Crown lands of France

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France were the lands and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain referred to the network of "castles and estates, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, the rights of justice and taxes" held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain. By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom.

However, the medieval system of appanage alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals. During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was criticized; the Edict of Moulins declared that the royal domain could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land. Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom. At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was small and consisted of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France and Orléanais regions, with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny; these lands were the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians. 988: Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired through the marriage of the crown prince Robert with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders.

1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy. The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy. Robert gains the counties of Paris and Melun, negotiates the ultimate acquisition of a part of Sens. 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert 1055: annexation of the County of Sens. 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais and Château-Landon from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou 1077: annexation of the French Vexin 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges and the seigneury of Dun-sur-Auron from Odo Arpin of Bourges the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais, Louis bought Moret, Le Châtelet-en-Brie, Boësses, Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon. Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson. 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou.

By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain. 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert. 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry. 1160: gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry. Margaret is forced to surrender her dowry. 1184: granted Montargis. 1185: by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Choisy-au-Bac, Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois. 1187: seizes Tournai from the bishop. Confiscates Meulan and other castles. 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut, are given to prince Louis. These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223. 1191: the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County.

Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth. Philip gains Valois. 1200: the Norman Vexin is annexed 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England as king of England. 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England. 1208: La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé 1220: the County of

Flavia Cacace

Flavia Cacace-Mistry is an Italian British professional dancer. Her professional dance partner is Vincent Simone, for ten years both partners appeared on the BBC's Strictly Come Dancing. Cacace was born in Naples, the youngest of six children, came to the United Kingdom with her family at the age of four when her father moved to another job, she attended St. Peter's Catholic School in Guildford, left in 1995. Cacace's mother insisted that each of the children have an activity, so she and her eldest sister joined the local ballroom dancing class – when Cacace was 6. After partnerships with two dance partners and Simone were both looking for partners, they decided to try out together in 1994, they have been dancing together since. Highest and lowest scoring performances per dance In 2005, Cacace appeared as a guest choreographer with Simone to choreograph an unscored group Argentine Tango to introduce the dance style to audiences; the dance was introduced into the competitive roster so therefore a scored individual dance a year later.

In 2006, Cacace appeared in the fourth series of the BBC's Strictly Come Dancing. Her celebrity dancing partner was comedian Jimmy Tarbuck. However, the couple withdrew after only one show, due to medical reasons. Cacace was back dancing in the fifth series of the show, partnered with EastEnders star Matt Di Angelo, they got the only perfect score of the main series for their waltz in the final. The couple subsequently had a three-year off-screen romance, they reached the final of the show, but were beaten by Alesha Dixon and her professional partner Matthew Cutler. She took part in the 2007 Christmas special dancing the rumba with partner Matt, achieved a score of 39. Cacace and Di Angelo competed together in the live tour of Strictly Come Dancing in January and February 2008, they won more shows than any other couple, coming first overall sixteen times and second a further ten times. Cacace took part in the sixth series of Strictly Come Dancing, partnered by actor Phil Daniels, eliminated in the first week after a dance-off against Don Warrington despite Gary Rhodes being bottom after the judge's scores.

In late 2008, she took part in a Strictly Come Dancing special for Children in Need 2008 where she partnered presenter Terry Wogan against Tess Daly, partnered by Anton du Beke, who ended up as the winners. Cacace took part in the 2009 SCD Live tour partnering former Strictly Come Dancing semi-finalist Gethin Jones, they went on to win 6 shows out of 45 in total, coming second to her professional partner Vincent Simone and Rachel Stevens. Cacace returned to Strictly Come Dancing for the seventh series in 2009, partnering Coronation Street and Queer as Folk actor Craig Kelly; the couple were in the bottom two in the second week against Lilia Kopylova and Richard Dunwoody, were forced to perform their tango again. They won votes from three of the four judges and made it through to the third week of the competition, they were in the bottom two in week 4, against Darren Bennett and Lynda Bellingham. They went through to the next week on the casting vote of head judge Len Goodman. In week 5, the couple received their lowest score of the competition so far and were second from the bottom on the leaderboard.

However, they were saved from the dance-off by the public. The couple were eliminated in Week 8 of the competition, when the show went to Blackpool, after performing a cha-cha-cha. Cacace went on to dance once more with her tour partner of the previous year Gethin Jones in the 2009 Christmas special, they danced an American smooth to "Baby It's Cold Outside" and achieved a score of 38. Cacace created choreography for Gethin's Cinderella panto which ran at the Yvonne Arnaud Theatre in her home town of Guildford and had a small guest appearance in the final show. Cacace featured in the eighth series of the show. In the first week, their dance was given a score of 26 and they went on to make it to week 6 when they were eliminated despite finishing fourth on the leaderboard, a result, seen as surprising. In the ninth series, Cacace's partner was astrologer Russell Grant and they were the seventh couple to be eliminated. Gymnast Louis Smith was Cacace's partner in the tenth season of the programme.

They won the series on 22 December 2012. On 1 June 2013, Cacace announced that she and Simone would not be competing in Strictly Come Dancing 2013 so they could work on other shows. In January 2012, Cacace appeared on the BBC TV series The Magicians. Cacace and Simone have an App called'Dance with Vincent and Flavia'. Dance with Vincent and Flavia is a free dance tutorial App from which the user can learn the fundamental dance steps and advance into a competent dancer with Vincent and Flavia's help; the App is published by International Celebrity Networks. Career titles Cacace has earned from competitions, with her professional partner Simone: UK Professional Ten Dance Champions 2002–2006 UK Professional Showdance Champions 2003–2006 UK Argentine Tango Champions, 2006 UK Ballroom Champions World and European Ten Dance and Showdance finalists 2002–2006 Cacace resides in Jacobs Well, with her former Strictly Come Dancing partner, Jimi Mistry, she announced on Twitter on 5 January 2013 that they were engaged, their marriage took place in London on 28 December 2013.

Official website Flavia Cacace on IMDb Interview with Flavia Cacace Interview on Aliveradio 107.30 16th Dec 2010 Interview in Guildford Magazine Dec 2010 Flavia talks about her diet on Celebrity Diet Doctor sept 22 2010 Surrey Life Magazine Flavia's perfect weekend April 2010

Pourquoi-Pas (1908)

Pourquoi Pas? IV was the fourth ship built for Jean-Baptiste Charcot, which completed the second Charcot expedition of the Antarctic regions from 1908 to 1910. Charcot died off the coast of Iceland. Of the forty men on board, only one survived. In 1907, Jean-Baptiste Charcot launched a new Antarctic expedition and began work on a new ship, Pourquoi-Pas? IV, a three-masted barque designed for polar exploration, equipped with a motor and containing three laboratories and a library, it was built at Saint-Malo in his shipyard. From 1908 to 1910, Charcot set out in Pourquoi-Pas? IV, wintering at Petermann Island, on his second Antarctic polar expedition, he returned to France in 1910 laden with scientific discoveries - he had finished the mapping of Alexander Island and discovered a new island, Charcot Land. In 1912, Pourquoi-Pas? IV became the French Navy's first school ship. From 1918 to 1925, Charcot took Pourquoi-Pas? IV on various scientific missions in the North Atlantic, the English Channel, the Mediterranean and the Faroe Islands to study underwater lithology and geology by means of drag nets, to whose material and use Charcot made major improvements.

From 1925 onwards, limited by age, Charcot lost command of the ship for her many voyages around the Arctic glaciers. In 1926, Charcot and Pourquoi-Pas? IV explored the eastern coast of Greenland and brought back many fossils and samples of insects and flora. In 1928, Pourquoi-Pas? IV set out to investigate the disappearance of the large French seaplane Latham 47 with the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen on board, which had itself been looking for the Italian general Umberto Nobile, who had set out to cross the North Pole in the dirigible Italia and not been heard from since. In 1934, Charcot and Pourquoi-Pas? IV set up an ethnographic mission in Greenland headed by Paul-Émile Victor, who spent a year in Angmagssalik living amid the Eskimo population. In 1935, Charcot and Pourquoi-Pas? IV returned there to look for Victor and his three companions and began the mapping of these regions. On 16 September that year, the ship managed to reach a small port to escape a cyclone which ravaged the coasts of Iceland.

In September 1936, returning from the mission to Greenland to deliver scientific material to Victor's mission and after carrying out a survey mission, Pourquoi-Pas? IV stopped at Reykjavík to re-provision with fuel on 13 September, they set out for Saint-Malo two days on 15 September, but on 16 September the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and lost on the reefs of Álftanes at Mýrar. 23 of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69. Pourquoi Pas Point and Pourquoi Pas Island were named after it. List of Antarctic exploration ships from the Heroic Age, 1897–1922 Ship type: Barque Expeditions: Antarctic: 1908 to 1910 Arctic: 1921, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931-1933, 1934, 1935, 1936Oceanographic equipment: trawling and drag nets, sounding equipment, water bottles and thermometers Le Pourquoi Pas? En Antarctique Text of the report on its shipwreck by Eugène Gonidec, sole survivor