Cross of Burgundy

The Cross of Burgundy or the Cross of Saint Andrew, a saw-toothed form of St. Andrew's cross, was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled a large part of eastern France and the Low Countries as an independent state; the Burgundian Netherlands were inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line and continued to have the Cross of Burgundy as their emblem. The emblem was assumed by the monarchs of Spain as a result of the Habsburgs bringing together, in the early 16th century, their Burgundian inheritance with the other extensive possessions they inherited throughout Europe and the Americas, including the crowns of Castile and Aragon, where the cross acquired a global impact, being found nowadays in different continents; the Spanish monarchs continued to use it in their own arms after the Burgundian house was part of the Spanish Crown, after due to the extinction of the House of Burgundy. From 1506 to 1701 it was used by Spain as a naval ensign, up to 1843 as the land battle flag, still appears on regimental colours, shoulder patches and company guidons.

The emblem continues to be used in a variety of contexts in a number of European countries and in the Americas, reflecting both the extent of Valois Burgundy and the former Habsburg territories, but in the end as a symbol of Hispanism and pride of the Hispanic heritage. The banner speaking dates back to the early 15th century, when the supporters of the Duke of Burgundy adopted the badge to show allegiance in the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, it represents the cross. The design is a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned, branches on a white field. In heraldic language, it may be blazoned argent, a saltire ragulée gules. Pedro de Ayala, writing in the 1490s, claims it was first adopted by a previous Duke of Burgundy to honour his Scottish soldiers; this must be a reference to the Scottish soldiers recruited by John the Fearless in the first years of the fifteenth century, led by the Earl of Mar and Earl of Douglas. However, earlier chronicle accounts and archaeological finds of heraldic badges from Paris indicate widespread adoption dates from 1411 in the context of factional warfare in the city and that its origins are more to relate to the fact that St. Andrew was the patron saint of the dukes of Burgundy.

The year 1506 should be considered its theoretical earliest use in Spain, although about 1525 might be a more estimate. Philip, after his marriage to Joanna of Castile, became the first Habsburg King of Spain and used the Cross of Burgundy as an emblem as it was the symbol of the house of his mother, Mary of Burgundy. From the time of Philip and Joanna's son, Emperor Charles V, different armies within his empire used the flag with the Cross of Burgundy over different fields; the official field was still white. The Spanish monarchs – the Habsburgs and their successors' the House of Bourbon – continued to use the Cross of Burgundy in various forms, including as a supporter to the Royal Coat of Arms. From the time of the Bourbon king Philip V, it seems that the Spanish naval ensign was white and bore a royal coat of arms in the centre, though it is said that the Burgundian flag was still flown as a jack ensign, that is, as a secondary flag, until Charles III introduced his new red-yellow-red naval ensign in 1785.

It remained in use in Spain's overseas empire. The flag came to be adopted by the Carlists, a traditionalist-legitimist movement which fought three wars of succession against Isabella II of Spain, claiming the throne of Spain for Carlos, who would have been the legal heir under the Salic Law, controversially abolished by Ferdinand VII. In the First Carlist War the Burgundian banner, was a banner of the Regent Queen's standing Army rather than Carlist. After 1843 the red Burgundian saltire kept on appearing on the new brand red-yellow army flag under a four-quartered Castilian and Leonese coat of arms on the central yellow fess. Under the leadership of Manuel Fal Condé, the Cross of Burgundy became the Carlist badge in 1934. Owing to the impact of the Spanish Empire as the first global powerhouse across the world, numerous flags and coats of arms of bodies, in various colours and in combination with other symbols can be found in old Spanish domains. Users have some direct or indirect relation to the historical Burgundy, though such connection can be vague and lost in the mists of time.

Most of them has direct link with the Spanish Empire. A Biscayan merchant ensign A pre-1785 general Spanish merchant and privateering flag The Spanish Carlist Flag, from the Spanish Civil War up to the present The third co-official Flag of Spain during the Francoist regime In Spain some local flags and coats of arms display the cross of Burgundy in Guipúzcoa, Aragón, Castile-La Mancha and Catalonia. A Basque Nationalist flag Nowadays, the Cross of Burgundy is still a symbol of the Spanish monarchy The current fin flash on all the aircraft from the Spanish Armed Forces except the ones in the Navy, is a simplified monochrome version of the Cross

Swiss National Library

The Swiss National Library is the national library of Switzerland. Part of the Federal Office of Culture, it is charged with collecting and conserving information in all fields and media connected with Switzerland, as well as ensuring the widest possible accessibility and dissemination of such data; the Swiss National Library is intended to be open to all and, by the breadth and scope of its collection, aims to reflect the plurality and diversity of Swiss culture. It is a heritage site of national significance; the institution has been going through a period of change since 1990. This phase was given the name of RAMSES: Reorganisation for an Automated Management System and Enhanced Services; the principal objective of this project was to modernise the structure and operation of the Library and to increase services to borrowers and users with a view to transforming the Library into an information centre of national proportions. 1894 The Council of States and the National Council ratify the federal decision by which the Swiss National Library is founded, June 26 and 28.

1895 The institution starts work on May 2 in a four-roomed apartment at No 7 Christoffelgasse in Berne. The collected works are opened to the public four years in the Federal Archive Building. 1901 The Swiss national bibliography Bibliographisches Bulletin der Schweizerischen Landesbibliothek is published for the first time. 1911 The Federal law enacts the Swiss National Library. 1915 The Swiss National Library and the Swiss publishers came to an agreement: the Swiss publishers offer the Swiss National Library a copy of each one of their publications. 1928 The Swiss Union Catalogue is created. 1931 Move to the Library's present premises at No 15 Hallwylstrasse. 1989 The National Library becomes part of the Federal Office of Culture Affairs. 1991 At the instigation of Friedrich Dürrenmatt, the Swiss Literary Archives are inaugurated. 1992 The Parliament votes the new law on the Swiss National Library. 1993 VTLS library management software is introduced 1994 Access to Helveticat, the automated catalogue, goes public.

1995 Swiss ISSN Centre is opened. The same year the Swiss National Library takes part in the foundation of MEMORIAV, the association for the preservation of the audiovisual heritage of Switzerland. 1996 The Swiss Posters catalogue goes on line. 1997 Inauguration of the underground stacks east 2000 Inauguration of the Centre Dürrenmatt Neuchâtel. 2001 The Swiss National Library returns to its premises, renovated and enlarged. 2003 SwissInfoDesk, a commented list of relevant links about Swiss topics, goes online. 2005 The Swiss National Library launches the project Virtual information about Switzerland, a partnership between libraries. The participating libraries transfer the readers demands to the library, specialised in the field. 2006 The Swiss National Library is run according to the principles of New Public Management. 2009 Inauguration of the underground stacks west 2011 The Swiss Literary Archives begin collecting in a new area and acquire their first publisher's archive, that of Peter Schifferli's Arche-Verlag.

2011 The e-Helvetica electronic collections are accessible for research. 2012 Strategy 2012–2019: "The future is digital. But paper remains." Staatsarchiv Zürich Swiss Book Swiss Federal Archives Official website Swiss National Library in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

South Fermanagh (UK Parliament constituency)

South Fermanagh was a UK Parliament constituency in Ireland. This county constituency comprised the southern part of County Fermanagh; the seat was defined under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 as comprising the baronies of Clanawley, Coole and Magherastephana. The seat was unchanged under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1918, it returned one Member of Parliament 1885–1922. Prior to the 1885 United Kingdom general election the area was part of the Fermanagh constituency. After the dissolution of Parliament in 1922 the constituency was incorporated in the new seat of Fermanagh and Tyrone The constituency was a nationalist inclined one, but with a significant unionist minority; the Irish Parliamentary Party held the seat from 1885 to 1918. In 1918 Sinn Féin had a limited electoral pact with the Nationalists to avoid splitting the vote in seats Unionists might win. In this constituency Sinn Féin benefited from the pact, as nationalists were advised to vote for John O'Mahoney rather than their own candidate.

O'Mahony was a prisoner interned in Lincoln Jail at the time of the election. He was the only Sinn Féin candidate elected in the six counties that became Northern Ireland, not returned for a seat in the rest of Ireland. After being released in 1919 he did not take his seat in the UK Parliament but served in the First Dáil instead. Sinn Féin contested the general election of 1918 on the platform that instead of taking up any seats they won in the United Kingdom Parliament, they would establish a revolutionary assembly in Dublin. In republican theory every MP elected in Ireland was a potential Deputy to this assembly. In practice only the Sinn Féin members accepted the offer; the revolutionary First Dáil assembled on 21 January 1919 and last met on 10 May 1921. The First Dáil, according to a resolution passed on 10 May 1921, was formally dissolved on the assembling of the Second Dáil; this took place on 16 August 1921. In 1921 Sinn Féin decided to use the UK authorised elections for the Northern Ireland House of Commons and the House of Commons of Southern Ireland as a poll for the Irish Republic's Second Dáil.

This area, in republican theory, was incorporated in an eight-member Dáil constituency of Fermanagh and Tyrone. The elections in this constituency took place using the first past the post electoral system. Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801–1922, edited by B. M. Walker Debrett's Guide to the House of Commons and Judicial Bench, 1918 Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume II 1886–1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume III 1919–1945, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "F" List of UK Parliament Constituencies in Ireland and Northern Ireland Redistribution of Seats Act 1918 List of MPs elected in the 1918 United Kingdom general election List of Dáil Éireann constituencies in Ireland Members of the 1st Dáil