The evil eye is a curse or legend believed to be cast by a malevolent glare given to a person when they are unaware. Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury, while others believe it to be a kind of supernatural force that casts or reflects a malevolent gaze back-upon those who wish harm upon others. Talismans or amulets created to protect against the evil eye are frequently called "evil eyes"; the idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it. The concept and its significance vary among different cultures, but it is prominent in the Mediterranean and West Asia; the idea appears multiple times in Jewish rabbinic literature. It was a extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures. Charms and decorations with eye-like symbols known as nazars, which are used to repel the evil eye, are a common sight across Greece, Brazil, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Algeria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Italy, Pakistan, parts of India, southern Spain, parts of Mexico, Romania, the Balkans, the Levant, Afghanistan and Bahrain, have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists.
Other popular amulets and talismans used to ward off the evil eye include the hamsa, while Italy employs a variety of other unique charms and gestures to defend against the evil eye, including the cornicello, the cimaruta, the sign of the horns. Belief in the evil eye dates back to Greek Classical antiquity, it is referenced by Hesiod, Plato, Diodorus Siculus, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder, Aulus Gellius. Peter Walcot's Envy and the Greeks listed more than one hundred works by these and other authors mentioning the evil eye. Classical authors attempted both to explain the function of the evil eye. Plutarch's scientific explanation stated that the eyes were the chief, if not sole, source of the deadly rays that were supposed to spring up like poisoned darts from the inner recesses of a person possessing the evil eye. Plutarch treated the phenomenon of the evil eye as something inexplicable, a source of wonder and cause of incredulity. Pliny the Elder described the ability of certain African enchanters to have the "power of fascination with the eyes and can kill those on whom they fix their gaze".
The idea of the evil eye appears in the poetry of Virgil in a conversation between the shepherds Menalcas and Damoetas. In the passage, Menalcas is lamenting the poor health of his stock: "What eye is it that has fascinated my tender lambs?". The belief in the evil eye during antiquity varied across different periods; the evil eye was not feared with equal intensity in every corner of the Roman Empire. There were places. In Roman times, not only were individuals considered to possess the power of the evil eye but whole tribes those of Pontus and Scythia, were believed to be transmitters of the evil eye; the phallic charm called fascinum in Latin, from the verb fascinare, "to cast a spell" is one example of an apotropaic object used against the evil eye. They have been found throughout Europe and into the Middle East from contexts dating from the first century BC to the fourth century AD; the phallic charms were objects of personal adornment, but appeared as stone carvings on buildings and wind-chimes.
Examples of stone phallic carvings, such as from Leptis Magna, depict a disembodied phallus attacking an evil eye by ejaculating towards it. In describing their ability to deflect the Evil Eye, Ralph Merrifield described the Roman phallic charm as a "kind of lightning conductor for good luck". Belief in the evil eye is strongest in West Asia, Latin America and West Africa, Central America, South Asia, Central Asia, Europe the Mediterranean region. Belief in the evil eye is found in the Islamic doctrine, based upon the statement of Prophet Muhammad, "The influence of an evil eye is a fact...". Authentic practices of warding off the evil eye are commonly practiced by Muslims: rather than directly expressing appreciation of, for example, a child's beauty, it is customary to say Masha'Allah, that is, "God has willed it", or invoking God's blessings upon the object or person, being admired. A number of beliefs about the evil eye are found in folk religion revolving around the use of amulets or talismans as a means of protection.
In the Aegean Region and other areas where light-colored eyes are rare, people with green eyes, blue eyes, are thought to bestow the curse, intentionally or unintentionally. Thus, in Greece and Turkey amulets against the evil eye take the form of blue eyes, in the painting by John Phillip, below, we witness the culture-clash experienced by a woman who suspects that the artist's gaze implies that he is looking at her with the evil eye. Among those who do not take the evil eye either by reason of the culture in which they were raised or because they do not believe it, the phrase, "to give someone the evil eye" means to glare at the person in anger or disgust; the term has entered into common usage within the English language. Within the broadcasting industry it refers to when a p
Galsi I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Bardhaman Sadar North subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Bud Bud, a constituent gram panchayat in Galsi I CD Block, is located at 23°24′30″N 87°32′34″E. Galsi I CD Block is part of the central plain area of the district; the area is surrounded by the Bhagirathi on the east, the Ajay on the north-west and the Damodar on the west and south. Old river channels and small creeks found in the region dry up in the dry season, but the Bardhaman Plains are sometimes subject to heavy floods during the rainy season; the region has recent alluvial soils. Galsi I CD Block is bounded by Ausgram II CD Block on the north, Galsi II CD Block on the east and Patrasayer CD Blocks, in Bankura district, on the south and Kanksa CD Block on the west. Galsi I CD Block has an area of 257.37 km2. It has 9 gram panchayats, 141 gram sansads, 87 mouzas and 85 inhabited villages. Bud Bud and Galsi police stations serve this block.
Headquarters of this CD Block is at Bud Bud. Gram panchayats of Galsi I block/panchayat samiti are: Bud Bud, Loapur Krishnarampur, Lowa Ramgopalpur, Paraj, Potna-Pursa and Uchchagram; as per the 2011 Census of India Galsi I CD Block had a total population of 187,588, of which 164,467 were rural and 23,121 were urban. There were 90,833 females. Population below 6 years was 19,421. Scheduled Castes numbered 67,044 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 7,652; as per 2001 census, Galsi I block had a total population of 174,070, out of which 90,518 were males and 83,552 were females. Galsi I block registered a population growth of 17.76 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Bardhaman district was 14.36 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 61,523 formed around one-third the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 7,187. Census Towns in Galsi I CD Block are: Raipur and Bud Bud. Large villages in Galsi I CD Block are: Bharatpur, Chak Tentul, Paraj, Mallasarul, Pursha, Kolkol and Golgram.
Other villages in Galsi I CD Block include: Loa, Krishnarampur, Potna, Kasba. As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Galsi I CD Block was 122,540 out of which males numbered 69,370 and females numbered 53,170; the gender disparity was 14.52%. As per 2001 census, Galsi I block had a total literacy of 65.71 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 74.98 per cent female literacy was 55.63 per cent. Bardhaman district had a total literacy of 70.18 per cent, male literacy being 78.63 per cent and female literacy being 60.95 per cent. See – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate As per census definition, mother-tongue is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person; as a mother-tongue, Bengali has decreased its share from 82.3% of the population of Bardhaman district in 1961 to 79.9% in 2001, Hindi has increased its share from 8.5% in 1961 to 10.9% in 2001 Santali has remained steady at around 4.9% during the period, Urdu has increased its share from 2.4% in 1961 to 2.6% in 2001.
Other mother-tongues spoken in 2001 were: Odiya, Koda/Kora, Bhojpuri and Kurukh/ Oraon. In the 2011 census, Hindus formed 71.69 % of the population in Galsi I CD Block. Muslims formed 27.75 % of the population. Christians formed 0.25 % of the population. Others formed 0.31 % of the population. In Bardhaman district, the percentage of Hindu population has been declining from 84.3% in 1961 to 77.9% in 2011 and the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 15.2% in 1961 to 20.7% in 2011. As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Galsi I CD Block was 37.76%. In Galsi I CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 15.32%, agricultural labourers 55.13%, household industry workers 1.66% and other workers 27.89%. Galsi I CD Block is part of the area where agriculture dominates the scenario but the secondary and tertiary sectors have shown an increasing trend. There are 85 inhabited villages in Galsi I CD block.
All 85 villages have power supply. All 85 villages have drinking water supply. 19 villages have post offices. 81 villages have telephones. 28 villages have a pucca approach road and 53 villages have transport communication. 10 villages have agricultural credit societies. 5 villages have banks. In 2013-14, there were 6 seed stores and 75 fair price shops in the CD Block. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed am
John Synowiecki is a Nebraska former state senator from Omaha, Nebraska in the Nebraska Legislature and the former program director for governmental relations for Catholic Charities. He was born on November 28, 1963, in Omaha and graduated from Paul VI High School, a Roman Catholic high school, in 1982. In 1987 he graduated from the University of Nebraska at Omaha in criminal philosophy. Synowiecki is descended from Polish immigrants, his grandmother was born in Poland. From 1990 to 2000 he was a probation officer and from 2000 to 2002 he was a probation supervisor, he won the Nebraska State Probation Officer of the Year in 1998. He was appointed on January 2002 to replace John Hilgert who had resigned. Synowiecki was elected in 2002 to represent the 7th Nebraska legislative district and reelected in 2004, he was the vice chairman of the Nebraska Retirement Systems. In 2016, Synowiecki ran losing to Tony Vargas. Nebraska Legislature Poles in Omaha, Nebraska "Nebraska Unicameral Legislature". Sen. John Synowiecki.
Archived from the original on May 22, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2006
Anton Gelonkin was a Russian bank chairman who disappeared during the 1995 collapse of the Moscow City Bank and convicted of running an international organised internet based fraud in 2006. Anton Dolgov was the chairman of the Moskovsky Gorodskoi Bank, or Moscow City Bank, in late August 1995 disappeared after taking an unknown amount of money; the bank collapsed with debts of 120 million US dollars. British police believe that from 1996 Anton ran an organised international operation based in Notting Hill, London that defrauded American and Spanish bank account holders, "systematically defrauded clearing banks and other financial institutions in Britain and abroad" and ran undetected for ten years; the gang used compromised credit cards to first buy electrical goods, which they had delivered to a double layer of mailbox addresses - to reduce the connection between the fraudsters and the goods - and later sold them on eBay both inside and outside the UK. Other activities involved: using stolen card details to set up online gambling accounts and diverting the winnings.
In late 2004 police had raided the gang's presence in Barcelona, arresting Andreas Fuhrmann and issuing an Interpol international arrest warrant for Anthony Peyton. In January 2005 police were called to a burglary associated with the gang's headquarters, noted the name Gelonkin, discovered the Interpol warrant; this resulted in a raid which resulted in the arrest of Estonian Aleksei Kostap, but not before Kostap was able to trigger a system that encrypted the records held on the gang's computers. Despite police IT expert efforts the data has not been decrypted. Kostav was found guilty of conspiracy to perverting the course of justice. Another gang member, Lithuanian Romanos Vasilauskas, admitted possessing false passports with intent and sentenced to eighteen months. Anton Gelonkin,'admitted conspiracies to defraud, to obtain services by deception, to acquire and possess criminal property, to remove it "from the jurisdiction"' and was sentenced for six years
Sub Oslo is an improvisational band from Denton, TX that plays psychedelic/ambient dub. The band was formed in 1996 by Miguel Quincy Holloway, who were roommates at the time. Since the band has expanded to include a total of eight members; when Sub Oslo performs live, they have a visual artist working live to display visualizations projected onto a screen, incorporate a mix engineer, allowing performances to be different each time. Sub Oslo has toured the West Coast and has had their music featured in the Xbox videogame Brute Force, they have performed alongside influential dub artists such as Mad Professor, Steel Pulse and The Roots. They performed with less known artists such as Fugazi, Raz Mesanai, the Make-up, Him, June of 44, DJ Krush. 12" EP - Prisoner of Dub Science Dub Dubalicious CD - Dubs in the key of Life Stratospheric Penetration Celestial Dub Melafrica Reel to Reel Dub Mi Familia Re-Dub Washes of Dub CD - The Rites of Dub Goatsucker Dub Sep Dub Control This Sub Oslo vs. Bookshelf Speakers Dark and Lovely 13th Hour Dub Quincy Holloway - Drums Miguel Veliz - Bass Frank Cervantez - Guitar Moses Mayo|Eyad Kaileh - Percussion Brandan Uribe - Flute/Percussion/Piano Alán Uribe - Clavinet/Synth/Melodica John Nuckels - Mixing/effects/samples Paul Baker - Live Visuals/Video artist