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In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent. It may be followed by a redirect. Redirect examination, performed by the attorney or pro se individual who performed the direct examination, clarifies the witness' testimony provided during cross-examination including any subject matter raised during cross-examination but not discussed during direct examination. Recross examination addresses the witness' testimony discussed in redirect by the opponent. Depending on the judge's discretion, opponents are allowed multiple opportunities to redirect and recross examine witnesses. In the United States federal Courts, a cross-examining attorney is not permitted to ask questions that do not pertain to the testimony offered during direct examination, but most state courts do permit a lawyer to cross-examine a witness on matters not raised during direct examination. Courts in England, South Africa and Canada allow a cross-examiner to exceed the scope of direct examination.

Since a witness called by the opposing party is presumed to be hostile, cross-examination does permit leading questions. A witness called by a direct examiner, on the other hand, may only be treated as hostile by that examiner after being permitted to do so by the judge, at the request of that examiner and as a result of the witness being antagonistic and/or prejudiced against the party that called them. Cross-examination is a key component in a trial and the topic is given substantial attention during courses on Trial Advocacy; the opinions by a jury or judge are changed during cross examination if doubt is cast on the witness. In other times a credible witness affirms the belief in their original statements or in some cases enhances the judge's or jury's belief. Though the closing argument is considered the deciding moment of a trial, effective cross-examination wins trials. Attorneys anticipate hostile witness' responses during pretrial planning, attempt to shape the witnesses' perception of the questions to draw out information helpful to the attorney's case.

During an attorney's closing argument he will repeat any admissions made by witnesses that favor their case. Indeed, in the United States, cross-examination is seen as a core part of the entire adversarial system of justice, in that it "is the principal means by which the believability of a witness and the truth of his testimony are tested." Another key component affecting a trial outcome is the jury selection, in which attorneys will attempt to include jurors from whom they feel they can get a favorable response or at the least unbiased fair decision. So while there are many factors affecting the outcome of a trial, the cross-examination of a witness will influence an open-minded unbiased jury searching for the certainty of facts upon which to base their decision. Litigation strategy Testimony Trial advocacy Witness impeachment – Process of calling into question the credibility of an individual testifying in a trial City Law School. Advocacy 2007/2008. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-921220-1.

Du Cann, Richard. The Art of the Advocate. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-017931-3. Evans, K.. The Golden Rules of Advocacy. London: Blackstone Press. ISBN 1-85431-259-6. Morley, I; the Devil's Advocate. London: Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 0-421-91480-7. Ross, D.. Advocacy. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-61117-2. Wellman, F.. The Art of Cross-Examination. Standard Publications. ISBN 1-59462-647-2. Mahoney, K.. Relentless Criminal Cross-Examination. James Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-58012-125-5


Micro-Vett has been an Italian company manufacturing electric vehicles. Micro-Vett was founded in 1986 in Voltana di Lugo by three shareholders including Mr. Galli and Mr. Giacomoni. A new four-wheel electric vehicle, similar to current quadricycles, the Lady, is developed and built from scratch. Starting from 1989 Coop. Car, a cooperative from Imola acquired Micro-Vett shares becoming majority shareholder and transferring the headquarters in Imola. At that time, the management understood the difficulties related to the manufacturing of vehicle body and decided to focus on electrification components. Micro-Vett started a partnership with Bedford for the electrification of Rascal, a small van for people and goods delivery, manufactured in several tens of units. In 1991 after bankruptcy of the parent company Coop. Car Micro-Vett was declared bankrupted and, after a brief period of inactivity, it was taken over by Mr. Gaetano Di Gioia manager of his buy out by Coop. Car; the company from Imola continues the production of Rascal, given the lack of involvement of the vehicle manufacturer, approached Piaggio with which, starting from 1994, launches a collaboration for the electrification of Porter.

This vehicle, thanks to purchasing incentives, meets a great success in the Italian market and it was manufactured from 1994 to 2003 in about 5,000 units. The lead-acid batteries provide a top speed of 65 km/h. Piaggio delivers the vehicles without endothermic engine to Micro-Vett and here they’re converted into electric; the sale of the complete vehicle is done in all cases directly by Piaggio. During this period the company took part in many sport events for electric vehicles, including the 24 hours of Turin and the Monte-Carlo Rally for alternative energies propelled vehicles, by winning prestigious results. Starting from the end of the 1990s, once the technology of Zebra batteries, which can provide an energy density about four times than lead-acid batteries, has become available, Micro-Vett manufactured many prototypes including Eurocargo in association with Iveco and different units of Porter with long range. Since 2001 Micro-Vett fleet is expanded with the introduction of electric Daily and Ydea, a quadricycle made by Casalini.

However, the high cost of Zebra batteries limits the market penetration, still dominated, in terms of Micro-Vett sales, by Piaggio Porter. Another vehicle that takes up a prominent place in Micro-Vett range is the Daily in bimodal version, manufactured since 2004. By placing an electric motor on the shaft, the vehicle can be driven both by diesel engine both by electric motor, ensuring a unique flexibility of use. Battery recharge occurs both from electrical grid both when the vehicle is driven by the diesel engine; this project is shown to Iveco. So Micro-Vett directly markets this vehicle with a sales volume from 2004 to 2011 of 600 units; the appearance of the first lithium batteries for automotive use manufactured in China at low cost since 2005, pushed Micro-Vett to test this technology making the first European prototypes of motor vehicle equipped with this technology. The company began the manufacturing of Fiat Doblò in an electric version; this vehicle, was sold directly by Micro-Vett to final customers, because the transformation was not explicitly supported by FIAT.

The new batteries guarantee a range up to 150 km, but have some security issues, pushing Micro-Vett to test different suppliers, to focus on two manufacturers from South Korea. In 2009 Micro-Vett started the production of electric Fiorino and Qubo that meet a good market success is Italy and Europe; the main markets are France, the Netherlands and Spain, but many vehicles are sold in Russia, Hong Kong and Baltic countries. In 2009 too the company from Imola developed the e500, electric version of the new FIAT 500, presented at London Motorshow by the English dealer Nice Car. Micro-Vett developed the electric Ducato, in all its models; the configuration of the batteries can be dimensioned according to customer requirements. For this vehicle Micro-Vett started a partnership with the French company Gruau, which installs the kits provided by Micro-Vett on the vehicles. Interrupted since 2006 the collaboration with Piaggio, which now offers a version of electric Porter independently made, Micro-Vett triggers a similar base vehicle search.

A first partnership with the Uz-Daewoo, Uzbek manufacturing site of Daewoo, was unsuccessful and other partnership with Chinese OEMs or Italian importers of Chinese vehicles too. Throughout its history, Micro-Vett implemented many electric-powered prototypes, including the bus Albatros in collaboration with the local public transport company of Rimini, a Ducato with endothermic engine on the front axle and electric motor on the rear axle in partnership with Al-Ko, a three-wheels motorcycle, a bimodal hearse, an all-electric excavator in collaboration with Venieri, a bimodal boat for carrying 70 people, etc.. Micro-Vett developed CHAdeMO protocols for rapid charging of its vehicles at 50 kW. At the beginning of 2011, when the company had a turnover of around 17 million Euros and employed 50 people, the vehicle range included EdyOne, e500, Doblò, Ducato and Bimodal Daily. Main customers are state-owned companies and delivery companies, including Trambus, Reggio Emilia Municipality, Italian Mail, Turin Municipality

Arnold I of Cologne

Arnold I was Archbishop of Cologne from 1137 to 1151. Arnold's origins are not definitively known, it is assumed. He became Provost of St. Andreas in Cologne in about 1124, was elected the new Archbishop of Cologne in December 1137, after two archbishops had died in that year. After participating in the second election of Conrad III as King of Germany in Coblenz on 7 March 1138, Arnold received his consecration on 3 April 1138; some time after this date he had a castle built on the Drachenfels in the Siebengebirge mountain range near Bonn. In 1146 during the Second Crusade, when the monk Radulphe left his monastery in France and travelled to Cologne and the Rhine Valley to preach pogroms against the Jews, Arnold was one of the churchmen who tried most to protect them, he made available to them the castle of Wolkenburg, near Königswinter, built in 1118 by his predecessor archbishop Frederick I to secure his region in the south. He wrote to Bernard of Clairvaux, the influential head of the Cistercians, appealing for his help.

Bernard replied with a strong denunciation of Radulphe, demanded an end to violence against the Jews. When Radulphe continued his campaign Bernard came in person to Germany, "protested energetically against the unchristian behavior of Radulph", forced the monk to return to his monastery. Arnold was present for visit of Pope Eugene III to Trier on 10 November 1147, but in 1149 Eugene III suspended him, on accusations of neglect of his official duties. Arnold died in Cologne on 3 April 1151, was buried in the Church of St. Andreas. S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol 2, 1952

Texas State Highway 188

State Highway 188 is a state highway in the Coastal Bend region of Texas. It runs 41.327 miles from Mathis east to the Gulf of Mexico near Port Aransas. SH 188 was established in its current form in 1992, after a previous incarnation existed from 1932 to 1942. SH 188 was designated on November 30, 1932, as a connector route between then-SH 5 and Roxton; this route was canceled on April 29, 1942, was replaced by FM 38. SH 188 was designated on December 22, 1992, replacing part of FM 881 and part of FM 1069, of which SH 188 was concurrent with. On June 29, 1993, SH 188 was extended 1.8 miles over another part of FM 1069, canceling the section of FM 1069 east of the junction with SH 188, transferring it to SH 188, the remainder of FM 881 was redesignated as part of FM 1069

Bothered and Bewildered

"Bothered and Bewildered" is an episode of the BBC sitcom, The Green Green Grass. It was first. In this classic episode of series two of the much loved spin off, Boycie decides that it's time to sack one of his staff members as they are not doing enough work. So, it's Mrs Cakeworthy, for the chop; as soon as Mrs Cakeworthy leaves, strange things start to happen around Winterdown Farm – and Elgin and Jed seem to believe that these strange goings-on have something to do with the curse that Mrs Cakeworthy put on Farmer Boyce, as she is a witch. In the end it is Marlene, scaring Boycie – in an attempt to get Mrs Cakeworthy her job back. A classic quote in this episode from Boycie: Yes, but you seem to be forgetting that I haven't got a cock. In fact I haven't got any poultry whatsoever... British TV Comedy Guide for The Green Green Grass BARB viewing figures


Gennargentu is a large massif in central-southern Sardinia, encompassing the provinces of Nuoro and Ogliastra. It includes the highest peaks on the island, such as Punta La Marmora, Monte Spada, Punta Erba Irdes, Bruncu Spina and Punta Paulinu; the range forms part of the Gennargentu National Park. Geologically, its rocks are amongst the oldest in Europe, are therefore smooth shaped: rock types include schist and granite; the etymology of the name Gennargentu is not attested: it could mean "Silver Door", "Door of the Winds" or "Door of Absinthium". The mountains are home to the only ski resorts on the island: on Monte Spada, Bruncu Spina, Separadorgiu and S'Arena. Gennargentu National Park