Franklin Dam controversy
The Franklin Dam or Gordon-below-Franklin Dam project was a proposed dam on the Gordon River in Tasmania, never constructed. The movement that led to the project's cancellation became one of the most significant environmental campaigns in Australian history; the dam was proposed for the purpose of generating hydroelectricity. The resulting new electricity generation capacity would have been 180 megawatts; the proposed construction would have subsequently impacted upon the environmentally sensitive Franklin River, which joins the Gordon nearby. During the campaign against the dam, both areas were listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Area register; the campaign that followed led to the consolidation of the small green movement, born out of the non-violent protest campaign against the building of three dams on Lake Pedder in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Over the five years between the announcement of the dam proposal in 1978 and the axing of the plans in 1983, there was vigorous debate between the pro- and anti-dam lobbies, with large protests from both sides.
In December 1982, the dam site was occupied by protesters, leading to widespread arrests and greater publicity. The dispute became a federal issue the following March, when a campaign in the national print media, assisted by the pictures of photographer Peter Dombrovskis, helped bring down the government of Malcolm Fraser at the 1983 election; the new government, under Bob Hawke, had promised to stop the dam from being built. A legal battle between the federal government and Tasmanian Government followed, resulting in a landmark High Court ruling in the federal government's favour. In 1978, the Tasmanian Hydro Electric Commission announced intentions to construct the dam; the original proposal was for two dams: Gordon below Franklin Dam – 105 m high, located at 42.584°S 145.732°E / -42.584. This was the lowest point on the river possible for a dam, since the tidal zone extends to Big Eddy 1 kilometre further downstream. Dam #2 – 200 m high, located at 42.376°S 145.757°E / -42.376. Accessed by the Mount McCall Track.
The idea polarised the Tasmanian community. It gained support from some sections of the community for generating jobs in an area of the state, struggling economically, it was suggested that the construction of the dam would assist in bringing industry to Tasmania, on top of the jobs that it would create directly. The initial opinion polls showed around 70% support for the dam. However, the protest movement which had gathered to fight the construction of the Lake Pedder Dam earlier in the 1970s began to reassemble in response to the announcement; the Tasmanian Wilderness Society which had formed from the anti-Lake Pedder Dam and South West Tasmania action groups, the Tasmanian Conservation Trust, the Australian Conservation Foundation began to mount a public interest campaign concerning the river. The photographs of Dombrovskis and his colleague, Olegas Truchanas, attracted significant attention; the campaign generated 30,000 letters of support in a fortnight. A film, The Last Wild River, was shown on Tasmania's two commercial television stations.
In June 1980, an estimated 10,000 people marched through the streets of Hobart, demanding that the government not proceed with construction. This was the largest rally in the history of the state; the Labor state government, under premier Doug Lowe, backed down from the original proposal, agreed to place the Franklin River in a new Wild Rivers National Park. Instead of the original'Gordon below Franklin' proposal, Lowe now backed an alternative, the'Gordon above Olga' scheme. While this was above the Gordon's junction with the Franklin, it still would have intruded into wilderness quality areas; this compromise did not appease the environmental groups, who maintained a policy of no dams in southwest Tasmania. In July, both the pro-dam and anti-dam groups initiated an advertising blitz in Tasmania; the HEC claimed. The conservative dominated Legislative Council blocked the Labor government's'Gordon-above-Olga' compromise, instead insisting that they proceed with the original proposal; the two parties could not agree on a solution, which led to a deadlock between the two houses of parliament.
In 1981, Australian Democrats Senator Don Chipp initiated a Senate inquiry into "the natural values of south-west Tasmania to Australia and the world" and "the federal responsibility in assisting Tasmania to preserve its wilderness areas of national and international importance". In early 1981 Aboriginal caves were discovered in the area which would be flooded if the dam were to be built. One of these caves was named Fraser Cave by its discoverer, geomorphology student, Kevin Kiernan, after the Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser because...we were trying to direct the attention of politicians to the area...'. The area contained important Aboriginal hand stencils as well as remnants of campfires and stone tools that were between 8,000 and 24,000 years old. Concerns began to be raised about habitat loss for endangered species. On 12 December 1981, the state government held a referendum, the Power Referendum 1981, in an attempt to break the deadlock; the referendum gave voters one for each dam proposal.
In rounded figures, 47% voted in favour of the original Gordon below Franklin scheme, 8% for the compromise Gordon above Olga scheme, 45% voted informally. There had been a significant campaign for voters to write "No Dams" on their ballot papers, in total more than 33% of voters did this.
Subaru Corporation known as Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate involved in both terrestrial and aerospace transportation manufacturing. It is best known for its line of Subaru automobiles; the company's aerospace division serves as a defense contractor to the Japanese government, manufacturing Boeing and Lockheed Martin helicopters and airplanes under license. This same division is a global manufacturing partner to both companies. Fuji Heavy Industries traces its roots to the Nakajima Aircraft Company, a leading supplier of airplanes to the Japanese government during World War II. At the end of World War II, Nakajima was broken up by the Allied Occupation government under keiretsu legislation, by 1950 part of the separated operation was known as Fuji Heavy Industries. FHI was incorporated on July 15, 1953, when five Japanese companies, known as Fuji Kogyo, Fuji Jidosha Kogyo, Omiya Fuji Kogyo, Utsunomiya Sharyo and Tokyo Fuji Sangyo, joined to form one of Japan's largest manufacturers of transportation equipment.
By late 1980s, the company was a major supplier of military and railroad equipment in Japan, but 80% of its sales came from automobiles. Sales in 1989 fell 15% to US$4.3 billion. In 1990, the company faced a loss of over US$500 million. Industrial Bank of Japan Ltd. the main bank of the company, asked Nissan Motor, which owned 4.2% of the company, to step in. Nissan sent Isamu Kawai, the president of Nissan Diesel Motor Co. to take charge of FHI. In 1991, FHI hatchbacks; the company makes Subaru brand cars, its aerospace division makes parts for Boeing, helicopters for the Japanese Self Defense Force, Raytheon Hawker, Eclipse Aviation business jets. In 2003, the company adopted the logo of its Subaru division as its worldwide corporate symbol. On October 5, 2005 Toyota purchased 8.7% of FHI shares from General Motors, which had owned 20.1% since 1999. GM divested its remaining 11.4% stake on the open market to sever all ties with FHI. FHI stated there might have been 27 million shares acquired before the start of trading by an unknown party on October 6, 2005, speculation suggested a bank or another automaker was involved.
After the purchase, Toyota announced a contract with Subaru on March 13, 2006 to use the underutilized Subaru manufacturing facility in Lafayette, Indiana, USA as well as plans to hire up to 1,000 workers and set aside an assembly line for the Camry, beginning in the second quarter of 2007. In June 2014, the company entered into a contract with Boeing, as one of five major Japanese companies contracted, to build parts for Boeing's 777X aircraft. In May 2016, Fuji Heavy Industries announced that it would change its name to Subaru Corporation, with the change effective on April 1, 2017. Subaru has three main divisions: Subaru; the aerospace division is a contractor for the Japan Defense Agency and markets and sells both commercial and defense-related aircraft and target drones. For the Japan Ground Self-Defence Force it has built the Bell UH-1 Iroquois, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Boeing AH-64 Apache helicopters, it will be responsible for providing maintenance for the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey tilt rotor aircraft.
This division built the FA-200 Aero Subaru and is participating in the Airbus A380, Boeing 777, Boeing 787, Hawker 4000 and Eclipse 500 programs, supplies parts for Boeing 737, Boeing 747 and Boeing 767. The eco technology division manufactures and sells garbage trucks, robot sweepers, wind turbines. Subaru discontinued the production of buses and railroad cars in 2003. Subaru discontinued the production of small engines in 2017; the former Subaru Industrial Power Products division manufactured and sold commercial engines and generators which were under the Subaru-Robin and Robin brands. Discontinued in 2017, the Subaru Industrial Power Products division manufactured and sold commercial engines and generators which were under the Subaru-Robin and Robin brands. Subaru's industrial products division, began manufacturing "Star" engines for Polaris Industries snowmobiles in 1968 but engine manufacturing operations ended in 1998 when Polaris Industries started to build their own Liberty two-stroke engines.
Subaru remains an invested partner with, supplier of pistons to, Polaris. Subaru has provided more than 2 million engines used in Polaris snowmobiles, ATVs, watercraft and utility vehicles. Past presidents 1953–1956 — Kenji Kita 1956–1963 — Takao Yoshida 1963–1970 — Nobuo Yokota 1970–1978 — Eiichi Ohara 1978–1985 — Sadamichi Sasaki 1985–1990 — Toshihiro Tajima 1990–1996 — Isamu Kawai 1996–2001 — Takeshi Tanaka 2001–2006 — Kyoji Takenaka 2006–2011 — Ikuo Mori R13 13 3A/3B/3D/3E R1/R2 R14 14 4B/4E R15 5B/5E R1/R2/R3 HD1/HD2/HD3 Double-decker R16 6B/6E H1 R17 7B/7E 7HD 7S R18 8B/8E R21 1M/1S Fuji FA-200 Aero Subaru - monoplane/light aircraft Fuji/Rockwell Commander 700 - light transport Fuji KM-2 - light primary military trainer Fuji LM-1 Nikko - light communications military aircraft Fuji T-1 - intermediate military jet trainer Fuji T-3/KM-2 - primary military trainer Fuji T-5/KM-2 Kai - basic military trainer Fuji UH-1H/UH-1J - utility helicopter & troop carrier Fuji T-7/T-3 Kai - primary military trainer TACOM Air-Launched Multi-Role Stealth UAV In development and production Fuji AH-64DJP Apache Subaru-Bell UH-X - Ongoing project to meet the JGSDF's requirement for a UH-1J replacement.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
West Coast, Tasmania
The West Coast of Tasmania is the part of the state, associated with wilderness and tourism, rough country and isolation. As well as that, it was an early convict settlement location in the early stages of Van Diemen's Land; as a consequence of the images of the region and its attributes, it is considered "outside" the tamed and agriculturally developed eastern side of the island of Tasmania. The separation from the south west region, is that the south west has never had roads or other technical links back to the east coast; the west coast has been mined, it has had railways penetrate, roads and power lines move through the landscape, it has been entered, but in many locations - where mines or other activities have closed, or settlements become abandoned and time have in many cases hidden the locations. The west coast has a much wetter climate when compared to the east coast. Frequent low pressure systems hit the west coast causing heavy rain and ice; the West Coast Range blocks these systems from impacting the east, therefore making the West Coast a rain catchment with some areas receiving over 2,000 millimetres of rain a year.
In winter temperatures at sea level hover around 10 °C, when not raining, morning frost is common. The temperatures are much lower inland from the coast with maximums in winter failing to surpass 0 °C; the snow line in winter is around 900 metres, however sea level snow falls several times each winter as well. Summer is mild with maximum temperatures averaging between 17 °C and 21 °C, though some days still fail to reach 10 °C. Despite snowfall occurring in winter, it has been known to fall in the middle of summer. Many outsiders have had difficulty understanding the isolation of the west coast, the small communities, the historical context to that isolation; the only way in and out was by sea, no serviceable roads to either the north or east existed until the 1930s or the 1960s. Railways were the main land connection from the 1920s to the 1960s - though that connection was with the north coast, rather than the more populous southeast; the treacherous conditions at Hell's Gates at the mouth of Macquarie Harbour, ocean travel along the exposed western side of Tasmania have made marine travel a dangerous pastime to the current day, despite modern technology.
Memorial plaques to recent lost sailors on the wall at the northern edge of the Strahan wharf illustrate this. The current airstrip is at Strahan, with the airstrip at Queenstown no longer a current registered landing ground. In the 1970s a regular service to the east coast was run by Airlines of Tasmania. All transport services to the west coast are subject to interruption by severe weather. In addition to closures of air and marine service, the roads to the west coast may be blocked for days at a time by ice and snow during severe winter conditions; the consequence of the isolation, the ways that the communities coped with the difficulties, were little examined prior to the 1990s, except for parts of Tim Bowden's 1979 Radio Documentary "The West Coasters", various references in Geoffrey Blainey's "The Peaks of Lyell" book and the important works of C. J. Binks and Kerry Pink. Since the rise of tourism on the west coast, the Franklin Dam issue and the creation of the world heritage wilderness area, a steady number of small publications concerning the history and features of the region have been produced.
For a brief time in the early 20th century the west coast had population and political power on a parity with Hobart and Launceston. Following the demise of most of the Zeehan mines, the west coast population has either remained static, or declined relative to other parts of the island; the environment is described with particular historical understanding by C. J. Binks in "Explorers of Western Tasmania" Chapter 2 - "A Sketch of the Western Country". See West Coast Range The convict era is introduced in articles about Macquarie Harbour Penal Station, Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania, Hell's Gates; the reliance on the railways can be found in the separate article West Coast Tasmania Railways. The mining history was captured first in Charles Whitham's Western Tasmania book - and Geoffrey Blainey's Peaks of Lyell and the books that have followed. See the list at West Coast Tasmania Mines for a list that includes historical names and locations - many now long abandoned; the vast tracts of forest in the west coast region have been subject to fire, exploitation - as well as significant areas now under conservation.
The history of the West Coast Piners who utilised the Franklin River and Gordon River and their tributaries is a vital part of west coast history. The legacy of the Hydro Electric Commission on the west coast is a complex one, due to its sense in the 1940s to 1980s considering the west and south west regions as its'last frontier' for the remaining catchments for its power development schemes; as most of the European activity on the west coast lies within the invention and use of the camera, most aspects of west coast history have been captured on film. The Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, the State Library of Tasmania in Hobart are the main holdings of the record, while the late Eric Thomas's collection in the'Galley Museum' in Queenstown is on a par with both; some examples of collections: - Hurley, Frank. Tasmania, A Camera Study John Sands, 1953 Cox, G. W. and Ratcliff, E. V. R. Tasmania Remembered Mary Fisher Bookshop, 1974. ISBN 0-9599207-2-2 Tassell, M. and Wood, D. Tasmanian Photographer Macmillan, 1981.
ISBN 0-333-33737-9 Hopkins, D. L; the Golden Years of Tasma
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
West Coast Range
The West Coast Range is a mountain range located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. The range lies to the west and north of the main parts of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park; the range has had a significant number of mines utilising the geologically rich zone of Mount Read Volcanics. A number of adjacent ranges lie to the east: the Engineer Range, the Raglan Range, the Eldon Range, the Sticht Range but in most cases these are on a west–east alignment, while the West Coast Range runs in a north–south direction, following the Mount Read volcanic arc; the range has encompassed multiple land uses including the catchment area for Hydro Tasmania dams, transport routes and historical sites. Of the communities that have existed in the range itself, Gormanston, is the last to remain; these are determined by a number of factors - the southerly direction of glaciation in the King River Valley and around the Tyndalls. The following mountains are contained within the West Coast Range, including sub-ranges without a named peak and including subsidiary peaks.
Darwin Crater - a probable meteorite impact crater associated with Darwin glass Gooseneck Hill Henty Glacial Moraine Marble Bluff - adjacent to the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers and the northern edge of Lake Burbury Teepookana Plateau Thureau Hills - adjacent to the eastern slopes of Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Walford Peak - adjacent to Lake Dora Anthony River on the northern part of the range Bird River at the southern end of the range Eldon River on the eastern side of the range Governor River on the eastern side of the range Henty River on the western side of the range King River starting in the Eldon Range and passing between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes, dammed by The Hydro Mackintosh River Murchison River Pieman River Queen River runs through Queenstown to join with the King River to the west of Mount Huxley Sophia River South Eldon River Tofft River runs between the Thureau hills and Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Yolande River between Lake Margaret and the Henty River Basin Lake - on the western side of the range Lake Adam - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Barnabas Lake Beatrice - on the eastern edge of Mount Sedgwick Lake Burbury - created by the damming of the King River by The Hydro Lake Dora Lake Dorothy Lake Huntley - on the eastern side of Mount Tyndall Lake Julia - in the area of the range known as'The Tyndalls' Lake Mackintosh - created by damming the Mackintosh River Lake Magdala - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Martha - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Mary, Tasmania - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Margaret on the northern side of Mount Sedgwick Lake Monica - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Murchison - created by the damming of the Murchison River Lake Myra - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Paul - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Peter - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Philip - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Plimsoll Lake Polycarp - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Rolleston - between the Tyndall Range and the Sticht Range Lake Selina - just west of Lake Plimsoll Lake Spicer - just west of Eldon Peak Lake Tyndall - south of Mount Tyndall Lake Westwood - next to Mount Julia Mount Farrell Regional Reserve Mount Murchison Regional Reserve Tyndall Regional Reserve Lake Beatrice Conservation Area Princess River Conservation Area Crotty Conservation Area West Coast Range Regional Reserve The slopes of Mount Owen, Mount Lyell and Mount Sedgwick are covered in stumps of forest trees killed by fires and smelter fumes from the earlier part of the twentieth century.
The devastation of forests close to the mining operations at Queenstown was substantial as early as the 1890s and continued late into the twentieth century. Some Huon Pine on the slopes of Mount Read have been found. Due to fire, mining and a range of human activities the vegetation zones along the West Coast range can be considered to be modified, few pockets of vegetation could be considered unchanged since European presence; the eastern side of the range is on the western boundary of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, at these points the forests are in better condition. Forestry conservation zones exist along its length in accordance with the Regional Forestry Agreement. In the average winter the "1,000 metre snowline" sees most of the mountains with snow. In previous decades, Lake Margaret was the main long-term weather-reporting location, however the Mount Read automatic weather station now maintains extremes reported on the Bureau of Meteorology website for extreme conditions.
The rainfall records of Lake Margaret were on a par with Tully in Queensland for the highest rainfall in Australia. Approximations for the West Coast Range are made at 2800–3000 mm precipitation per year; the prevailing weather is due to the location of the West Coast. It has no landmass shielding it from the Southern Ocean or Antarctic weather, being in the Roaring Forties cold fronts and extreme weather are regular occurrences on the West Coast; the Cape Sorell Waverider Buoy, initiated by the BOM in 1998 has given good indications of the behaviour of ocean swells to correlate with weather conditions. Earlier weather records were kept for Zeehan. Due to change in population distribution and resources in the west coast, the main weather data is from Strahan Airport and Mount Read; the following BOM recorded locations are relevant to West Coast Range: Early European exploration of the range was made by explorers, by convicts escaping from Macquarie Harb