Soldier Hollow is a cross-country ski resort located 53 miles southeast of Salt Lake City in Wasatch Mountain State Park, United States. The resort was created for the 2002 Winter Olympics, during the games it hosted the biathlon, cross-country skiing and the cross country skiing portion of the Nordic combined events. Since hosting the Olympics, it has been developed as a cross-country skiing and snowshoeing resort, while featuring mountain biking and golfing in the summer. On May 1, 2016, the venue operation contract transferred from the Soldier Hollow Legacy Foundation to the Utah Olympic Legacy Foundation, which owns and operates several Olympic and Paralympic legacy venues elsewhere in the state. Soldier Hollow is located in the southeastern-most part of Wasatch Mountain State Park, a 21,592 acres nature preserve created in 1961, which became a state park in 1968. Soldier Hollow's location within the state park did not carry a name until Olympic organizers coined it Soldier Hollow; this name was chosen because of its proximity to Soldier Springs, a summer campsite used by Ute Indians, U.
S. Army surveyors of others. Prior to becoming a state park certain locations within the park were used for farming and grazing activities, while much of the remainder was used recreationally by locals. In the last quarter of the 20th century the state park service had been approached by private developers hoping to build luxury hotels, golf courses and other attractions within the park, but none of these plans came to fruition; the Soldier Hollow venue was one of only three, built and designed by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympics. The Soldier Hollow location was chosen by SLOC as an Olympic venue in October 1997, over several other possible locations including Sherwood Hills near Logan, Utah. Preliminary work began soon after the venue site was chosen, but major construction didn't start until 1999. Work at the venue had been completed enough to host its first major event, U. S. Cross Country Championships, on January 8, 2000. Construction on the venue's day lodge began with a groundbreaking ceremony on July 5, 2000.
The lodge was completed in December 2000 and dedicated on January 5, 2001. The venue cost SLOC $22 million USD to construct. During the 2002 games Soldier Hollow hosted the biathlon, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined events; the venue itself hosted 64,160 biathlon spectators, 99,320 cross-country spectators, 1,794 Nordic combined spectators during these events. During the 2002 Winter Paralympics the venue hosted cross-country events. Soldier Hollow was the furthest venue from Salt Lake City with an estimated drive time of 2-2.5 hours from downtown during the games. Because of this distance from any large population centers, a special Western Experience was created at the venue's spectator plaza to give visitors activities to do between competitions; the Western Experience included music and entertainment, a mountain rendezvous, pioneer reenactments, cowboy camps, wild mustang exhibit and American Indian displays, along with concession stands. In order to help cut down on vehicle traffic in the local canyons during the games, to give spectators a unique experience, SLOC reached an agreement with the historic Heber Valley Railroad to transport spectators to the Soldier Hollow venue.
A special station was constructed along the railroad tracks near the venue which would allow for two to four trains, carrying 200 passengers each, per day. The Heber Valley Railroad's numbers 618 and 75 steam-engines, were joined by the Nevada Northern Railway Museum's number 93 steam-engine, in pulling eight-car trains full of passengers, to the Soldier Hollow depot where they disembarked and continued to the venue entrance on a horse-drawn sleigh; the resort has been developed as a cross-country skiing and snowshoeing resort with nearby horse-pulled sleigh riding during the winter months, while featuring mountain biking, golfing, a popular music festival and an international sheepdog competition in the summer. It is owned by part of Wasatch Mountain State Park; the Division of State Parks and Recreation contracted management of the venue to a non-profit foundation. The Wasatch Mountain Music Festival will be held at Soldier Hollow on July 14 - 16, 2017. Under the direction and management of Vibrant America and the Utah Olympic Legacy Foundation, this festival of Americana music - bluegrass, Texas swing, gypsy jazz - has an ideal setting within a Wasatch Mountain cove.
The large grassy staging area has two stages for non-stop music with a talented and diverse lineup of national recording artists and favorite local performers. There are overnight camping spaces, vendor booths and food court, family hiking or biking trails, nearby horseback riding or covered wagon rides, along with a pioneer living history encampment with children activities; the Heber Valley Railroad has scheduled a special "music train" to bring patrons to the event. With a mission to educate as well as entertain, the Wasatch Mountain Music Festival will offer workshops from professionals, singer/songwriter showcases, music activities for children and opportunities for all musicians to jam and build relationships; the site is home to the Soldier Hollow Classic Sheepdog Championship and Festival, held on Labor Day weekend each year. Called the "world's foremost sheepdog trial" with some 28,000 people in attendance, the event will be four day event held September 1-4, 2017. Media related to Soldier Hollow at Wikimedia Commons Soldier Hollow Resort - Official website Ski Utah - Resort Profile
Per Eilert Elofsson is a Swedish cross-country skier who competed from 1997 to 2004. He won a bronze medal in the 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Elofsson won five medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships with three golds, one silver, one bronze, he won the 50 km event at the Holmenkollen ski festival in 2001. This success along with his two golds earned at the 2001 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Lahti would give Elofsson the Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal. At the 2002 Swedish Sports Award, he was awarded the prize for Sportsman of the Year. In 2005 he made an unexpected appearance on the album Grand Illusion by the Heavy metal band Nocturnal Rites, playing guitar on one song, he retired 26 October 2005 by giving a press conference at Arlanda airport. Since 2007, Elofsson works as a business developer at Swedbank, giving economic advice to professional athletes, his first client was fellow cross-country skier Charlotte Kalla. Elofsson was a expert commentator for SVT Sport during cross-country championships.
During the 2014 Winter Olympics he was employed by Swedish broadcaster Viasat. In November 2014 he left Viasat and joined Eurosport.. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 2 titles – 11 victories – 23 podiums – 4 victories – 10 podiums – Media related to Per Elofsson at Wikimedia Commons Per Elofsson at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen winners since 1892 - click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file Official website &
Frode Estil is a retired Norwegian cross-country skier. He lives in Meråker with his wife Grete whom he married in the summer of 2001, they have two sons, born in August 2002, Konrad. Estil was classical specialist and a specialist at succeeding in World Championships and Olympics. While Estil only won four World Cup races, he won one individual Olympic Gold and one individual World Championship gold. In addition, he won three team events in the World Championships and another team gold in the Olympics. Estil's first World Cup victory was in 1999 in the 30 km event at Davos, his best standing at the end of a season was during 2001/02. Estil has been competing in the World Cup since 1995/96, in which he finished the season in 42nd place, in 1996/97 he finished 63rd; the year after however he jumped up to 12th. The following two years he finished 12th. In the 2000/01 season he finished inside the top ten of the world, finishing 8th; the next season was better for Estil, not only did he get married in the summer but he finished in 5th place overall, his highest overall ranking.
The next two seasons he finished in 6th. After the 2002/03 season he stopped competing in the sprint events after finishing the season in 58th, he had finished the sprint seasons in 48th, 18th, 18th, 32nd, 39th in 2001/02. In 2003/04 he finished 3rd in the distance standings. 2004/05 was a poor season, finishing 14th in the distance, 25th in the overall. Estil finished the 2005/06 season in 9th place in the FIS World Cup standings, 456 points behind winner Tobias Angerer. Estil finished 4th in the distance, 420 points behind Angerer, again did not compete in the sprints. Estil has had 18 World Cup podium finishes. Four of them in 1st place, six in 2nd place and eight in 3rd place, his wins came in 1999/00, 2002/03 and two in 2003/04. The most podium finishes he has had in a single season was in 2002/03, he had side of that season. All of his wins have been except one double pursuit; the 15 km is his most successful event in terms of numbers of podium finishes. Through the years he has had three second places and three third places.
His most successful event in terms of wins is the 30 km. Estil's first gold medal in an international championship was in the relay in the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2001 in Lahti, where he took silver in the 30 km. At the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2003, held in Val di Fiemme, Estil won a gold in the 4 x 10 km relay and bronze in the 15 km and 30 km. At the 2005 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oberstdorf, Estil won gold in the 50 km race, the 4 x 10 km relay. In the 50 km race he won in a time of 2:30:10.1, beating Anders Aukland by 0.7 seconds, Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset came third making it a Norwegian sweep. A characteristic of Estil is to start slow and come through the pack towards the end of the race, he was 23rd after 12.5 km, 11th after 27.5 km, but by 42.5 km he was 3rd, came through to win. In the relay, Norway won, with Germany second and Russia third. Norway finished 17.7 seconds ahead with Estil skiing Norway's second fastest leg. He won a bronze medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit, in a time of 1:19:21.3, 0.8 seconds behind winner Vincent Vittoz, losing silver to Giorgio Di Centa in a photo finish.
At the 2007 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Sapporo, Estil won only one medal. He lost the gold at the finish line of the 50 km event to fellow Norwegian Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset. Estil has nine World Championship medals as of the Sapporo championships with four gold, two silver, three bronze. Estil has competed in two Winter Olympics. In the 2002 Games Estil won golds in the 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit, the 4 x 10 km relay. In the 2006 Winter Olympics he won a silver medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit. In the 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit, Estil tied with fellow Norwegian Thomas Alsgaard for second place, with Johann Mühlegg winning the race; however Mühlegg was found guilty of doping and disqualified by the IOC in February 2004, therefore upgrading Estil and Alsgaard to joint gold medalists. Alsgaard and Estil clocked times of 49:48.9, 4 seconds ahead of Per Elofsson. In the same Olympic Games, he won a silver medal in the 15 km Classic race, a gold medal in the 4 x 10 km relay together with Alsgaard, Kristen Skjeldal and Anders Aukland.
Estil finished the 15 km race in 37:43.4, 36 seconds behind Andrus Veerpalu of Estonia, 7.4 seconds ahead of Jaak Mae of Estonia. Estil took part in the 50 km classic, but finished ninth, in a time of 2:10:44.8, 4:22.0 behind winner Mikhail Ivanov of Russia. At the 2006 Olympics in Turin, Estil won the silver medal in the men's 15 km + 15 km double pursuit competition despite taking a fall and breaking a ski at the start of the race which put him in last place. Eugeni Dementiev of Russia won the race, 1.6 seconds ahead of Estil, who finished the race in 1:17:01.8, 0.3 seconds ahead of Pietro Piller Cottrer who came third. In the same Games Estil took part in the 15 km classical, the 50 km freestyle mass start, but finished 17th and 28th respectively. Estil's results mirrored those of the Norwegian cross-country team who failed to win a single Gold medal in Turin, owing to stomach illness and waxing mistakes made by Norway's eight man strong service team. Estil's Olympic medals
Mikhail Viktorovich Botvinov. He won two medals at the Winter Olympics with a silver in the men's 30 km freestyle mass start event in 2002 and a bronze in the men's 50 km freestyle mass start in 2006, he competed for the Unified Team in the 1992 Winter Olympics and for Russia in the 1994 Winter Olympics. Botvinov won the 50 km event at the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in 1999, becoming the first Austrian to win the prestigious cross country event, he won the Vasaloppet event in Sweden two years earlier. His biggest successes were at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, he won a bronze in 1993 for Russia in the 4 × 10 km relay. In 1999, representing Austria, won a gold in the 4 × 10 km relay and a bronze in the 50 km. Botvinov emigrated from Russia to Austria in 1996 and was forced to sit out both the 1996–97 FIS World Cup Season and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano until he could his citizenship status clarified, but returned to form in 1998, he encountered controversy with his teammate Christian Hoffmann regarding blood doping in 2002, though both were cleared by the International Olympic Committee on 9 April 2002.
Botvinov retired after the 2006–07 World Cup season. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 2 victories 19 podiums 4 victories 17 podiums Media related to Mikhail Botvinov at Wikimedia Commons Mikhail Botvinov at the International Ski Federation Mikhail Botvinov at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Mikhail Botvinov at the International Olympic Committee Holmenkollen winners since 1892 at the Wayback Machine - click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file skifaster.net April 9, 2002 article clearing Botvinov and Hoffman. Http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/events/1998/nagano/athletes/416.htm
Andrus Veerpalu is an Estonian former cross-country skier. He is Estonia's most successful Winter Olympian, having won the gold medal in men's 15 kilometre classical in 2002 and 2006, silver in men's 50 kilometre classical in 2002. On 17 February 2006 Veerpalu won his second Winter Olympics gold medal, becoming the fourth Estonian to have won two Olympic gold medals, he is the most successful Olympic athlete from Estonia with three medals. Veerpalu has found success at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, winning a gold at 15 km in 2009 at Liberec, 30 km in 2001 at Lahti and a silver at 50 km in 1999 at Ramsau, he has won the 50 km event at the Holmenkollen ski festival in 2003 and 2005. Veerpalu competed in the men's 50 km, Mass Start Classic at the 2010 Winter Olympics, finishing at the 6th place. Andrus Veerpalu became the oldest world champion in history with his victory at Liberec 2009 on the 15 km classical event, he was 38 years old. He is the oldest Olympic champion in individual distance.
Veerpalu earned the Holmenkollen medal in 2005, the first Estonian to do so. Veerpalu is the fourth athlete to compete in cross-country skiing at six Winter Olympics, after Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi, Harri Kirvesniemi, Jochen Behle. On 23 February 2011, Veerpalu announced that he will end his professional sportsman career due to a chronic knee injury. Several months after Veerpalu's retirement it was announced that he had tested positive for HGH, however he had pleaded innocent in HGH treatment. Estonian biochemistry doctors explained that the verdict was untimely and that there was no reliable method to distinguish artificial HGH from natural background hormone. Veerpalu appealed the test result to the FIS; the FIS antidoping commission found Veerpalu guilty and extended his ban to three years, due to Veerpalu's team's lack of co-operation with FIS. A group of top Estonian biochemists investigated the matter and insist Veerpalu was a false positive; the Court of Arbitration for Sport acquitted Veerpalu, lifted his doping ban and ordered the FIS to pay a part of Veerpalu's court costs on 25 March 2013.
The court stated "that there are many factors in this case which tend to indicate that the Athlete did in fact himself administer exogenous hGH" but found that the decision limit, the threshold for considering the result an adverse analytical finding, was not sufficiently reliable to uphold the doping conviction. Krista Fischer, a senior researcher for the Estonian Genome Center, questioned what these unexplained factors hinted at by CAS could be: "So what were these factors? Right now the only numbers that seem to hint at doping are the same four numbers that have been ruled invalid." All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 6 victories 11 podiums He is married to Angela Veerpalu and they have five children: Andreas, Anders and Andorres. List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games Andrus Veerpalu at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen medalists at the Wayback Machine – click Holmenkollmedaljen for downloadable pdf file Holmenkollen winners since 1892 at the Wayback Machine – click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file Evans, Hilary.
"Andrus Veerpalu". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. 13. June 2012, Veerpalu Court Hearing Ends Today, Estonian Public Broadcasting News 28. August 2012, Veerpalu Appeal Decision Delayed, Estonian Public Broadcasting News 28. February 2013, Judgement Day for Veerpalu Doping Case: Result Expected Shortly, Estonian Public Broadcasting News 28. February 2013, Decision in Veerpalu Doping Case Postponed, The ruling will now come on March 25, ETV reported, Estonian Public Broadcasting News Lausanne, 1 March 2013, Court of Arbitration for Sport: VEERPALU/FIS CASE: DECISION POSTPONED TO 25 MARCH 2013 Estonian Public Broadcasting: 25. March 2013, Veerpalu Decision Expected 26.03.2013, The Court of Arbitration for Sport: CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING - CASE VEERPALU/ FIS: APPEAL UPHELD, tas-cas.org FIS-Ski: CAS issues decision in the case of Veerpalu, fis-ski.com Lausanne, 26 March 2013, The Court of Arbitration for Sport MEDIA RELEASE, CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING, CASE VEERPALU/FIS CAS 2011/A/2566 Andrus Veerpalu v. International Ski Federation, ARBITRAL AWARD
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games; the IOC is the governing body of the National Olympic Committees, which are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic Movement. As of 2016, there are 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC; the current president of the IOC is Thomas Bach of Germany, who succeeded Jacques Rogge of Belgium in September 2013. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president; as of January 2019, its membership consists of 96 active members, 45 honorary members, an honorary president and two honour members. The IOC is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement; the IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The first Summer YOG were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter YOG in Innsbruck were in 2012. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives a proportionally greater income in Olympic years. In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status; the decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. In 1993, the General Assembly approved a Resolution to further solidify IOC–UN cooperation by reviving the Olympic Truce. During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, the dominant language of the host nation; the IOC received approval in November 2015 to construct a new headquarters in Lausanne.
The cost of the project was estimated to stand at $156m. The IOC announced on 11 February 2019 that "Olympic House" would be inaugurated on 23 June 2019 to coincide with its 125th anniversary; the Olympic Museum remains in Lausanne. The stated mission of the IOC is to promote the Olympics throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement: To encourage and support the organisation and coordination of sport and sports competitions, it is the IOC's supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are: To amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games. In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number of other honours; the IOC President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, superseded the Olympic Certificate The Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport The Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members.
Countries that had hosted. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. "Granted the honour of becoming a member of the International Olympic Committee and declaring myself aware of my responsibilities in such a capacity, I undertake to serve the Olympic Movement to the best of my ability. The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances: Resignation: any IOC member may cease their membership at any tim
Cross-country skiing (sport)
The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U. S. Ski and Snowboard Association and Cross Country Ski Canada. International competitions include the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Cross-Country World Cup, at the Winter Olympic Games; such races occur over homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and freestyle events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing. It encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation, cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation. Related forms of competition are biathlon, where competitors race on cross-country skis and stop to shoot at targets with rifles, paralympic cross-country skiing that allows athletes with disabilities to compete at cross-country skiing with adaptive equipment.
Norwegian army units were skiing for sport in the 18th century. Starting in the latter part of the 20th century, technique evolved from the striding in-track classic technique to include skate-skiing, which occurs on courses that have been groomed with wide lanes for those using the technique. At the same time, equipment evolved from skis and poles that were made of wood and other natural materials to comprising such man-made materials as fiberglass, carbon fiber, polyethylene plastics. Athletes train to achieve endurance, speed and flexibility at different levels of intensity. Offseason training occurs on dry land, sometimes on roller skis; the organization of cross-country ski competitions aims to make those events accessible both to spectators and television audiences. As with other sports that require endurance and speed, some athletes have chosen to use banned performance-enhancing drugs. In 1767 Danish-Norwegian general, Carl Schack Rantzau, codified four classes of military skiing contests and established prizes for each: Shooting at prescribed targets at 40–50 paces while skiing downhill at "top speed".
"Hurling" themselves while racing downhill among trees "without falling or breaking skis". Downhill racing on large slopes without "riding or resting on their stick" or falling. "Long racing" with full military kit and a gun on the shoulder over ca. 2.5 km of "flat ground" within 15 minutes. An early record of a public ski competition was for an 1843 event in Tromsø; the announcement called the event a "wagering race on skis". A distinct alpine technique emerged around 1900 from how skiing was practiced up until when Mathias Zdarsky advocated the "Lilienfelder Ski Method" as an alternative to the Norwegian technique. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in pre-set tracks in the shortest possible time". Alpine skiing competitions existed in Norway during the 18th and 19th centuries, but were discontinued when the main ski festival in Oslo focused on long races and ski jumping; the alpine disciplines reemerged in Central Europe around 1920.
Ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age categories. In the 1800s racers used a single, wooden pole, longer and stronger than modern poles, could be used for braking downhill, as well. In Norway, racing with two poles met with resistance, starting in the 1880s, when some race rules forbade them; as the use of pairs of pole became the norm, materials favored lightness and strength, starting with bamboo, which gave way to fiberglass, used at the 1968 Winter Olympics, used at the 1972 Winter Olympics, carbon fiber, introduced in 1975. Skate skiing was introduced to competition in the 20th Century. At the first German ski championship, held at the Feldberg in the Black Forest in 1900, the Norwegian Bjarne Nilssen won the 23 km cross-country race and was observed using a skating motion while skiing—a technique unknown to the spectators. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing.
This technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. Finnish skier Pauli Siitonen developed a variant of the style for marathon or other endurance events in the 1970s by leaving one ski in the track while skating outwards to the side with the other ski. American skier Bill Koch further developed the marathon skate technique in the late 1970s. Skate skiing became widespread during the 1980s after Koch's success with it in the 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the technique. Norwegian skier, Ove Aunli, started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Skating is most effective on wide, groomed trails, using fiberglass skis that glide well. Athletes adopted skating to both sides by the time of the 1985 world championship and it was formally adopted by the FIS in 1986—despite initial opposition from Norway, the Soviet Union and Finland—while preserving events using only classic technique.