The Crow Fair was created in 1904 by an Indian government agent to bring the Crow Tribe of Indians into modern society. It welcomes all Native American tribes of the Great Plains to its festivities, functioning as a "giant family reunion under the Big Sky." Indeed, it is the largest Northern Native American gathering, attracting nearly 45,000 spectators and participants. Crow Fair is "the teepee capital of the world, over 1,500 teepees in a giant campground," according to 2011 Crow Fair General Manager Austin Little Light. Held annually the third week of August on land surrounding the Little Big Horn River near Billings, Crow Fair is similar to a County Fair, it serves as a venue for the display of the region's arts and culture, from crafts to physical feats. There are contests for best jam and household goods, activities such as woodcutting and games involving cash prizes; the Crow Fair traditionally includes its own unique version of a parade. The parade begins each morning of the Fair at ten o'clock.
The Color Guard leads active members of the armed services. Following the Color Guard are the President, Vice-President, First Vice-President of the Crow Fair; the President carries the American Flag. In the past, the royalty of the Crow Nation would follow the Presidents; the majority of participants in the parade are members of the Crow Nation, dressed in traditional wear with eagle feathers, old-time saddles, western saddles, reservation hats, extravagant beadwork. The beadwork of the Crow Nation is among the most technically proficient in the world; the parade takes place on Friday and Sunday of the Crow Fair. The Sunday parade involves the greatest number of participants, may extend as long as 1.5 miles in length. Crow Fair hosts one of several Dance Celebrations; the Crow Dance Celebration known as a pow-wow, is held every late afternoon and evening during the fair. The Crow Nation makes the distinction that dancing is the most fundamental form of celebration, as members may come to the dance arena for the pure joy elicited by dancing.
However, pow-wows do involve competition dancing. The Crow Fair Rodeo is sponsored annually by the Crow Nation; the rodeo is a daily feature at the Crow Fair, offering a full day's entertainment of youth events, professional Indian cowboys and cowgirls, horse racing. Rodeos occur throughout the United States, through the various rodeo associations like the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association; the Northern Plains Indian Rodeo Association, organized under the Indian National Finals Rodeo, is the current association that sanctions the rodeo event. The Crow Fair Rodeo is held in Crow Agency, Montana; the rodeo arena, race track and campgrounds are all part of this complex. On the last day of the Crow Fair week, the Crow Nation annually elects a new committee to organize the next Crow Fair Dance Celebration and Racemeet; the Tuesday morning and afternoon is filled with campcriers and announcers telling the campgrounds via megaphone of the candidates. Campcriers are hired by candidates to notify the campground of their candidacy.
Rumors are flying before and during the Crow Fair regarding which individuals will run for election for the committee. Crow Fair Article The Elsa Spear Byron Collection Crow Fair 2015 page on official tribe site Crow Celebrations
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
The Fort Laramie Indian Treaty of 1868, which closed travel on the Bozeman Trail and the Yellowstone Valley, stipulated that the re-defined Crow Reserve would have a new "centerpoint" or agency for the Crow. The first Crow Agency, supposed to be built where Big Timber is today, was located about eight miles east of present-day Livingston in the year 1869. Fort E. S. Parker, the first Crow Indian Agency, was built in the fall of 1869, southwest of present-day Springdale, Montana, it was named for Ely S. Parker, a Seneca lawyer who served as secretary to Ulysses S. Grant, wrote the Confederate terms of surrender, was appointed as Commissioner of Indian Affairs under President Grant; the first Crow Indian agency was in operation here from 1869–1875, until being moved eastward, in 1875, to Rosebud Creek Absarokee, Montana and to its present and final location at Crow Agency in 1884. Thomas Leforge, a white Crow man, said it took its secondary name, the Mission Agency, "merely by reason of the fact that in those days and earlier most of the Indian agencies were set up where a Christian missionary enterprise had been in operation.
This was not the case here". James Wright, however, a Methodist minister and Crow Agent, tried to institute Christian learning in the Agency's boarding school in 1873; the Agency was built on a commanding bluff about 40–60 feet above the valley floor. Mission Creek flows just to the east of the Fort; the agency fort overlooks the Yellowstone River, about a half a mile away. The fort / agency was constructed of square-hewn logs, shingle roof, with storehouses and living quarters for the agent, engineer, miller carpenter and school teacher, storehouses, it had two bastions. The Agency burned down on October 30, 1872, replaced by buildings made of adobe, since timber was becoming scarce. L. M. Black, a Bozeman businessman and trader, was temporarily placed in the position of first Crow Agent until Major E. M. Camp, the assigned agent took over in October, 1869, he was succeeded by a Fellows David Pease, a reputable businessman, fluent in two Indian languages and married to a Crow Indian woman. Dr. James Wright, a Methodist minister, removed Pease from his duties by August 1873.
Wright was replaced by Dexter Clapp, a former Union officer, just prior to the agency being moved east. The Agency was a stopover for travelers on their way to explore Yellowstone National Park in the early 1870s; the fort was built as a centerpoint for distributing Crow annuities and to encourage the Crow to take up farming. It was a difficult location to teach farming, due to constant winds, cold weather, buffalo herds roaming northeast of the Agency. Several non-Indians, including local fur-trappers, F. D. Pease, the Indian Agent, married into the Crow Tribe; the Agency acted as a line of defense for the people of Bozeman and Crow Indians from attacks by the Sioux and Blackfeet. Fort Parker was abandoned in 1875 though the Crow and locals from Bozeman and the Gallatin Valley opposed the move east. Just before the move to Rosebud Creek, near present day Absarokee, the Bozeman Grange communicated a letter of support for the Crow and the Agency on the Yellowstone
Absarokee is a census-designated place in Stillwater County, United States 14 miles south of Columbus on Highway 78. It is named after the Crow Indians who inhabited the land; the population was 1,234 at the 2000 census. The Stillwater Mine, operated by the Stillwater Mining Company, is located near Absarokee; the name Absarokee is derived from Apsáalookěi, the name given to the Crow Indian Tribe by the related Hidatsa people with Apsáa meaning "large-beaked bird" and lookěi meaning "children". Apsáalookěi thus means "children of the large-beaked bird"; the name was chosen by Absarokee-founder Sever T. Simonson who believed it meant "our people", it is believed that the difference in spelling of Absarokee from the nearby Absaroka Range is a result of the poor penmanship of an early settler whose final "a" in the name was mistaken for "ee". Though pronounced "Ab-SOR-kee" in modern parlance, Eli Ricker in one of his "Indian Interviews" from 1903-1919 ends a record of an interview with Frank S. Shively, Assistant Clerk at Crow Agency, with "Absarokee Ab-sar'-o-kee".
Absarokee was founded just north of the Second Crow Agency in 1892. The Crow Agency was the headquarters of the Crow Tribe's reservation, established by the Treaty of Fort Laramie; that original reservation extended to more than 35 million acres with the first Crow Agency located at Fort Parker near modern Livingston, Montana in 1869. As miners encroached, the reservation was reduced to 8 million acres in 1875 with a location south of modern Absarokee established as Second Crow Agency, it was during this time that the Crow were forced to give up nomadic free lifestyles to one under the control of the US government. They were not allowed to leave the reservation, bison was replaced with US issued beef rations, the tribe was hit by several measles and scarlet feaver epidemics. By 1884 further miner encroachment led to the creation of the third and current Crow Agency 60 miles SE of Billings on the Little Bighorn River. Most of the Absaroka Agency Fort was destroyed in a fire in 1891. With the Homestead Acts of the 1860s and the westward expansion of the railroad, more settlers came to Montana.
Not until October 15, 1892, did the federal government through a Benjamin Harrison proclamation open the land around Absarokee for settlement as part of a 1.8 million-acre land cession agreed to by Crow tribal leaders two years earlier after bowing to political pressure. Eleven days earlier on October 4, Sever Simonson and his family had arrived and established squatter's rights at the confluence of the Stillwater and East Rosebud Rivers. Simonson and his nephew, Oliver H. Hovda, together established a trading post; this was followed by a saloon, livery stable, blacksmith shop. A post office was established December 16, 1892 in Simonson's home, where he served as Absarokee's postmaster; the two-story home of Hovda, known as the Big Yellow House, built in 1904 by an area rancher, Jacob Wagner, is located on Absarokee's main street and is on the National Register of Historic Sites list. Absarokee is located at 45°31′13″N 109°26′38″W in a valley of the Beartooth Mountain foothills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land.
It is situated in the Rosebud River watershed 3 miles north of the confluence of the East Rosebud River, West Rosebud River, Butcher Creek, just south of the confluence of the created Rosebud River and the Stillwater River. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,234 people, 499 households, 343 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 608.1 people per square mile. There were 550 housing units at an average density of 271.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.24% White, 0.08% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 1.54% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.51% of the population. There were 499 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $43,676, the median income for a family was $52,708. Males had a median income of $47,404 versus $19,545 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,677. About 4.2% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over. The nearby Stillwater Mine has a great effect on the population of the area. Although the population remains constant with a slight increase, mining families are more transient than the local farming community so a slight change around town and at the schools is present.
Absarokee has two school locations. The elementary school is located on the south side of town in the former high
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
Paul Goble was an English writer and illustrator of children's books Native American stories. His book The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses won a Caldecott Medal in 1979. Goble was born in England, he grew up in Oxford where his father was a harpsichord maker, his mother a professional musician. Goble studied at the Central School of Art in London and worked as an art teacher, as a furniture designer and as an industrial consultant, his first children's book, Red Hawk's Account of Custer's Last Battle, was published in 1969. In 1977, he was adopted by Chief Edgar Red Cloud. Goble was influenced by Plains Indian culture and his subsequent children's books reflect this. In 1979, Goble received the Caldecott Medal award, presented each year for the most distinguished children's picture book, for his 1978 book The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses. Most of his books, retellings of ancient stories, are told from the perspectives of different tribes among the Native Nations. Goble became a U. S. citizen in 1984. He died of Parkinson's disease on 5 January 2017, aged 83.
A biography, Paul Goble: Storyteller, written by University of Manitoba professor Gregory Bryan, was published shortly after Goble's death. Goble was married twice, his first wife, Dorothy Lee, whom he married in England in 1960, was credited as co-author on several of his books. They had two children before divorcing in 1978; that same year in South Dakota he married Janet Tiller, with whom he had a son. Janet Goble died in July 2014. Illustrations by Goble are held including that of the Library of Congress. Caldecott Medal Regina Medal Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, South Dakota State University Children's Book Council Children's Choice Library of Congress' Children's Book of the Year Vahşi atları seven kız