U.S. Route 75
U. S. Route 75 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,239 miles in the central United States; the highway's northern terminus is in Noyes, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it once continued as Manitoba Highway 75 on the other side of the now-closed border crossing. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 30 and Interstate 45 in Dallas, where it is known as North Central Expressway. U. S. 75 was a cross-country route, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico at Texas. However, the entire segment south of Dallas has been decommissioned in favor of Interstate 45, a cutoff section of town-to-town surface road having become Texas State Highway 75; the first freeway in Texas was a several-mile stretch of US 75 --The Gulf Freeway, opened to Houston traffic on October 1, 1948. The stretch of US 75 between Interstate 30 and the Oklahoma state line has exits numbered consecutively from 1 to 75, excluding 9-19. All other Texas freeways that have exit numbers are coordinated with mile markers. From Denison north to the Oklahoma border, US 75 is concurrent to U.
S. Route 69. US-75 remains concurrent to US-69 from the Texas border north to Atoka. While US-69 continues to the northeast as a multilane highway, US-75 turns north to serve several small communities between Atoka and Henryetta. Through travellers bypass this segment of US-75 via US-69 and the Indian Nation Turnpike, where the speed limit is 75 miles per hour. From Henryetta through Tulsa and on through Bartlesville to the Kansas State Line, US-75 is once again a multilane highway. In the early 1990s, some portions of US-75 in Oklahoma were slated to become part of the Interstate Highway System; the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act states that "upon the request of the Oklahoma State highway agency, the Secretary shall designate the portion of United States Route 69 from the Oklahoma-Texas State line to Checotah in the State of Oklahoma as a part of the Interstate System." This would have created an Interstate route from Interstate 40 south to the Texas line, including the portion of US-75 co-signed with US-69 south of Atoka.
The legislation was unclear whether the route would enter Texas to connect with or become an extension of Interstate 45. A current plan is to construct a new segment of the Oklahoma Turnpike along the US-69 corridor to bring it to corridor standards. A major north–south artery in Kansas, US-75 enters the state at Caney, it crosses Interstate 35 south of Olivet at the BETO Junction. From I-35 to Melvern Lake, US-75 is a Super-2 highway, with controlled access interchanges at Township Road, K-278, K-31 southbound. From Melvern Lake to just north of Lyndon, US-75 and K-31 share a long concurrency. At U. S. Route 56 near Scranton US-75 becomes a freeway. There is no direct access to the Kansas Turnpike from US-75, but the highway joins with Interstate 470 less than 1 mile from 470's interchange with the turnpike. US-75 and Interstate 470 run together along the west side of Topeka to Interstate 70. US-75 turns east along Interstate 70 for about 3 miles before exiting northbound as a freeway; this freeway segment runs to Elmont becomes an expressway to Holton.
The remainder of US-75 in Kansas is two lanes. The highway exits the state north of Sabetha. There was a US-75 Alternate in Kansas, it was on Topeka Boulevard and was the route US-75 took through Topeka. U. S. 75 enters Nebraska south of Dawson. From Nebraska City northward, it parallels the Missouri River. A brief section which serves as a bypass for Nebraska City is an expressway called the J. Sterling Morton Beltway. Nebraska City itself is served with Business Route U. S. 75. U. S. 75 and U. S. Route 34 overlap from Union to Plattsmouth. North of Plattsmouth, U. S. 75 becomes the Kennedy Freeway, serving as an arterial highway through Bellevue and the South Omaha neighborhood of Omaha. It follows Interstate 480 through central Omaha before branching off as the North Omaha Freeway. From Interstate 680 northward to Nashville U. S. 75 is an expressway. North of Nashville it becomes a two-lane road again, it is concurrent with U. S. Route 30 in Blair, it joins with U. S. Route 77 at Winnebago; the two highways run together until their junction with Interstate 129 and U.
S. Route 20 at South Sioux City. U. S. 75 follows I-129 and U. S. 20 towards the Missouri River and Iowa. U. S. 75 is a major north–south artery in the northwestern corner of Iowa. It enters the state by a Missouri River crossing at Sioux City concurrent with Interstate 129 and U. S. Route 20. U. S. 75 and U. S. 20 run together on a freeway bypass around the southeast side of Sioux City before U. S. 20 turns east at Gordon Drive. U. S. 75 continues as a freeway to the Woodbury County/Plymouth County line, where it becomes an expressway. This expressway becomes a freeway bypass of Le Mars. North of Le Mars, U. S. 75 exits off the freeway bypass, which continues on as Iowa Highway 60, turns north. U. S. 75 continues as a two-lane, undivided highway passing through Sioux Center and Rock Rapids before leaving the state north of Iowa Highway 9. The segment from the Missouri River to LeMars is part of a larger expressway project which will provide a direct connection between Sioux City and the Twin Cities region in Minnesota.
In Minnesota, U. S. 75 stays close to the state's western border. It passes through few large towns. U. S. 75 enters Minnesota south of Luverne near Ash Creek and Steen, passes though Pipestone and Breckenridge. It is the main north–south route through Moorhead. North of Moorhead, the route turns northeast to pass through Crookston turns northwest towards the Red River of t
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the state of North Dakota and is the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while the total of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461. Grand Forks, along with its twin city of East Grand Forks, forms the center of the Grand Forks, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, called Greater Grand Forks or the Grand Cities. Located on the western banks of the north-flowing Red River of the North, in a flat region known as the Red River Valley, the city is prone to flooding; the Red River Flood of 1997 devastated the city. Called Les Grandes Fourches by French fur traders from Canada, who had long worked and lived in the region, steamboat captain Alexander Griggs platted a community after being forced to winter there; the Grand Forks post office was established in 1870, the town was incorporated on February 22, 1881. The city was named for its location at the fork of the Red Lake River. Dependent on local agriculture, the city's economy now encompasses higher education, health care, food processing, scientific research.
Grand Forks is served by Grand Forks Air Force Base. The city's University of North Dakota is the oldest institution of higher education in the state; the Alerus Center and Ralph Engelstad Arena host athletic and other events, while the North Dakota Museum of Art and Chester Fritz Auditorium are the city's largest cultural venues. Prior to settlement by Europeans, the area where the city developed, at the forks of the Red River and Red Lake River, for thousands of years had been an important meeting and trading point for Native Americans. Early French explorers, fur trappers, traders called the area Les Grandes Fourches, meaning "The Grand Forks". By the 1740s, French fur trappers relied on Les Grandes Fourches as an important trading post; this was French colonial territory. The United States acquired the territory from British Rupert's Land with the Treaty of 1818, but indigenous tribes dominated the area until the late 19th century. After years of warfare, the United States made treaties to extinguish the land claims of the Ojibwe and other Native American peoples.
When a U. S. post office was established on the site on June 15, 1870, the name was changed to the English "Grand Forks". Alexander Griggs, a steamboat captain, is regarded as "The Father of Grand Forks". Griggs' steamboat froze in the Red River on a voyage in late 1870, forcing the captain and his crew to spend the winter camping at Grand Forks. Griggs platted a community in 1875, Grand Forks was incorporated on February 22, 1881. Thousands of settlers were attracted to the Dakota Territory in the 1870s and 1880s for its cheap land, the population began to rise. Many established small family farms, but some investors bought thousands of acres for bonanza farms, where they supervised the cultivation and harvesting of wheat as a commodity crop; the city grew after the arrival of the Great Northern Railway in 1880 and the Northern Pacific Railway in 1887. In 1883, the University of North Dakota was established, six years before North Dakota was admitted as an independent state born from the Dakota Territory.
During the first half of the 20th century, new residential neighborhoods were developed south and west of downtown Grand Forks. In the 1920s, the state-owned North Dakota Mill and Elevator was constructed on the city's north side. In 1954, Grand Forks was chosen as the site for an Air Force base. Grand Forks Air Force Base brought thousands of new residents to the community; the military base and the University of North Dakota became integral to the city's economy. With construction of federal highways, during the postwar years residential and business development became suburbanized, spreading to new areas as land was available. Interstate 29 was built on the western side of the city, two enclosed shopping malls – South Forks Plaza and Columbia Mall – were built on the south side; the Red River had a history of seasonal flooding, aggravated by the broad ancient lake bed that formed the Red River Valley. The 1997 Red River Flood caused extensive damage in the city. Fargo was upstream from the bulk of the flood waters that season, Winnipeg had built an extensive system of flood control structures in the 1960s.
In 1997, Grand Forks suffered the most damage of any major city in the Red River Valley. During the height of the flooding, a major fire destroyed 11 buildings in the downtown area; the government began developing a new levee system to protect the city, completed 10 years later. It required the relocation of numerous residents, as some neighborhoods were emptied for this construction; the city and government decided to change the type of development allowed near the river. The floodplain bordering the Red River was converted into a large park known as the Greater Grand Forks Greenway; this provided new recreation space for city residents, as well as space for future floodwaters to be absorbed by trees and other plants, without damage to infrastructure. East Grand Forks developed a related greenway park on its side of the river, as it has suffered extensive flooding that year. Since the 1997 flood and private developments have been constructed throughout Grand Forks. Two new, large sports venues opened in 2001: the Alerus Center and the Ralph Engelstad Arena.
In 2007, the Winnipeg-based Canad Inns hotel chain opened a 13-story hotel and waterpark next to the Alerus Center. By 2007 Grand Forks had a larger population. Area employment and taxable sales had surpassed pre-flood levels. Grand Forks is 74 miles north of
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and, grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet. Together with other beet cultivars, such as beetroot and chard, it belongs to the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, its closest wild relative is the sea beet. In 2013, France, the United States and Turkey were the world's five largest sugar beet producers. In 2010–2011, North America and Europe did not produce enough sugar from sugar beets to meet overall demand for sugar and were all net importers of sugar; the US harvested 1,004,600 acres of sugar beets in 2008. In 2009, sugar beets accounted for 20% of the world's sugar production; the sugar beet has a conical, fleshy root with a flat crown. The plant consists of a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesis in the leaves and is stored in the root; the root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, 5% pulp. The exact sugar content can vary between 12% and 21% sugar, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions.
Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, is used in animal feed; the byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest. Sugar beets grow in the temperate zone, in contrast to sugarcane, which grows in the tropical and subtropical zones; the average weight of sugar beet ranges between 1 kg. Sugar beet foliage grows to a height of about 35 cm; the leaves are numerous and broad and grow in a tuft from the crown of the beet, level with or just above the ground surface. Modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where the king of Prussia subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747, Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1.3–1.6%. He demonstrated that sugar could be extracted from beets, identical with sugar produced from sugarcane, his student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a local strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for conical tubers. The selection was named weiße schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, boasted about a 6% sugar content; this selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia in 1801; the Silesian sugar beet was soon introduced to France, where Napoleon opened schools for studying the plant. He ordered that 28,000 hectares be devoted to growing the new sugar beet; this was in response to British blockades of cane sugar during the Napoleonic Wars, which stimulated the rapid growth of a European sugar beet industry. By 1840, about 5% of the world's sugar was derived from sugar beets, by 1880, this number had risen more than tenfold to over 50%; the sugar beet was introduced to North America after 1830, with the first commercial production starting in 1879 at a farm in Alvarado, California.
The sugar beet was introduced to Chile by German settlers around 1850. "The beet-root, when being boiled, yields a juice similar to syrup of sugar, beautiful to look at on account of its vermilion color". This was written by 16th-century scientist, Olivier de Serres, who discovered a process for preparing sugar syrup from the common red beet. However, because crystallized cane sugar was available and provided a better taste, this process never caught on; this story characterizes the history of the sugar beet. The competition between beet sugar and sugarcane for control of the sugar market plays out from the first extraction of a sugar syrup from a garden beet into the modern day; the use of sugar beets for the extraction of crystallized sugar dates to 1747, when Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, professor of physics in the Academy of Science of Berlin, discovered the existence of a sugar in vegetables similar in its properties to that obtained from sugarcane. He found. Despite Marggraf’s success in isolating pure sugar from beets, their commercial manufacture for sugar did not take off until the early 19th century.
Marggraf's student and successor Franz Karl Achard began selectively breeding sugar beet from the'White Silesian' fodder beet in 1784. By the beginning of the 19th century, his beet was about 5–6% sucrose by weight, compared to around 20% in modern varieties. Under the patronage of Frederick William III of Prussia, he opened the world's first beet sugar factory in 1801, at Cunern in Silesia; the work of Achard soon attracted the attention of Napoleon Bonaparte, who appointed a commission of scientists to go to Silesia to investigate Achard's factory. Upon their return, two small factories were constructed near Paris. Although these factories were not altogether a success, the results attained interested Napoleon. Thus, when two events, the blockade of Europe by the British Navy and the Haitian Revolution, made the importation of cane sugar untenable, Napoleon seized the opportunity offered by beet sugar to address the shortage. In 1811, Napoleon issued a decree appropriating one million francs for the establishment of sugar schools, compelling the farmers to plant a large acreage to sugar be
Métis in the United States
The Métis in the United States are people descended from joint Native Americans and white parents. The term had no ethnic designation, it grew to become an ethnicity in the nineteenth century. Those identifying as Métis in the U. S. are fewer in number than the neighboring Métis in Canada, who have developed further as an ethnic group than in the U. S; the Métis have developed as an ethnic group from the descendants of indigenous women who married French fur trappers and traders during the 18th and 19th centuries at the height of the fur trade. At the time, the border did not exist between Canada and the British colonies as much of the area was undeveloped. Traders and trappers moved back and forth through the area. Métis live in Michigan, Ohio, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana. In the broadest sense, the term "métis" was applied to people of mixed indigenous and French ancestry in French colonies. In this article it is used to discuss mixed-race people who descend from the united culture created by the intermarriage of various French and British fur traders.
These métis were found from the Atlantic Coast in the Southeast, through the Great Lakes area and to the Rocky Mountains. The women were of various Algonquian and other Native American peoples during the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries; this use excludes mixed-race people born of unions in other settings or more than about 1870. "Métis" is the French term for "mixed-blood". The word is a cognate of the Portuguese word mestiço. Michif is the name of creole language spoken by the Métis people of western Canada and adjacent areas of the United States a mix of Cree and Canadian French. With exploration and exploitation of resources by French and British fur trading interests across North America, European men had relationships and sometimes marriages with Native American women. Both sides felt such marriages were beneficial in strengthening the fur trade. Indigenous women served as interpreters and could introduce their men to their people; because many Native Americans and First Nations had matrilineal kinship systems, the mixed-race children were considered born to the mother's clan and raised in her culture.
Fewer were educated in European schools. Métis men in the northern tier worked in the fur trade and hunting and as guides. Over time in certain areas the Red River of the North, the Métis formed a distinct ethnic group with its own culture. Mixed-race peoples sometimes emerged as leaders, as in the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast. White husbands were prized. Many of their leaders — Francis the Prophet and others — were men of mixed race, who could bridge cultures. While they had European or American schooling, they identified as Cherokee or Creek, for instance, spoke both their own languages and English; the older chiefs thought. Between 1795 and 1815 a network of Métis settlements and trading posts was established throughout what is now the US states of Michigan and Wisconsin, to a lesser extent in Illinois and Indiana; as late as 1829, the Métis were dominant in the economy of present-day Wisconsin and Northern Michigan. During the early days of territorial Michigan, Métis and French played a dominant role in elections.
It was with Métis support that Gabriel Richard was elected as delegate to Congress. After Michigan was admitted as a state and under pressure of increased European-American settlers from eastern states, many Métis migrated westward into the Canadian Prairies, including the Red River Colony and the Southbranch Settlement. Others identified with Chippewa groups, while many others were subsumed in an ethnic "French" identity, such as the Muskrat French. By the late 1830s only in the area of Sault Ste. Marie was there widespread recognition of the Métis as a significant part of the community. Another major Métis settlement was La Baye, located at the present site of Wisconsin. In 1816 most of its residents were Métis. In Montana a large group of Métis from Pembina region hunted there in the 1860s forming an agricultural settlement in the Judith Basin by 1880; this settlement disintegrated, with most Métis leaving, or identifying more either as "white" or "Indian". Mixed-race people continue to live throughout North America but only some identify ethnically and culturally as Métis.
A strong Prairie Métis identity exists in the "homeland" once known as Rupert's Land, which extends south from Canada into North Dakota the land west of the Red River of the North. The historic Prairie Métis homeland includes parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin. A number of self-identified Métis live in North Dakota in Pembina County. Many members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians are of mixed race and identify as Métis rather than Ojibwe. Many Métis families are recorded in the U. S. Census for the historic Métis settlement areas along the Detroit and St. Clair rivers, Mackinac Island, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, as well as Green Bay in Wisconsin, their ancestral families were formed in the early 19th-century fur trading era. The Métis have not organized as an ethnic or political group in the United States as they have in Canada, where they had armed confrontations in an effort to secure a homeland. They
Treaty of Old Crossing
By the Treaty of Old Crossing and the Treaty of Old Crossing, the Pembina and Red Lake bands of the Ojibwe known as Chippewa Indians, purportedly ceded to the United States all of their rights to the Red River Valley. On the Minnesota side, the ceded territory included all lands lying west of a line running southwest from the Lake of the Woods to Thief Lake, about 30 miles west of Red Lake, angling southeast to the headwaters of the Wild Rice River near the low-lying divide separating the watershed of the Red River of the North from the watershed of the Mississippi River. On the North Dakota side, the ceded territory included all of the Red River Valley north of the Sheyenne River; the total land area 127 miles wide east to west and 188 miles long north to south, consisted of nearly 11,000,000 acres of rich prairie land and forests. These land cessions are known as the Old Crossing Treaty because the primary site of negotiations was the "Old Crossing" of the Red Lake River, now known as Huot, located about 10 miles southwest of Red Lake Falls.
This was a river ford and layover resting site used by Red River ox carts using the "Pembina" or "Woods" trail, one of several routes known as the Red River trails between Pembina and the settlements at Mendota and St Anthony. Prior to 1863, Ojibwe and Dakota or "Sioux" tribes had fought over hunting rights in the territory of the Red River Valley for at least a century, but the Ojibwe were the predominant possessors of the land before the first European fur traders began to frequent the valley in the late 18th century. Rapid development of the Pembina trade with St. Paul on the Red River trails led to a drive for American settlement and development of the surrounding flat valley lands; the pressure to oust "Indians" from the American portion of the Red River Valley dated back well before Minnesota statehood to the early years of the Minnesota Territory. U. S. Army Major Samuel Woods, on his expedition in 1849 to locate a site on the Red River of the North for a military post was ordered to proceed further north to Pembina, where he was "to hold conferences with the Indians and learn whether their lands in the Red River Valley may be purchased and opened for white settlement."
These instructions came directly from the Secretary of the Interior, Thomas Ewing, with the approval of President Zachary Taylor, suggested the United States should acquire the Indian lands so the area could be thrown open to agricultural settlement. After locating the site for what became Fort Abercrombie, Major Woods continued downriver to Pembina, where he spent 25 days and met first with Dakota and with Ojibwe and Métis from the Pembina band as well as members of the Red River band, but reached no specific agreement for land cessions; the Dakota relinquished any claim to the Red River Valley in the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux and to most of the rest of the future State of Minnesota in the Treaty of Mendota in 1851. Within a few weeks, the United States Indian Commissioners negotiated a separate treaty at Pembina on September 20, 1951, whereby the Red Lake Band and the Pembina Band of Ojibwe signed away their rights to over 5,000,000 acres of rich Red River Valley land extending 30 miles on each side of the Red River.
In the face of opposition from Southern states concerned about the balance of free and slave states as a result of Minnesota expansionism, in order to preserve and obtain ratification of the Sioux treaties and land cessions which had just been secured, the Northern sponsors of the Pembina treaty withdrew their support, the Senate denied confirmation, the Ojibwe land cession failed. With the introduction of steamboat operations on the Red River and plans for railroad development in Northwest Minnesota, the clamor for development and settlement south of the 49th parallel continued unabated throughout the 1850s. Incursions into Ojibwe territory on the part of fur traders and others were common. A leading trader and Métis state legislator, Joseph Rolette started a townsite called "Douglas" at the Old Crossing, designated by the Legislature as the first county seat of Polk County; the Ojibwe objected to the peremptory establishment of a town on their unceded territory, the Legislature removed the county seat to Crookston, but demands for doing something about the "sullen Chippewa" and their claims to the territory continued to mount and by 1862 had risen to a crescendo.
After the onset of the Civil War, with factional Southern opposition to expansion of the free states no longer a factor, still urged on by railroad interests and other promoters of development and settlement in the area, the United States in 1862 renewed efforts to negotiate a "treaty" with Ojibwe tribes for the cession of the Red River Valley. Several tribal chiefs were invited to treat at the Grand Forks of the Red Lake Red River; these Ojibwe negotiators were encamped there late that summer, waiting for the United States negotiators, when skirmishing in the Sioux Uprising spread to the Red River Valley, forcing the United States negotiators to take refuge in Fort Abercrombie. In the aftermath of the Uprising, United States troops and Minnesota militia chased the Dakota out of the Red River Valley for good and the fur traders and steamship operators renewed efforts to have the politicians wrest the territory from the Ojibwe; the lead negotiator for the United States in the Treaties of Old Crossing was Alexander Ramsey, a former Governor of the Territory of Minnesota and the first Governor of the new state of Minnesota.
In direct response to the "Sioux Outbreak", Ramsey had resigned as governor in order to accept a federal appointment as Indian
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur