A crossword is a word puzzle that takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white- and black-shaded squares. The game's goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues, which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom; the shaded squares are used to separate the phrases. Crossword grids such as those appearing in most North American newspapers and magazines feature solid areas of white squares; every letter is checked and each answer must contain at least three letters. In such puzzles shaded squares are limited to about one-sixth of the total. Crossword grids elsewhere, such as in Britain, South Africa and Australia, have a lattice-like structure, with a higher percentage of shaded squares, leaving about half the letters in an answer unchecked. For example, if the top row has an answer running all the way across, there will be no across answers in the second row.
Another tradition in puzzle design is that the grid should have 180-degree rotational symmetry, so that its pattern appears the same if the paper is turned upside down. Most puzzle designs require that all white cells be orthogonally contiguous; the design of Japanese crossword grids follows two additional rules: that shaded cells may not share a side and that the corner squares must be white. The "Swedish-style" grid uses no clue numbers, as the clues are contained in the cells which do not contain answers. Arrows indicate in which direction the clues have to be answered: horizontal; this style of grid is used in several countries other than Sweden in magazines, but in daily newspapers. The grid has one or more photos replacing a block of squares as a clue to one or several answers, for example, the name of a pop star, or some kind of rhyme or phrase that can be associated with the photo; these puzzles have no symmetry in the grid but instead have a common theme Substantial variants from the usual forms exist.
Two of the common ones are barred crosswords, which use bold lines between squares to separate answers, circular designs, with answers entered either radially or in concentric circles. "Free form" crosswords, which have simple, asymmetric designs, are seen on school worksheets, children's menus, other entertainment for children. Grids forming shapes other than squares are occasionally used. Puzzles are one of several standard sizes. For example, many weekday newspaper puzzles are 15×15 squares, while weekend puzzles may be 21×21, 23×23, or 25×25; the New York Times puzzles set a common pattern for American crosswords by increasing in difficulty throughout the week: their Monday puzzles are the easiest and the puzzles get harder each day until Saturday. Their larger Sunday puzzle is about the same level of difficulty as a weekday-size Thursday puzzle; this has led U. S. solvers to use the day of the week as a shorthand when describing how hard a puzzle is: e.g. an easy puzzle may be referred to as a "Monday" or a "Tuesday", a medium-difficulty puzzle as a "Wednesday", a difficult puzzle as a "Saturday".
One of the smallest crosswords in general distribution is a 4×4 crossword compiled daily by John Wilmes, distributed online by USA Today as "QuickCross" and by Universal Uclick as "PlayFour". Clues appear outside the grid, divided into an Across list and a Down list. For example, the answer to a clue labeled "17 Down" is entered with the first letter in the cell numbered "17", proceeding down from there. Numbers are never repeated; some Japanese crosswords are numbered from top to bottom down each column, starting with the leftmost column and proceeding right. Capitalization of answer letters is conventionally ignored; this ensures a proper name can have its initial capital letter checked with a non-capitalizable letter in the intersecting clue. Diacritical markings in foreign loanwords are ignored for similar reasons; some crossword clues, called straight or quick clues, are simple definitions of the answers. Some clues may feature anagrams, these are explicitly described as such. A straight clue is not in itself sufficient to distinguish between several possible answers, either because multiple synonymous answers may fit or because the clue itself is a homonym, so the solver must make use of checks to establish the correct answer with certainty.
For example, the answer to the clue "PC key" for a three-letter answer could be ESC, ALT, TAB, DEL, or INS, so until a check is filled in, giving at least one of the letters, the correct answer cannot be determined. In most American-style crosswords, the majority of the clues in the puzzle are straight clues, with the remainder being one of the other types described b
No. 16 Squadron, nicknamed the Black Panthers, is a fighter squadron of the Pakistan Air Force. The squadron was established in 1957 under the command of Squadron Leader Imam-ul-Haq Khan, equipped with F-86F Sabre fighter aircraft and assigned the role of Tactical Attack, it was temporarily disbanded in 1963 and reestablished on 13 April 1970 at PAF Base Masroor, flying the F-86F Sabre and commanded by Wing Commander Sharbat Ali Changazi. In February 1971, as the Fighter Leaders School, the unit was assigned to train senior pilots in advanced tactics. Although the squadron was not employed in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, its pilots were transferred to PAF Base Peshawar, where they flew with the No. 26 Squadron. Changazi lead several strike missions into Indian territory and shot down an Indian Air Force Hawker Hunter. Squadron Leader Cecil Chaudhry, attached to No. 18 Squadron, was shot down by ground fire but ejected safely and shot down an Indian Sukhoi Su-7. The squadron was disbanded in October 1972 and reestablished in 1982 at PAF Base Rafiqui, equipped with the Shenyang F-6.
It was decided that the Panthers would be the first squadron to be reequipped with the Nanchang A-5C attack fighter, personnel were sent to China to be trained on it. The first batch of A-5s was delivered to PAF Base Rafiqui on 12 February 1983, a reequipment ceremony was held on 21 March 1983, the squadron was assigned the role of tactical attack, Wing Commander Hamid Saeed Khan was put in command. A Pakistan Day flypast on 23 March 1983 earned the squadron a "Best Fly-Past" award; the Panthers converted pilots of the No. 7 and No. 26 squadrons to fly the Nanchang A-5C. In November 1985, the unit began practicing with live 750 lb bombs and extensive Dissimilar Air Combat Training with the PAF's F-16 squadrons. In 1988, more DACT sorties were flown against the Chengdu F-7P. Five A-5Cs were added to the squadron's fleet in May 1989, in mid-1990 Wing Commander Zafar evaluated the upgraded A-5M and A-5F attack fighters in China. In 1991, three Shenyang FT-6 dual-seat fighters with Martin-Baker ejection seats were inducted for training purposes.
In November 1991 the unit was temporarily transferred to Multan and flew 115 sorties from there with 100% serviceability and reliability rates. In 1997 the squadron was again temporarily transferred to PAF Base Mihas and Murid during runway recarpeting at the unit's parent airbase. A deployment to PAF Base Chaklala for Air Defence Alert duties was carried out. In 1998 an A-5's canopy jettisoned during an Exercise Wide Awake sortie, but the aircraft landed safely. During the 1996–2001 phase of the Afghan civil war A-5s of both the 16th and 26th Squadrons are reported to have flown strike missions against Northern Alliance positions as part of the Pakistani support to the Taliban. Armament exercises December 1988 – Matra Durandal firing, Somniani Range. 1996 – Air-to-air firing, PAF Base Masroor. Awards ACES 97 – received ACES Trophy for best performing tactical attack squadron. Inter-Squadron Dive Bombing Competition – No. 16 and 26 squadrons competed, No. 16 won. PAF s' No. 16'Black Panthers' Squadrons History: 1948–1988 PAF s' No. 16'Black Panthers' Squadrons History: 1988–1998
Choc7 is a Taiwanese boyband group led by Ah Ben and is the second spin-off group of the Taiwanese variety show Mo Fan Bang Bang Tang. A year after Lollipop was formed, Channel is ready to create the second batch pop group of Bang Bang Tang variety show. After a round of making-the-band competitions, ten boys remained. Prior to the creation of Choc7, two five-member groups were formed: "Knights of Princess"; the former is formed by 翁瑞迪,韦佳宏, 簡翔棋, 王勇翰, 邱翊橙, while the latter is formed by 江振愷, 劉祿存, 吳俊諺, 李銓, 謝東裕. The two groups battled which includes releasing of the same EPs with different tracks as part of their next stage of competition. On 11 July 2008, the two groups released an EP album entitled Adventure World, which consists of two versions, as said earlier. 3 members were eliminated, 7 were able to advance. Choc7, the newly formed group after Lollipop, was announced in 2008. On 29 May 2009, Choc7 released their first EP entitled Too Young; the first song, Tai Qing Chun, was written by Lollipop.