Army of the Andes
The Army of the Andes was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire. In 1817, it crossed the Andes Mountains from the Argentine province of Cuyo, succeeded in its objective by dislodging the Spanish from the country; the exact number of the army varies between different sources. The army consisted of Argentines and Chileans, included some 1200 auxiliaries to help in provisioning and supply, as well as a complement of artillery; the Congress of Tucumán endorsed San Martín's proposal to form an army to fight the royalists in Chile, between August 1814 and February 1817, San Martín trained his troops to prepare them for their ordeal. While the army was made up of a less than experienced military force, San Martín intended to lead, with regular discipline and equipment, a proper army and not a "motley crew" into battle. For the crossing of the mountains, the Army was divided into two main columns, the first, commanded by Captain General San Martín and supported by Brigadier Major Miguel Estanislao Soler and Brigadier Bernardo O'Higgins, would take the Los Patos Pass and the second, commanded by Colonel Juan Gregorio de las Heras, would take the Uspallata Pass, which at its highest reaches some twelve thousand feet above sea level.
Because this second pass was more negotiable, the artillery was taken in the second column. These two divisions were the main body of the Army, but there were smaller detachments sent to the north and south as flanking wings; the smaller division to the north was composed of some 130 infantry as well as a group of Chilean expatriates, was under the command of Juan Manuel Cabot. To the south was a group under the command of the Chilean Ramón Freire Serrano. After their 25-day journey across the Andes, the Army of the Andes met royalist forces in the Battle of Chacabuco. After the victory, they entered Santiago de Chile, where San Martin was unanimously elected Supreme Director but by his own resolve, as well as from instructions received from Buenos Aires, the general declined. After his refusal, O'Higgins was elected. Under Argentine officers, the Chilean army resurrected and San Martín was designated commander of the "United Army", an army that combined the forces of the Army of the Andes and Chilean troops.
This new army fought the counterattack of royalist Army of Osorio at battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipú. The number of black soldiers in the army of San Martin was numerous and comprised the majority of the 7th, 8th and 11th Infantry Regiments. According to San Martin's military doctrine, colored soldiers would serve better in the infantry branch, among the three arms of the Army of the Andes. Blacks represented two thirds of the soldiers in the Army of the Andes, they were estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000 Argentine freedmen who crossed the Andes to Chile in 1817 with San Martin's force. Black troops were recruited from freed former slaves, which Lynch estimates at a figure of 1,554 freedmen. Most of them were recruited in the interior provinces rather than the city of Buenos Aires. Of those 2,500 black soldiers who took part in the Crossing of the Andes, only 143 survived and made it back to Argentina. In all of these regiments, commissioned officers should have been white under the laws of the time.
But San Martin sought to change the rules so that at least the black soldiers were promoted to corporals and sergeants. Traditionally, the Spanish colonial army battalions were divided into castes of black slaves and free blacks, but San Martin was against segregation and believed in unifying people of color and whites, fighting as soldiers in the same unit. Both regiments 7th and 8th would be unified in Peru as the black regiment of the Río de la Plata; the 4th Infantry Battalion would later be converted into an all-black unit. Argentine Units Horse Grenadiers Regiment Cavalry Militia Regiment San Juan Militias Regiment Mendoza Militias Brigade La Rioja Militias Brigade Commander in Chief's Own Mounted Rifles Escorts Squadron San Luis Volunteer Cavalry Regiment Mendoza Volunteer Cavalry Regiment Mendoza Volunteer Artillery BatteriesChilean Units 1st Chilean Infantry Regiment Emigrant Battalion of Chilean Line Infantry Southern Patriotic Legion of Dragoons Chilean Battalion of ArtilleryCombined Argentine-Chilean units Argentine Auxiliary Battalion 3rd Battalion, Fatherland Regiment of Artillery 8th Infantry Battalion 11th Infantry Battalion 1st Battalion, Andes Rangers and Sharpshooters 7th Infantry Battalion 4th Infantry Battalion Horse Grenadier Regiment Commander in Chief's Own Mounted Rifles Escort Squadron Rio de la Plata Black Regiment Battle of Chacabuco Battle of Maipú Chilean Independence Crossing of the Andes Chasteen, Americanos: Latin America’s Struggle for Independence, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0-19-517881-5Crow, John Armstrong, The Epic of Latin America, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-07723-7Robertson, William Spence, History of the Latin-American Nations, D. Appleton and companyScheina, Latin America’s Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899, Brassey’s, ISBN 1-57488-450-6
Mariano de Osorio was a Spanish general and Governor of Chile, from 1814 to 1815. Osorio was born in Spain, he joined the Spanish army and as many of his contemporaries, his military career began during the Spanish Peninsular War in 1808 as an artillery general, as well as the professor for mathematics in the military school. In 1810, was appointed head of the military factory of Catalonia. In 1812, was destined to the Royal Army in Peru. In 1812 he resettled in Peru, where he married Joaquina de la Pezuela, daughter of Peruvian Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela. In the Disaster of Rancagua he was able to defeat the forces of Bernardo O'Higgins and Jose Miguel Carrera. In the same year he became the Governor of Chile. With Osorio's victory at Rancagua, the period known as "reconquest" of Chile had begun. Osorio sought to reinstate order and justice and with military measures he prevented the onslaught of the insurgents. In 1816 he returned to Lima and Francisco Marcó del Pont was made new Governor of Chile.
When the Spaniards lost the Battle of Chacabuco, he returned to Chile. There he succeeded in securing victory in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada on March 18, 1818. At this battle O'Higgins's arm was injured; the Battle of Maipu, was a major defeat for the Spaniards, it signified the end of the Spanish authority in all of Chile, with the exception of the island of Chiloé and the city of Valdivia. Osorio proceeded to Cuba, where he died in 1819 of malaria
Miguel Estanislao Soler
Miguel Estanislao Soler was an Argentine general, who fought in the Argentine War of Independence. He was appointed governor of the Banda Oriental by Buenos Aires in 1814, but he was resisted by Artigas and left the city in 1815, he was one of the three generals of the Crossing of the Andes, along with José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins. He fought in the battle of Ituzaingó, against Brazil. Rodríguez, Gregorio F.. Compañía Sud-Americana de Billetes de Banco, ed. El general Soler. Contribución histórica, documentos inéditos. Buenos Aires
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty