Crowns of Silla

The crowns of Silla were made in the Korean kingdom of Silla in the 5th–7th centuries. These crowns were excavated in Gyeongju, the former capital of Silla, are designated National treasures of South Korea; the Silla crowns were uncovered in the tumuli of Gyeongju, South Korea, the capital of Silla and Unified Silla. Silla tumuli, unlike their Baekje and Goguryeo counterparts were made inaccessible because the tombs did not include passageways and corridors. Instead, deep pits were dug and lined with wood and this is where the treasures and coffin were placed; these burial pits were covered in dirt and sealed with clay and the surface was covered with massive river boulders which were covered with massive mounds of dirt. The heavy boulders served to push the tombs deeper into the ground, thus making them more inaccessible; the Silla burial mechanism made it so that grave robbers and foreign invaders could never steal their precious contents. Some of the crowns are made of pure gold and were reserved for kings.

Other crowns have been discovered made from gilt-bronze or gold-plated bronze for princes or lesser kings. Silla crowns have been excavated from the 5th century Gold Crown Tomb, the 6th century Gold Bell Tomb and Heavenly Horse Tomb; the adoption of Buddhism by the Silla kings in 528 A. D. led to the eventual decline of the practice of burying gold artifacts in tombs and by the end of the sixth century the practice had stopped. The styling of the outer part of the crowns suggests a Korean connection with the Scytho-Iranians and the people of the Eurasian steppe; the crowns are show no Chinese influence. The Silla crown is notably distinct from the crown of Baekje, the crown of Gaya, the crown of Goguryeo kingdoms; the tree motif of the crown is believed to represent the idea of the world tree, an important tenet of Siberian and Iranian shamanism. However, some believe that the trident-like protrusions symbolize mountains or birds. Additionally, the antler-like prongs indicate a strong connection to Korean Shamanism or the importance of the reindeer.

A crown in Afghanistan bears a strong resemblance to the other Korean crowns, evidence of a Scytho-Iranian connection. Additionally, the sophisticated metalworking of the crowns show that Silla gold smiths held an advanced knowledge of working with gold; some have theorized that these advanced goldworking techniques, such as granulation and filigree, came from the Greek or the Etruscan people because Silla tumuli contain beads and glassware which came from as far away as the Mediterranean Sea. But researches and historical documents suggest a Persian connection or origin; the delicate nature of the gold crowns comes from the fact they were made from cutting thin sheet gold. The crown is impractical to wear and some believe that the crown may have been made as a burial good; the use of gogok, or comma-shaped curved jewels point to an Iranian influence and the importance of the bear cult. There may be a connection with ancient Japan because the gogok were used extensively by the ruling elite of that society as well.

These comma-shaped jewels of jade and glass may have symbolized the bounty of trees. The use of many tiny gold mirrors dangling from the crown has led some to hypothesize that the crown, worn in sunlight, would be a dazzling spectacle reinforcing the tradition role of the Silla king as the symbolic representation of the sun on earth; the crowns come in two major parts. The inner part is a golden cap; this cap would sit within the band of the outer crown. There is a third part of the crown, namely the chains of gold with attached jade that may have been attached to the outer band. However, there is significant controversy over; some believe. However, the fact that the three parts of the crown have been found in three distinct areas of certain tombs, such as the Heavenly Horse Tomb suggests that the three objects are, in fact, three different types of crowns for different occasions. South Korea has designated some Silla crowns as national treasures, others as treasures. Korean art Three Kingdoms of Korea History of Korea Crown of Baekje Crown of Gaya Crown jewels South Korean Cultural Heritage Administration: National Treasure No. 87 National Treasure No. 188 National Treasure No. 191 Treasure No. 338 Treasure No. 339 Treasure No. 631 Golden Treasures: The Royal Tombs of Silla


Sāvakabuddha is a Pali term used in Theravada Buddhism to refer to an enlightened disciple of a Buddha. Such enlightened disciples obtained nibbāṇa by hearing the dhamma as taught by a sammasambuddha. A sāvakabuddha is distinguished from a paccekabuddha; the standard designation for such a person is "arhat". Buddhas are supposed to reach nibbāṇa by their own insights. A sāvakabuddha might lead others to enlightenment, but cannot teach the dhamma in a time or world where it has been forgotten, because they depend upon a tradition that stretches back to a sammasambuddha; the term savakabuddha is used in Theravadin commentaries but does not occur in the scriptures of the Pāli Canon. Sāvaka means "one who hears" – a person who follows the path to enlightenment by means of hearing the instructions of others. Lay persons, who take special vows, are called sāvakas

Bear City Roller Derby

Bear City Roller Derby is a flat track roller derby league based in Berlin. Founded in 2008, Bear City is a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association; the league was founded as the Berlin Bombshells, although it now reserves that name for its interleague bouting team. It was the second roller derby league in Germany, was assisted in its early development by the first league, the Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz. In its early days, it was thrown out of its practice hall by Berlin's sports department; the league was given a boost. It competed in the first roller derby bout between two German leagues, against the Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz in 2009. In the same year, it competed in "Roll Britannia", the first roller derby tournament in Europe, while in December it hosted the first European Roller Derby Organisational Conference. Bear City hosted the first German Roller Derby Championship, held in December 2010, losing 124-128 to Stuttgart in the final. In July 2016, the league announced it had changed the name of the organization to Bear City Roller Derby.

In October 2010, the league was accepted as an apprentice member of the WFTDA. By May 2011, it had more than 60 skaters. In March 2012, Bear City Roller Derby became the WFTDA’s first full member league in continental Europe. In 2014, Bear City competed at the WFTDA Division 2 Playoffs in Kitchener-Waterloo, where they placed second to Rideau Valley Roller Girls; this playoff appearance was the first in WFTDA history by a team from continental Europe. That year they made their debut at the 2014 WFTDA Championships, where they placed third in Division 2. In 2015, Bear City returned to Division 2 Playoffs in Detroit, entering as the tenth seed and finishing in sixth place. In 2016 Bear City again qualified for Division 2 Playoffs as the eighth seed in Lansing and finished in fifth place with a 177-153 victory over Tri-City Roller Derby. Bear City again qualified for the Division 2 Playoffs and Championship in 2017 as the #14 seed in Pittsburgh, losing their opening game to Paris Rollergirls 205-152.

Bear City rebounded with a 275-253 win in overtime against Pirate City Rollers, followed by a 207-187 loss to E-Ville Roller Derby. On day 3 Bear City fell 176-155 to Ohio Roller Derby to finish in tenth place. At the 2018 WFTDA Playoffs in Atlanta, Bear City was the twelfth seed and ended their weekend with a tight consolation round victory over Queen City Roller Girls, 218-212. CR = consolation round Official website Bear City Roller Derby on Facebook Bear City Roller Derby on Twitter