Purebreds called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be pedigreed; the term purebred is confused with the proper noun Thoroughbred, which refers to a specific breed of horse, one of the first breeds for which a written national stud book was created since the 18th century. Thus a purebred animal should never be called a "thoroughbred" unless the animal is a registered Thoroughbred horse. In the world of selective animal breeding, to "breed true" means that specimens of an animal breed will breed true-to-type when mated like-to-like. A puppy from two purebred dogs of the same breed, for example, will exhibit the traits of its parents, not the traits of all breeds in the subject breed's ancestry. However, breeding from too small a gene pool direct inbreeding, can lead to the passing on of undesirable characteristics or a collapse of a breed population due to inbreeding depression.
Therefore, there is a question, heated controversy, as to when or if a breed may need to allow "outside" stock in for the purpose of improving the overall health and vigor of the breed. Because pure-breeding creates a limited gene pool, purebred animal breeds are susceptible to a wide range of congenital health problems; this problem is prevalent in competitive dog breeding and dog show circles due to the singular emphasis on aesthetics rather than health or function. Such problems occur within certain segments of the horse industry for similar reasons; the problem is further compounded. The opposite effect to that of the restricted gene pool caused by pure-breeding is known as hybrid vigor, which results in healthier animals. A pedigreed animal is one; this is tracked by a major registry. The number of generations required varies from breed to breed, but all pedigreed animals have papers from the registering body that attest to their ancestry; the word "pedigree" appeared in the English language in 1410 as "pee de Grewe", "pedegrewe" or "pedegru", each of those words being borrowed to the Middle French "pié de grue", meaning "crane foot".
This comes from a visual analogy between the trace of the bird's foot and the three lines used in the English official registers to show the ramifications of a genealogical tree. Sometimes the word purebred is used synonymously with pedigreed, but purebred refers to the animal having a known ancestry, pedigree refers to the written record of breeding. Not all purebred animals have their lineage in written form. For example, until the 20th century, the Bedouin people of the Arabian peninsula only recorded the ancestry of their Arabian horses via an oral tradition, supported by the swearing of religiously based oaths as to the asil or "pure" breeding of the animal. Conversely, some animals may have a recorded pedigree or a registry, but not be considered "purebred". Today the modern Anglo-Arabian horse, a cross of Thoroughbred and Arabian bloodlines, is considered such a case. A purebred dog is a dog of a modern breed of dog, with written documentation showing the individual purebred dog's descent from its breeds' foundation stock.
In dogs, the term breed is used two ways: loosely, to refer to dog landraces of dog. Purebred dogs are breeds in the second sense. New breeds of dog are being created, there are many websites for new breed associations and breed clubs offering legitimate registrations for new or rare breeds; when dogs of a new breed are "visibly similar in most characteristics" and have reliable documented descent from a "known and designated foundation stock" they can be considered members of a breed, and, if an individual dog is documented and registered, it can be called purebred. The domestication of the horse resulted in a small number of domesticated stallions being crossed on wild mares that had adapted to local conditions; this produced horses of four basic body types, once thought to be wild prototypes, but now considered to be landraces. Many of these animals were bred true to original type by selected breeding, though emphasizing certain inherent traits to a greater degree than others. In other cases, horses of different body types were cross bred until a desired characteristic was achieved and bred true.
Written and oral histories of various animals or pedigrees of certain types of horse have been kept throughout history, though breed registry stud books trace only to about the 13th century, at least in Europe, when pedigrees were tracked in writing, the practice of declaring a type of horse to be a breed or a purebred became more widespread. Certain horse breeds, such as the Andalusian horse and the Arabian horse, are claimed by aficionados of the respective breeds to be ancient, near-pure descendants from an ancient wild prototype, though mapping of the horse genome as well as the mtDNA and y-DNA of various breeds has disproved such claims. A cat whose ancestry is formally registered is called a purebred cat. Technically, a purebred cat is one whose ancestry
A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a species of animal or plant that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, due to isolation from other populations of the species. Landraces are distinguished from cultivars, from breeds in the standardized sense, although the term landrace breed is sometimes used as distinguished from the term standardized breed when referring to cattle. Specimens of a landrace tend to be genetically uniform, but are more diverse than members of a standardized or formal breed; some standardized animal breeds originate from attempts to make landraces more consistent through selective breeding and a landrace may become a more formal breed with the creation of a breed registry and/or publication of a breed standard. In such a case, the landrace may be thought of as a "stage" in breed development. However, in other cases, formalizing a landrace may result in the genetic resource of a landrace being lost through crossbreeding.
Landraces are distinct from ancestral wild species of modern stock, from separate species or subspecies derived from the same ancestor as modern domestic stock. Landraces are not all derived from ancient stock unmodified by human breeding interests. In a number of cases, most dogs and horses, domestic animals have escaped in sufficient numbers in an area to breed feral populations that, through evolutionary pressure, can form new landraces in only a few centuries. In other cases, simple failure to maintain breeding regimens can do the same. For example, selectively bred cultivars can become new landraces when loosely selective reproduction is applied. Increasing adoption of and reliance upon modern, purposefully selected plant strains, considered improved – "scientifically bred to be uniform and stable" – has led to a reduction in biodiversity; the majority of the genetic diversity of domesticated species lies in landraces and other traditionally used varieties, a "reservoir of genetic resources".
General features that characterize a landrace may include: It is morphologically distinctive and identifiable, yet remains "dynamic". It is genetically adapted to, has a reputation for being able to withstand, the conditions of the local environment, including climate and pests cultural practices, it is not the product of formal breeding programs, may lack systematic selection and improvement by breeders. It is maintained and fostered less deliberately than a standardized breed, with its genetic isolation principally a matter of geography acting upon whatever animals that happened to be brought by humans to a given area, it has a historical origin in a specific geographic area, will have its own local name, will be classified according to intended purpose. Where yield can be measured, a landrace will show high stability of yield under adverse conditions, but a moderate yield level under managed conditions. At the level of genetic testing, its heredity will show a degree of integrity, but still some genetic heterogeneity.
Not every source on the topic enumerates each of these criteria, they may be weighted differently depending on a given source's focus. Additionally, not all cultivars agreed to be landraces exhibit all possible landrace characteristics. Plant landraces have been the subject of more intensive study, the majority of the academic literature about landraces is focused on agricultural botany, not animal husbandry. Most plant landraces are associated with traditional agricultural systems. While many landrace animals are associated with farming, other domestic animals have been put to use as modes of transportation, as companion animals, for sporting purposes, for other non-farming uses, so their geographic distribution may differ. For example, horse landraces are less common because human use of them for transport has meant that they have moved with people more and than most other domestic animals, reducing the incidence of populations locally genetically isolated for extensive periods of time; the word landrace means'country-breed' and close cognates of it are found in various Germanic languages.
The term was first defined by Kurt von Rümker in 1908, more described in 1909 by U. J. Mansholt, who wrote that landraces have better "stability of their characteristics" and "resistance capacity to tolerate adverse influences" but lower production capacity than cultivars, are apt to change genetically when moved to another environment. H. Kiessling added in 1912 that a landrace is a mixture of phenotypic forms despite relative outward uniformity, a great adaptability to its natural and human environment; the word entered non-academic English in the early 1930s, by way of the Danish Landrace pig, a particular breed of lop-eared swine. Aside from some standardized breeds having "Landrace" in their names, actual landraces and standardized breeds are sometimes further confused when the word "breed" is used broadly; as one example, a glossary in a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations guideline defines landrace or landrace breed as "a breed that has developed through adaptation to the natural environment and traditional production system in which it has been raised".
It defines breed expansively and in multiple ways, with a focus on t
A grade horse is a horse whose parentage is unknown, unidentifiable, or of mixed breeding. This differs from purebred animals of known bloodlines and differs from deliberately crossbred animals that are produced with an intent of either creating a new breed of horse or an animal with characteristics that deliberately combine the strengths of two different breeds. Many grade horses are the result of unintentional or accidental breedings, though in some cases, they are the result of a planned breeding of a stallion and a mare, but animals who themselves are of uncertain bloodlines. Experienced horsepeople can spot a breed type in most grade horses; some grade horses may have at least known breeding, but may not have been registered by their breeder if the product of an unintended mating, or may have been sold without papers. Unless a horse has been permanently marked with a brand, implanted microchip or lip tattoo, a once-registered animal sold without papers is unidentifiable after it has passed through the hands of several owners.
A horse, registered is one recorded with a breed registry or stud book, having written documentation of its pedigree. A grade horse has no registration papers, sells for less money than a registered horse. However, some grade horses with special talent or a proven performance record in a given discipline may become valuable on their individual merits. A case in point was Snowman, a workhorse who became a show jumper and was inducted into the United States Show Jumping Hall of Fame. A crossbred horse is sometimes called a "grade" horse, but this usage is not correct: crossbreds with known ancestry and a pedigree on both sides are quite valuable for their mix of breed characteristics—some to the point that a new breed registry is created for them, the "crossbred" becomes a separate, new breed with true-breeding characteristics. Popular crossbreds that in time obtained their own breed registry include the Irish Sport Horse, Anglo-Arabian, German riding pony AraAppaloosa, the National Show Horse.
Horse breeding List of horse breeds Hack
A designer crossbreed or designer breed is a crossbred animal that has purebred parents registered with a breed registry, but from two different breeds. These animals are the result of a deliberate decision to create a specific crossbred animal. Less the animal may have more than two pure breeds in its ancestry, but unlike a mutt or a mongrel, its entire pedigree is known to descend from specific known animals. While the term is best-known when applied to certain dog crossbreeds, other animals such as cattle, horses and cats may be bred in this fashion; some crossbred breeders start a freestanding breed registry to record designer crossbreds, other crossbreds may be included in an "appendix" to an existing purebred registry. Either form of registration may be the first step in recording and tracking pedigrees in order to develop a new breed; the purpose of creating designer crossbreds is one or more of the following reasons: To breed animals with Heterosis known as "hybrid vigor." To create animals with more predictable characteristics than mixed breed or mongrel breeding To avoid certain undesirable recessive traits that lead to genetic diseases that plague many purebred animals.
To develop an animal that combines what are viewed as the best traits of two or more breeds. As the preliminary steps toward developing a new animal breed. Breeders of designer crossbreds borrow the technical language from hybrid plant breeding: A first generation, 50-50 crossbred is an F1 cross. Subsequent generations may see a purebred animal crossed back on a crossbred, creating a 75/25 cross, or a BC1 or F1b "backcross." The breeding of two crossbreds of the same combination of breeds, creating a F2 cross, an animal, still a 50-50 cross, but it is the second filial generation of the combination. A F2 cross bred to an F2 cross creates a F3 cross. A F2 animal bred to an F1 animal creates a F2b backcross. F3 crosses and greater are called "multi-generational" crosses. In dog breeding, three generations of reliable documented breeding can be considered a "breed" rather than a crossbreed. There are disadvantages to creating designer crossbreds, notably the potential that the cross will be of inferior quality or that it will not produce as consistent a result as would breeding purebred animals.
For example, the poodle is a frequent breed used in creation of designer crossbreds, due to its nonshedding coat, but that trait does not always breed true when it is part of a designer cross. Because breeders of crossbred animals may be less careful about genetic testing and weeding out undesirable traits, certain deleterious dominant genes may still be passed on to a crossbred offspring. In an F2 cross, recessive genetic traits may return if the parent animals were both carriers of an undesired trait. Crossbreed Designer dog Grade horse Open stud book dogbreedinfo.com idcba.org
American Quarter Horse
The American Quarter Horse, or Quarter Horse, is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. Its name came from its ability to outdistance other horse breeds in races of less; the American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed in the United States today, the American Quarter Horse Association is the largest breed registry in the world, with 3 million living American Quarter Horses registered in 2014. The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a race horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse; the compact body of the American Quarter Horse is well-suited to the intricate and speedy maneuvers required in reining, working cow horse, barrel racing, calf roping, other western riding events those involving live cattle. The American Quarter Horse is shown in English disciplines and many other equestrian activities.. In the 17th century, colonists on the eastern seaboard of what today is the United States began to cross imported English Thoroughbred horses with assorted "native" horses such as the Chickasaw horse, a breed developed by Native American people from horses descended from Spain, developed from Iberian and Barb stock brought to what is now the Southeastern United States by the Conquistadors.
One of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred, the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, imported to colonial Virginia in 1756; the influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial "Quarter Horse". The breed is sometimes referred to as the "Famous American Quarter Running Horse"; the resulting horse was small and quick, was used as a work horse during the week and a race horse on the weekends. As flat racing became popular with the colonists, the Quarter Horse gained more popularity as a sprinter over courses that, by necessity, were shorter than the classic racecourses of England, were no more than a straight stretch of road or flat piece of open land; when matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters won. As the Thoroughbred breed became established in America, many colonial Quarter Horses were included in the original American stud books, starting a long association between the Thoroughbred breed and what would become known as the "Quarter Horse", named after the 1⁄4 mile race distance at which it excelled.
With some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph. In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a willing horse. On the Great Plains, settlers encountered horses that descended from the Spanish stock Hernán Cortés and other Conquistadors had introduced into the viceroyalty of New Spain, which today includes the Southwestern United States and Mexico; these horses of the west included herds of feral animals known as Mustangs, as well as horses domesticated by Native Americans, including the Comanche and Nez Perce tribes. As the colonial Quarter Horse was crossed with these western horses, the pioneers found that the new crossbred had innate "cow sense", a natural instinct for working with cattle, making it popular with cattlemen on ranches. Early foundation sires of Quarter horse type included Steel Dust, foaled 1843; the main duty of the ranch horse in the American West was working cattle. After the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range.
Thus, major Texas cattle ranches, such as the King Ranch, the 6666 Ranch, the Waggoner Ranch played a significant role in the development of the modern Quarter Horse. The skills needed by cowboys and their horses became the foundation of the rodeo, a contest which began with informal competition between cowboys and expanded to become a major competitive event throughout the west. To this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle. However, sprint races were popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well; as a result, more Thoroughbred blood was added back into the developing American Quarter Horse breed. The American Quarter Horse benefitted from the addition of Arabian and Standardbred bloodlines. In 1940, the American Quarter Horse Association was formed by a group of horsemen and ranchers from the southwestern United States dedicated to preserving the pedigrees of their ranch horses.
The horse honored with the first registration number, P-1, was Wimpy, a descendant of the King Ranch foundation sire Old Sorrel. Other sires alive at the founding of the AQHA were given the earliest registration numbers Joe Reed P-3, Chief P-5, Oklahoma Star P-6, Cowboy P-12, Waggoner's Rainy Day P-13; the Thoroughbred race horse Three Bars, alive in the early years of the AQHA, is recognized by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame as one of the significant foundation sires for the Quarter Horse breed. Other significant Thoroughbred sires seen in early AQHA pedigrees include Rocket Bar, Top Deck and Depth Charge. Since the American Quarter Horse formally established itself as a breed, the AQHA stud book has remained open to additional Thoroughbred blood via a performance standard. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16