Punk rock in California
Since the late 1970s, California has had a thriving regional punk rock movement. It consists of bands from the Los Angeles, Orange County, Ventura County, San Diego, San Fernando Valley, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Alameda County, Lake Tahoe and Berkeley areas. Los Angeles had a strong glam rock scene in the early 1970s centered on the club Rodney Bingenheimer's English Disco, run by Rodney Bingenheimer, who as a disc jockey for KROQ's Rodney on the ROQ, did much to promote LA punk bands. Many figures from this earlier scene would play notable roles in the punk scene. In the mid-1970s from 1974 to 1975 a wave of proto-punk bands emerged from Los Angeles, including the Flyboys and Atomic Kid. Starting in 1976, following recent releases of recordings by punk bands such as the Ramones, a number of punk bands formed in the Los Angeles and Orange County area. Among these bands were the Germs, the Flesh Eaters, the Weirdos, the Controllers, the Deadbeats, the Skulls, the Angry Samoans, Agent Orange, the Dils, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, Catholic Discipline, the Go-Go's, the Alley Cats, Kommunity FK, the Screamers, the Dickies, X, the Zeros, the Bags, the Plugz, the Consumers, their successors, 45 Grave Many bands formed in the San Francisco Bay, including Crime, the Avengers, the Nuns, the Mutants, the Units, Negative Trend, the Offs and the Dead Kennedys.
California punk of this period was musically eclectic, the punk scene of the time included a number of bands whose sound crossed over to art/experimental punk, new wave, rockabilly and hard rock. In 1978 in Southern California, the first hardcore punk bands arose, including Middle Class, Black Flag, Vicious Circle, Fear, ANTI, the Circle Jerks. Hardcore bands and fans tended to be younger than the art punks of the older LA scene and came from the suburban parts of the Los Angeles area the South Bay and Orange County and San Diego; this resulted in a rivalry between the older artsy "Hollywood" scene and the hardcore "suburban", "surf punk", or "beach punk" scene. Those in the "Hollywood" scene disliked what they saw as the musical narrowness of hardcore and the violence associated with "suburban" punks, while the "suburban" punks looked down on what they perceived as the lack of intensity of older "Hollywood" bands and the fashion consciousness of "Hollywood" punks; the Penelope Spheeris documentary The Decline of Western Civilization, shot in early 1979 and early 1980, documents the period when the older LA punk scene was being taken over by hardcore and features performances by bands from both scenes.
Decline was filmed in part at punk shows sponsored and promoted by David Ferguson, who in 1979, formed CD Presents, a recording label that would record and promote a number of pioneering groups from the California punk scene. Ferguson and CD Presents organized New Wave 1980, the first festival gathering and showcasing punk bands from all over the West Coast. By 1979, hardcore had displaced the Hollywood scene and become the dominant expression called hardcore punk in both Northern and Southern California. By this time, many of the older punk bands had broken up or become inactive. A few, such as the Go-Go's, the Dickies, X, went on to mainstream success, while a few others, such as the Dickies, embraced hardcore completely. According to historian gaye Theresa Johnson the emergence of ethnic punk rock bands in Los Angeles was a result of double marginalization of individuals within the African-America and Latino communities during the late 1970s, she says some punk artists suggest that this double-maranilization was necessary for these groups to develop the "D.
I. Y." attitude associated with Punk Rock groups. These bands drew upon their working class experiences and sexual and racial identities in their music. Los Angeles' punk scene produced notable ethnic artist such as Alice Bag. Born Alicia Armendariz in 1958, Alice Bag, went on to become a member of punk rock groups Masque Era and the leader of The Bags. Bag is was one of the few female leaders in the Punk Rock scene in the 1980s. Bag says one of the things that inspired her to join the punk rock scene was being rejected by the leaders of her high school's Brown Berets club. Bags says the organization didn't think she was serious about civil rights issues because of her appearance. Chicano and Chicana artist like Bag and Los Crudos challenged the idea that Punk Rock was an white genre by incorporating Spanish lyrics into their music. Bag continues to participate in the Punk Rock scene four decades after her debut, making her first solo track in 2016. Bag continues to support the female punk rock scene in Los Angeles by interviewing and highlighting them on her website.
Queercore is a subculture of punk rock. Queercore can be traced back to Wisconsin punk band, Garbage, their song "queer" is considered by historians to be an open invitation to "queerness" despite no member of the band identifying as queer. Fanzines have played a crucial element in the development of queercore by allowing individuals to express their discontent with society's stereotypes of the LGBTQ community and challenging heteroness. Extra Fancy was one of the first post-alternative punk rock bands to be led by an gay individual, Brian Grillo. Grillo's intimidating look went against the stereotypical image of a gay male and was supposed to depict a radical homosexual enraged against machismo. Queer punk ws an important part of the Chicano punk subculture
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Skate punk is both a skater subculture and a subgenre of punk rock music. A genre of hardcore punk associated with skate culture, skate punk changed into a more melodic genre of punk rock in the 1990s. Since the 1990s, skate punk has been a genre that features fast tempos, lead guitar playing, fast drumming, singing. Featuring the fast tempos of hardcore punk and melodic hardcore, skate punk combines these with the catchy hooks of pop punk. Skate videos have traditionally featured this fast style of punk rock; this played a big part in the coining of the term "skate punk". 1970s and early 1980s punk rock bands like Buzzcocks, Adolescents, Black Flag, Circle Jerks paved the way for skate punk. Skate punk was pioneered in the 1980s by bands such as the Big Boys, Suicidal Tendencies, JFA. A lot of early skate punk bands are part of the hardcore punk movement nardcore, which emerged in Oxnard, California. In the 1990s, skate punk changed into a more melodic punk rock genre with bands like NOFX, MxPx, No Use for a Name.
Skate punk broke into the mainstream during the 1990s with bands such as the Offspring. Skate punk's popularity continued in the early 2000s with bands such as Sum 41. During the 2010s, newer skate punk bands such as Trash Boat, Cerebral Ballzy, Trash Talk, achieved underground to moderate success in the using the influence of previous skate punk bands. Skate punk is known as skate rock and skatecore. Noted by AllMusic for having "high-energy", skate punk features fast tempos. Many of the 1980s skate punk bands were hardcore punk bands. In the 1990s, it changed and was played by bands that sound more like pop punk and standard punk rock than hardcore punk. A skater subculture, skate punk's origins go back to skate culture and surf culture. Author Sharon M. Hannon noted skate punk is known for "its fast guitars, driving bass lines, surf music–style drums". According to Mark Lepage of Spin magazine, it has a "double-time hup-two-three-four beat". Skate punk music features singing and vocal harmonies.
Rolling Stone described skate punk as "a sort of pop hardcore". Some skate punk music has lyrics that are about humor - "mostly of the smartass variety". A lot of skate punk music features lead guitar playing, guitar riffs, sometimes guitar solos. Skate punk is described by AllMusic as having "thrashier guitars" than regular punk rock. Blast beats and fast drumming are common in skate punk. Skate punk features the fast tempos of hardcore punk and melodic hardcore combining them with the catchy hooks of pop punk; some skate punk bands play other genres of music. Skate punk paved the way for third-wave ska; some skate punk bands, including NOFX and the Suicide Machines play ska punk. Some skate punk bands, including Suicidal Tendencies, Hogan's Heroes, Excel play thrash metal and / or crossover thrash. California punk bands like Black Flag and Circle Jerks paved the way for skate punk with their "fast and raw" music, "which replicated the feel of skating." 1970s punk bands like the Buzzcocks and 1980s punk bands like The Descendents made fast and catchy punk rock songs about teenage confusion, combined the aggression and speed of hardcore punk with pop-inspired melodies.
Derived from hardcore punk, skate punk began in the early 1980s. The Big Boys and JFA are considered pioneers of skate punk. Bands such as Gang Green, Suicidal Tendencies, The Faction, Rich Kids on LSD, Tales of Terror, Drunk Injuns, NOFX, Hogan's Heroes, were among the first wave of skate punk bands. Johnny Loftus of AllMusic described early skate punk music as "a confluence of punk's anger and simplicity, the furious speed of hardcore, defiantly smart-assed machismo". Many early skate punk bands are part of the hardcore punk movement nardcore, which emerged in Oxnard, California. Popular among skateboarders, 1980s hardcore punk bands with connections to skateboarding culture were labeled as "skate punk" - the origin of the term. Early skate punk bands are noted for creating the connection between punk skateboarding. Mörizen "Mofo" Föche, vocalist of Drunk Injuns and former employee of the magazine Thrasher, is "often credited with first coining the term'skate-punk'." As skate punk became more popular during the 1990s, it changed into a more melodic genre.
During this time, some skate punk bands experienced mainstream success and were featured at events such as the Warped Tour, which started in 1995. Prominent skate punk bands of the 1990s include Consumed, Good Riddance, Strung Out, NOFX, Lagwagon, Guttermouth, No Use for a Name, Blink-182, Face to Face, Slick Shoes, MxPx, Unwritten Law, Ten Foot Pole, Screeching Weasel, Bad Religion, the Offspring, Pennywise. Skate punk broke into the mainstream in the 1990s; the Offspring's album Smash, released in 1994, launched the band into the mainstream. Rancid's album... And Out Come the Wolves, Green Day's album Dookie, the Offspring's album Smash helped launch punk rock as a whole into the mainstream. Smash, certified 6x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, sold at least 6.3 million copies in the United States and at least 5 million copies outside the United States. NOFX's 1994 album Punk in Drublic was certified gold by the RIAA on May 5, 2000. Unlike other 1990s punk rock bands, NOFX never signed to a major record label.
NOFX has not given permission for its music videos to be played on channels like MTV and VH1. Explaining this decision NOFX member Fat Mike said: "We made the'Leave It
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Suicidal Tendencies is an American crossover thrash band formed in 1980 in Venice, California by vocalist Mike Muir, the only remaining original member of the band. Along with D. R. I. Corrosion of Conformity, Stormtroopers of Death, they are credited as one of "the fathers of crossover thrash", their current lineup includes Muir, guitarists Dean Pleasants and Ben Weinman, bassist Ra Díaz and drummer Dave Lombardo. Notable musicians who have contributed to the band's studio or live activities include guitarists Rocky George and Mike Clark, bassists Louiche Mayorga, Robert Trujillo, Josh Paul and Stephen "Thundercat" Bruner, drummers Amery Smith, Jimmy DeGrasso, Brooks Wackerman, David Hidalgo Jr. Thomas Pridgen and session musician Josh Freese. Suicidal Tendencies have released thirteen studio albums, two EPs, four split albums, four compilation albums, two long-form videos; the band achieved their first success with their 1983 self-titled debut album. After releasing one new song on the split release Welcome to Venice and their second studio album Join the Army, Suicidal Tendencies were signed to Epic Records in 1988, continued their commercial success with its next three albums, How Will I Laugh Tomorrow When I Can't Even Smile Today, Controlled by Hatred/Feel Like Shit...
Déjà Vu and Lights... Camera... Revolution!. Their 1992 follow-up album The Art of Rebellion was another success, included three of their biggest hits "Asleep at the Wheel", "Nobody Hears" and "I'll Hate You Better". After releasing two more studio albums, the band broke up and severed ties from Sony and Epic in 1995. However, they reunited a year and have continued to perform and record since then. After over a decade of work and many lineup changes, Suicidal Tendencies released their eleventh studio album with all-new material, 13, in 2013, followed three years by World Gone Mad, their most recent releases are the EP Get Your Fight On! and an album featuring unreleased and re-recorded material Still Cyco Punk After All These Years, both released in 2018. Suicidal Tendencies formed in 1980 as a punk band in California; the original lineup of the band consisted of Mike Muir on vocals, Mike Ball on guitar, Carlos "Egie" Egert on drums, Mike Dunnigan on bass. After the recording of their first demo, Carlos Egert left the band and was replaced by Dunnigan's brother, Sean.
Muir, at the time a student at Santa Monica College only intended Suicidal Tendencies as a "party band", but as they grew in notoriety he soon found the band at the center of his life. Suicidal Tendencies had a rough start including being voted "Worst Band/Biggest Assholes" in Flipside in 1982 but the following year were voted "Best New Band". There were many rumors of the band members as well as their friends and followers being involved with gangs, with Muir's trademark blue bandanna and violence at the band's performances as evidence. In their original lineup photo, which can be seen inside their self-titled debut album, drummer Amery Smith is wearing a flipped up hat and under the bill are the markings "V13", which are initials for the gang Venice 13. Smith was not a member of V13; the hat worn in the photo was borrowed from V13 member Steve Mayorga, brother of Suicidal Tendencies bassist Louiche Mayorga. An entire gang sprang up around the group, the Suicidal Cycos with chapters in Venice, Long Beach, Santa Monica, Orange County, San Diego and a chapter in San Antonio, Texas.
Other punk gangs in L. A founded at that time included B. P. O & KAOS 13 formed in 1983 by Brent Alden, bassist for the well known punk band False Alarm and founder of the punk crew DDT. Suicidal Tendencies gained a following and began performing at larger gigs, they were featured on the Slamulation compilation LP on Mystic Records. The song featured was "I Saw Your Mommy", featured on their self-titled debut album; the Dunnigan brothers quit after these recordings, with Mike Dunnigan joining Tony Alva's band the Skoundrelz to be back with Mike Ball on guitar and Bela Horvath on drums. Ball was replaced by Dunnigan. Guitarist Rick Battson recorded the demo before the first album. Grant Estes learned that demo replacing him on guitar and playing on Suicidal Tendencies's first record; this controversy helped the band gain label attention, in 1983 Suicidal Tendencies signed with the independent label Frontier Records and released their self-titled debut. It was described by critic Steve Huey as "Fast and funny...
Mike Muir proves himself an articulate lyricist and commentator, delving into subjects like alienation and nonconformist politics with intelligence and humor." It contained the song "Institutionalized", which featured a music video that became one of the first hardcore punk videos to receive substantial MTV airplay, expanded the band's fan base. The song was featured in the 1984 film Repo Man, as well as in a 1986 episode of the TV show Miami Vice and in the 2008 film Iron Man, where the song plays in the background as Tony Stark works on his car. Soon after the re