Bradshaw's Railway Manual of 1870 describes the whole undertaking as now running "from Peak Forest Canal to the Cromford Canal, to a junction with the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction".
However, it took another decade before horse power on the High Peak Railway was replaced by steam. Following this connection, the development of the Midland Line through to Manchester and more traffic took this route. Tonnage rates on the canal were lowered to attract trade, but competition was fierce, not helped by the eventual selling of the Cromford Canal to the Railway Company in 1852. A second collapse of the Butterley tunnel in 1900 - due to mining subsidence - rang the final death knell for the canal as an effective mode of transport. However, coal was still carried on this isolated section from Hartshay to Lea and Cromford until 1944, when the whole canal was abandoned. Beside the Transit Shed a road crossed the Junction extension line at an ungated crossing. A red iron plate on a post was turned 90 degrees to indicate "stop" to either the road or the railway. From 1862 LNWR officials made regular inspections of the railway, an inspection in June of this year led to an attempt to find a larger workshop site than that here at Cromford.
A level site at Ladmanlow, some 25 miles along the line, was considered, but a report by Charles Mason the following month suggested only a small maintenance shop there. Given that 18 men were employed at Cromford, that many of their children work
Wirksworth is a market town in the Derbyshire Dales district of Derbyshire, with a population recorded as 5,038 in the 2011 census. It contains the source of the River Ecclesbourne; the town was granted a market charter by Edward I in 1306. The market is held today on Tuesdays in the Memorial Gardens; the parish church of St Mary's is believed to date from about 653. Wirksworth developed as a centre for lead mining and stone quarrying. Many lead mines in the area were owned by the Gell family of nearby Hopton Hall; the origins of Wirksworth are considered to be dependent on the presence of thermal warm water springs in the immediate vicinity coupled with a sheltered location at the head of a glaciated valley, capable of producing cereals such as oats and provided fine woodland with wood suitable for building. The location of Wirksworth in the White Peak is well known for its Bronze Age remains. Woolly rhino bones were found by lead miners in 1822, in Dream Cave, on private land between Wirksworth and present-day Carsington Water.
Another nearby cave at Carsington Pasture yielded prehistoric finds in the late 20th century. In Roman Britain the limestone area of present-day Derbyshire was an important source of lead, with the primary area of production being around Lutudarum in the hills south and west of present-day Matlock. Wirksworth is one of the candidates for the site of Lutudarum. Roman roads lead to Buxton and to Brough on Noe from the town, which has the oldest charter of any in the Peak District, dating from AD 835, when the Abbess of Wirksworth granted land around the town to Duke Humbert of Mercia. Wirksworth is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. Outlying farms or berwicks were Cromford, Hopton, Carsington, Kirk Ireton and Callow; the ancient Wirksworth wapentake or hundred was named after the town. In Anglo-Saxon times there were many lead mines owned by the abbey of Repton. Three lead mines are identified in the entry for Wirksworth in the Domesday Book. There is a tiny carving in Wirksworth Church, taken from Bonsall Church during a restoration project and never returned, of a miner with his pick and "kibble" or basket.
The carving is known as "th' Owd Man of Bonsall." The ore was washed out by means of a sieve, the iron wire for, drawn in Hathersage since the Middle Ages. Smelting was carried out in "boles", hence the name Bolehill; the lead industry, the miner, the ore and the waste, were known collectively as "t'owd man". Henry VIII granted a charter to hold a miners' court in the town called the Bar Moot; every man had the right to dig for ore wherever he chose, except in churchyards, gardens or roadways. All, necessary to stake a claim was to place one's "stowce" or winch on the site and extract enough ore to pay tribute to the "barmaster"; the present Bar Moot building dates from 1814. Within it is a brass dish for measuring the levy, due to the Crown. Into the 20th century, the punishment for stealing from a mine was to have one's hand nailed to the stowce. One had the choice of tearing oneself loose or starving to death; the Barmote Court is still held today, in the Bar Moot hall on Chapel Lane, controls all matters of lead mining.
By the 18th century there were many thousand lead mines, all worked individually. Defoe gives an eye-witness account of the miner himself at work. At this time, the London Lead Company was formed to provide finance for deeper mines with drainage channels, called soughs, introduce Newcomen steam-engine pumps. Many of the institutions in the area have connections with the Gell family, of nearby Hopton Hall, whose most famous member was Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, who fought on Parliament's side in the Civil War. One of his predecessors, Anthony Gell, founded the local grammar school, one of his successors, Phillip Gell, opened the curiously named Via Gellia, a road from the family's lead mines around Wirksworth to the smelter in Cromford. More he has been remembered in the name of Anthony Gell School; the carboniferous limestone around Wirksworth has been extensively quarried through the town's history, resulting in several rock faces and cliffs in the hills that surround the town. There was a workhouse in Wirksworth from 1724 to 1829.
Called Babington House, it was housed 60 inmates. In 1777 Richard Arkwright leased the land and premises of a corn mill from Philip Gell of Hopton and converted it to spin cotton, using his water frame, it was the first cotton mill in the world to use a steam engine, which it used to replenish the millpond that drove the mill's waterwheel. This mill was adjacent to Speedwell Mill, owned by John Dalley, a local merchant. Arkwright's mill was sublet in 1792, when Arkwright's son, began to sell off the family's property assets in his move towards banking, it was named Haarlem Mill in 1815, when it was converted to weaving tape, by Madely and Riley, who had established Haarlem Tape Works in Derby in 1806. In 1879 the Wheatcroft family, who were producing tape at Speedwell Mill, expanded into Haarlem; the two mills together employed 230 people, it was said that their weekly output equalled the circumference of the earth, that Wirksworth was the primary producer of red tape for Whitehall. These mills are close together at Miller's Green next to the Derby road.
In the 2011 census Wirksworth civil parish had 2,416 dwellings, 2,256 households and a population of 5,038. Districts of Wirksworth include Yokecliffe, Gorsey Bank, Bolehill and Miller's Green. Bolehill
A sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine. Its ability to drain a mine depends on the bottom of the mine being higher than a neighbouring valley. If the mine sump is lower, water must be pumped up to the sough; the term is associated with the lead mining areas of Derbyshire. Early Derbyshire lead mines were shallow, since methods to remove water were inefficient and miners had to stop when they reached the water table. By digging soughs, miners found they could lower the water table and allow mines to be worked deeper. Soughs were dug from their open end near a stream or river back into the hillside beneath the mine to be drained. One sough would drain more than one mine, since these were very close, working the same vein of lead; this helped spread the cost of digging the sough. Some soughs include branches to facilitate further drainage. Many soughs were dug throughout the 18th centuries; the falling price of lead brought the decline of the Derbyshire lead mining industry towards the end of the 19th century.
Some soughs were extensive. Meerbrook sough is over four miles in length. Digging such long tunnels took a long time. Vermuyden sough, named after the Dutch engineer, Cornelius Vermuyden, who planned it, took 20 years to dig; the Cromford sough, which Sir Richard Arkwright subsequently used to power his mill at Cromford, took 30 years to dig. It was still being extended a century; some soughs are still in use. According to the British Geological Survey, the Meerbrook sough, started in 1772, still provides 3.75 million litres a day for the public water supply. The coal mining industry depended on using soughs until the mines became too deep to be drained by this means. With the advent of the steam engine, which could pump out water, soughs became less necessary for de-watering mines. Adit Great Haigh Sough Glossary of coal mining terminology Mine dewatering Water Wars: Meerbrook Sough, British Geological Survey Rieuwerts, J. H. History and gazetteer of the lead mine soughs of Derbyshire. Author, 1987