Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae. The word cypress is derived from Old French cipres, imported from Latin cypressus, the latinisation of the Greek κυπάρισσος. Species that are known as cypresses include: The Cupressaceae family contains 13–16 other genera that do not bear cypress in their common names. Plants named cypress Cypress forest Pine-cypress forest The Cypress. A poem by Letitia Elizabeth Landon from The Amulet, 1826
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort, to murder the rest, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories. In the two years leading up to the invasion and the Soviet Union signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes; the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, which Adolf Hitler authorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers – the largest invasion force in the history of warfare – invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, between 600,000 and 700,000 horses for non-combat operations.
The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union and inflicted, as well as sustained, heavy casualties. Despite these Axis successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow at the end of 1941, the subsequent Soviet winter counteroffensive pushed German troops back; the Red Army absorbed the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced the Germans into a war of attrition that they were unprepared for. The Wehrmacht never again mounted a simultaneous offensive along the entire Eastern front; the failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue in 1942 and Operation Citadel in 1943 – all of which failed. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history.
The Eastern Front became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest World War II casualties, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Red Army troops, who were denied the protection guaranteed by the Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention. A majority of Red Army POWs never returned alive; the Nazis deliberately starved to death, or otherwise killed, 3.3 million prisoners of war, as well as a huge number of civilians. Einsatzgruppen death-squads and gassing operations murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust; as early as 1925, Adolf Hitler vaguely declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his army commanders that the next war would be "purely a war of Weltanschauungen... a people's war, a racial war".
On 23 November, once World War II had started, Hitler declared that "racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, with it, the world". The racial policy of Nazi Germany portrayed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, ruled by Jewish Bolshevik conspirators. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago". Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost; the Germans' belief in their ethnic superiority is evident in official German records and discernible in pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, which covered topics such as "how to deal with alien populations". While older histories tended to emphasize the notion of a "Clean Wehrmacht", the historian Jürgen Förster notes that "In fact, the military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of the conflict, involved in its implementation as willing participants."
Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic, anti-Slavic ideology via movies, lectures and leaflets. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the "Mongolian race" threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood", the "Red beast". Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish and Slavic Untermenschen. An'order from the Führer' stated that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all Soviet functionaries who were "less valuable Asiatics and Jews". Six months into the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered in excess of 500,000 Soviet Jews, a figure greater than the number of Red Army soldiers killed in combat during that same time frame.
German army command
Mogilev is a city in eastern Belarus, about 76 kilometres from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and 105 km from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast. As of 2011, its population was 360,918, up from an estimated 106,000 in 1956, it is the third largest city in Belarus. The city is mentioned in historical sources since 1267. From the 14th century it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, since the Union of Lublin, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it became known as Mohylew. In 16th-17th century the city flourished as one of the main nodes of the east-west and north-south trading routes. In 1577 Polish-Lithuanian King Stefan Batory granted it city rights under Magdeburg law. In 1654, the townsmen negotiated a treaty of surrender to the Russians peacefully, if the Jews were to be expelled and their property divided up among Mogilev's inhabitants. Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovitch agreed. However, instead of expelling the Jews, the Russian troops massacred them after they had led them to the outskirts of the town.
The city was set on fire during the Great Northern War. After the First Partition of Poland Mogilev became part of the Russian Empire and became the centre of the Mogilev Governorate. In the years 1915–1917, during World War I, the Stavka, the headquarters of the Russian Imperial Army was based in the city and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief. Following the Russian Revolution, in 1918, the city was occupied by Germany and placed under their short-lived Belarusian People's Republic. In 1919 it was captured by the forces of Soviet Russia and incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR. Up to World War II and the Holocaust, like many other cities in Europe, Mogilev had a significant Jewish population: according to the Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 41,100, 21,500 were Jews. During the Operation Barbarossa, the city was conquered by Wehrmacht forces on 26 July 1941 and remained under German occupation until 28 June 1944. Mogilev became the official residence of High SS and police leader Erich von dem Bach.
During that period, the Jews of Mogilev were ghettoized and systematically murdered by Ordnungspolizei and SS personnel. Heinrich Himmler witnessed the executions of 279 Jews on 23 October 1941; that month a number of mentally disabled patients were poisoned with car exhaust fumes as an experiment. Initial plans for establishing a death camp in Mogilev were abandoned in favour of Maly Trostenets. In 1944, the utterly devastated city was reconquered by the Red Army and returned to Soviet domination. Mogilev was the site of a labour camp for German POW soldiers. Since Belarus gained its independence in 1991 Mogilev has remained one of its principal cities. Mohilev was the episcopal see of the Latin Catholic Archdiocese of Mohilev until its 1991 merger into the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev, it remains the see of the Eparchy of Mogilev and Mstsislaw in the Belarusian Exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. After World War II a huge metallurgy centre with several major steel mills was built.
Several major factories of cranes, tractors and a chemical plant were established. By the 1950s, tanning was its principal industry, it was a major trading centre for cereal, salt, fish and flint: the city has been home to a major inland port on the Dnieper river since and a airport since. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the establishment of Belarus as an independent country, Mogilev has become one of that country's main economic and industrial centres; the town's most notable landmark is the late 17th-century town hall, named the Ratuša, built during the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The grand tower of the town hall sustained serious damage during the Great Northern War and the Great Patriotic War, it was demolished in 1957 and rebuilt in its pre-war form in 2008. Another important landmark of Mogilev is the six-pillared St. Stanisław's Cathedral, built in the Baroque style between 1738 and 1752 and distinguished by its frescoes; the convent of St. Nicholas preserves its magnificent cathedral of 1668, as well as the original iconostasis, bell tower and gates.
It is under consideration to become a UNESCO World Heritage site. Minor landmarks include the archiepiscopal palace and memorial arch, both dating from the 1780s, the enormous theater in a blend of the Neo-Renaissance and Russian Revival styles. At Polykovichi, an urban part of Mogilev, there is a 350 metre tall guyed TV mast, one of the tallest structures in Belarus. Mogilev has a warm-summer humid continental climate. Matest M. Agrest and mathematician Modest Altschuler, orchestra conductor Abe Anellis, microbiologist Irving Berlin, American composer Petr Elfimov, musician Alyona Lanskaya, singer Joseph Lookstein, Rabbi Leonid Isaakovich Mandelshtam, physicist Andrey Melnikov and recipient of Hero of the Soviet Union award Stanisław Julian Ostroróg, Polish count, Crimean War veteran, noted Victorian Photographic portraitist, naturalised British subject David Pinski, Yiddish playwright Lev Polugaevsky, International Grandmaster of chess Leo Rogin and Writer Otto Schmidt, mathematician, geophysicist, academician Issai Schur, mathematician Spiridon Sobol, Belarusian enlightener and printer, in 1631 he publis
In political science, a communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of Communism through revolution and state policy. The term communist party was popularized by the title of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; as a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class. Lenin developed the role of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when social democracy in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism, which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. In contrast, the Menshevik faction included Trotsky, who said that the party should not neglect the importance of the mas populations in realizing a communist revolution. In the course of revolution, the Bolshevik party became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, assumed government power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917.
With the creation of the Communist International in 1919, the concept of "communist party leadership" was adopted by many revolutionary parties, worldwide. In effort to ideologically standardize the international Communist movement and maintain central control of the member parties, the Comintern required that parties identify as a Communist party. In the CPSU, the interpretations of Orthodox Marxism to Russia produced Leninist and Marxist-Leninist political parties. After the death of Lenin, the official interpretation of Leninism in the USSR was the book Foundations of Leninism, by Joseph Stalin. Communist parties are illegal in Estonia and Iran, Latvia and Myanmar, Poland and South Korea, Ukraine and Hungary. In the U. S. the Communist Party USA is banned under authority of the Communist Control Act of 1954, never enforced. As the membership of a Communist party was to be limited to active cadres in Lenin's theory, there was a need for networks of separate organizations to mobilize mass support for the party.
Communist parties have built up various front organizations whose membership is open to non-Communists. In many countries the single most important front organization of the Communist parties has been its youth wing. During the time of the Communist International, the youth leagues were explicit Communist organizations, using the name'Young Communist League'; the youth league concept was broadened in many countries, names like'Democratic Youth League' were adopted. Some trade unions and students', women's, grifters', peasants', cultural organizations have been connected to communist parties. Traditionally, these mass organizations were politically subordinated to the political leadership of the party. However, in many contemporary cases mass organizations founded by communists have acquired a certain degree of independence. In some cases mass organizations have outlived the Communist parties in question. At the international level, the Communist International organized various international front organizations, such as the Young Communist International, Krestintern, International Red Aid, etc.
These organizations were dissolved in the process of deconstruction of the Communist International. After the Second World War new international coordination bodies were created, such as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, International Union of Students, World Federation of Trade Unions, Women's International Democratic Federation and the World Peace Council. In countries where Communist Parties were struggling to attain state power, the formation of wartime alliances with non-Communist parties and wartime groups was enacted. Upon attaining state power these Fronts were transformed into nominal "National" or "Fatherland" Fronts in which non-communist parties and organizations were given token representation, the most popular examples of these being the National Front of East Germany and the United Front of the People's Republic of China. Other times the formation of such Fronts were undertaken without the participation of other parties, such as the Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia and the National Front of Afghanistan, though the purpose was the same: to promote the Communist Party line to non-communist audiences and to mobilize them to carry out tasks within the country under the aegis of the Front.
Recent scholarship has developed the comparative political study of global communist parties by examining similarities and differences across historical geographies. In particular, the rise of revolutionary parties, their spread internationally, the appearance of charismatic revolutionary leaders and their ultimate demise during the decline and fall of communist parties worldwide have all been the subject of investigation. A uniform naming scheme for Communist parties was adopted by the Communist International. All parties were required to use the name'Communist Party of', resulting in separate communist parties in some countries operating using homonymous party names. Today, there are a few cases where the original section
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky, it is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'. The currency of Kievan Rus' in the eleventh century was called grivna; the word is thought to derive from the Slavic griva. Ukrainian, Russian and Serbo-Croatian грива / griva, meaning "mane", it might have indicated something valuable worn around the neck made of silver or gold. Bulgarian and Serbian grivna; the word was used to describe silver or gold ingots of a certain weight. Ukrainian hryvenyk, Russian grivennik; the modern Ukrainian hryvnia is sometimes transliterated as hryvna, gryvna or grivna, due to its Russian language counterpart, гри́вна, pronounced grívna. However, the standard English name for the currency is hryvnia; the National Bank of Ukraine has recommended that a distinction be made between hryvnia and grívna in both historical and practical means. The nominative plural of hryvnia is hryvni, while the genitive plural is hryven’. In Ukrainian, the nominative plural form is used for numbers ending with 2, 3, or 4, as in dvi hryvni, the genitive plural is used for numbers ending with 5 to 9 and 0, for example sto hryven’.
An exception for this rule is numbers ending in 11, 12, 13 and 14 for which the genitive plural is used, for example, dvanadciat’ hryven’. The singular for the subdivision is копійка, the nominative plural is копійки and the genitive is копійок; the hryvnia sign is a cursive Ukrainian letter He, with a double horizontal stroke, symbolizing stability, similar to that used in other currency symbols such as the yen, euro or Indian rupee. The sign was encoded as U+20B4 in Unicode 4.1 and released in 2005. It is now supported by most systems. In Ukraine, if the hryvnia sign is unavailable, the Cyrillic abbreviation "грн." is used. A currency called hryvna was used in Kievan Rus'. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, the name of the new Ukrainian currency became hryvnia, a revised version of the Kievan Rus' hryvna; the designer was Heorhiy Narbut. The hryvnia replaced the karbovanets during the period 2–16 September 1996, at a rate of 1 hryvnia = 100,000 karbovantsiv.
The karbovanets was subject to hyperinflation in the early 1990s following the collapse of the USSR. To a large extent, the introduction of hryvnia was secretive. Hryvnia was introduced according to President's Decree dated 26 August 1996, published on August 29. During the transition period, September 2–16, both hryvnia and karbovanets were used in circulation, but merchants were required to give change only in hryvnias. All bank accounts were converted to hryvnia automatically. During the transition period, 97% of karbovanets were taken out of circulation, including 56% in the first 5 days of the currency reform. After 16 September 1996, the remaining karbovanets were allowed to be exchanged to hryvnias in banks; the hryvnia was introduced during the period when Victor Yushchenko was the chairman of National Bank of Ukraine. However, the first banknotes issued bore the signature of the previous National Bank chairman, Vadym Hetman, who resigned back in 1993, because the first notes had been printed as early as 1992 by the Canadian Bank Note Company, but it was decided to delay their circulation until the hyperinflation in Ukraine was brought under control.
On 18 March 2014, following its annexation by Russia, the new Republic of Crimea announced that the Ukrainian hryvina was to be dropped as the region's currency in April 2014. The Russian rouble became an "official" currency in annexed Crimea on 21 March 2014; until 1 June 2014, the hryvnia could be used for cash payments only. By contrast, the hryvnia remains the predominant currency in the conflicted raions of Donbass, i. e. in the secessionist areas of Donetsk and Lugansk. No coins were issued for the first hryvnia. Coins were first struck in 1992 for the new currency but were not introduced until September 1996. Coins valued between 1 and 50 kopecks were issued. In March 1997, 1 hryvnia coins were added. Since 2004 several commemorative 1 hryvnia coins have been struck. In October 2012 the National Bank of Ukraine announced that it is examining the possibility of withdrawing the 1- and 2-kopeck coins from circulation; the coins had become too expensive to produce compared to their nominal value.
Due to actual reports 1- and 2-kopek coins are not produced anymore since 2013, but will remain in circulation. On 26 October 2012, the National Bank of Ukraine announced it is considering the introduction of a 2-hryvnia coin. Per July 1, 2016 12.4 billion coins with a face value of 1.4 billion UAH were in circulation. In 1996, the first series of hryvnia banknotes was introduced into circulation by the National Bank of Ukraine, they were dated 1992 and were in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 hryven'. The design of the banknotes was developed by Ukrainian artists Vasyl Borys Maksymov. One hryvnya banknotes were printed by the Canadian Bank Note Company in 1992. Two and ten hryvnya banknotes were printed two years later; until introduction into circulation the banknotes were kept in Canada. Banknotes of the first series in denominations of 50 and 100 hryven existed but were not introduced because
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg was a Baltic German-born theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart and held several important posts in the Nazi government; the author of a seminal work of Nazi ideology, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Rosenberg is considered one of the main authors of key National Socialist ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, opposition to what was considered "degenerate" modern art. He is known for his rejection of and hatred for Christianity, having played an important role in the development of German Nationalist Positive Christianity. At Nuremberg he was sentenced to death and executed by hanging for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Rosenberg was born on 12 January 1893 in Reval, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire, the capital of modern Estonia, to a family of Baltic Germans, his father, Waldemar Wilhelm Rosenberg, was a wealthy merchant from Latvia, his mother, was a teacher of French language in Reval.
The Hungarian-Jewish journalist Franz Szell, residing in Tilsit, Germany, spent a year researching in Latvian and Estonian archives before publishing an open letter in 1936, with copies to Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, German foreign minister Konstantin von Neurath and others, accusing Rosenberg of having "no drop of German blood" flowing in his veins. Szell wrote that among Rosenberg's ancestors were only "Latvians, Jews and French." As a result of his open letter, Szell was deported by Lithuanian authorities on 15 September 1936. His claims were repeated in 15 September 1937 issue of the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano; the young Rosenberg graduated from the Petri-Realschule and went on to study architecture at the Riga Polytechnical Institute and engineering at Moscow's Highest Technical School completing his PhD studies in 1917. During his stays at home in Reval, he attended the art studio of the famed painter Ants Laikmaa, but though he showed promise, there are no records that he exhibited.
During the German occupation in 1918, Rosenberg served as a teacher at the Gustav Adolf Gymnasium. He gave his first speech on Jewish Marxism on 30 November, at the House of the Blackheads, after the outbreak of the Estonian War of Independence, he emigrated to Germany with the retreating imperial army, along with Max Scheubner-Richter, who served as something of a mentor to Rosenberg and to his ideology. Arriving in Munich, he contributed to the Völkischer Beobachter. By this time, he was both an antisemite – influenced by Houston Stewart Chamberlain's book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, one of the key proto-Nazi books of racial theory – and an anti-Bolshevik. Rosenberg became one of the earliest members of the German Workers' Party – renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party, better known as the Nazi Party – joining in January 1919, eight months before Adolf Hitler joined in September. According to some historians, Rosenberg had been a member of the Thule Society, along with Eckart, although Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke contends that they were only guests.
After the Völkischer Beobachter became the Nazi party newspaper in December 1920, Rosenberg became its editor, in 1923. Rosenberg was a leading member of Aufbau Vereinigung, Reconstruction Organisation, a conspiratorial organisation of White Russian émigrés which had a critical influence on early Nazi policy. In 1923, after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, imprisoned for treason, appointed Rosenberg as the leader of the National Socialist movement, a position he held until Hitler's release. Hitler remarked in years that his choice of Rosenberg, whom he regarded as weak and lazy, was strategic. However, at the time of the appointment Hitler had no reason to believe that he would soon be released, Rosenberg had not appeared weak, so this may have been Hitler reading back into history his dissatisfaction with Rosenberg for the job he did. In 1929 Rosenberg founded the Militant League for German Culture, he formed the "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question," dedicated to identifying and attacking Jewish influence in German culture and to recording the history of Judaism from a radical nationalist perspective.
He became a Reichstag Deputy in 1930 and published his book on racial theory The Myth of the Twentieth Century which deals with key issues in the National Socialist ideology, such as the "Jewish question." Rosenberg intended his book as a sequel to Houston Stewart Chamberlain's above-cited book. Despite selling more than a million copies by 1945, its influence within Nazism remains doubtful, it is said to have been a book, venerated within Nazism, but one that few had read beyond the first chapter or found comprehensible. Hitler disapproved of its pseudo-religious tone. Rosenberg convinced Hitler that communism was an international threat due to the fragility of the Soviet Union's internal political structure. "Jewish-Bolshevism" was accepted as a target for Nazism during the early 1920s. In Rome during November 1932 Rosenberg participated in the Volta Conference about Europe. British historian Sir Charles Petrie me